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UNiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE 



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FOUNDED 

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and .HitO CYCLE REVIEW 

la which is incorporated "THE WHEEL" (New York) and the "AMERICAN CYCLIST" (Hartford) 




New York, N. Y., U. S. A., Thursday, October 2, 1902. 



$2.00 a Year. 
. 10 Cents a Copy. 



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All ' 
pecimen 



"BARWEST" 




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*fe-ttroyerrrl~ 



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is but 

another term for 

"best" 

so far as it relates to coaster brakes — a fact that is now 
pretty generally recognized. 




BARWEST COASTER BRAKE CO., 83 Chambers Street, New York. 

PACIFIC COAST DISTRIBUTORS: Phil. B. Bekeart Co., 114 Second Street, San Franci«co, Cal. 



9882 




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You can buy Bicycles 

at "any old price" in "any old place." 

Xpw can buy Racycles 



C cc C ' 



,< ;/ <?nly at list price and only of legitimate dealers. 

c/y t c ,,.«•«'•,•*'■•..'•■ That's another respect in which 

Bicycles and Racycles Differ 

Racycles are never sold to cut=throats, mail-order houses or any 
other shysters. We believe in the bicycle agent and stand by him. 



niAni CYCLE & flFG. COflPANY, Hiddletown, Ohio. 



jJMNN MII NWWW^^ 



GOODYEAR TIRES 



GIVE SATISFACTION TO THE RIDER 
AND PROFIT TO THE TRADE. 



SEND FOR CATALOG AND PRICES 



Goodyear tire & rubber Company 

*&& ^«*» ^'g- AKRON, OHIO ^'S** ^-s* ^-s** 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Iven if 





&re so good 
that they cannot be made better 

the 

Factory in which they sr& made 




Larger and More Complete 

than ever before. 

The illustration shows the plant as enlarged during 

the present year. 

The enlargement will convey some idea of the increas< 
appreciation and demand for the tires themselves. 



KOKOMO RUBBER COMPANY, Kokomo, Ind. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



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STAR 



BRIDGEPORT 



STAR 



1903 B.G.I. PEDALS NOW READY 




ONCE 

TRIED 

ALWAYS 

USED 




ARE FAMOUS FOR. 



QUALITY, DURABILITY, EASY RUNNING, 

SIMPLICITY, FINISH and STYLE. 



SEND POR COMPLETE CIRCULAR — MAILED FREE. 



THE BRIDGEPGRT GUN IMPLEMENT CO., 313=317 Broadway, NEW YORK. 



73 



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STAR 



BRIDGEPORT 



STAR 




FOR ALL 




The MITCHELL MOTOR BICYCLE has proven itself an indispensability. 
sample of what they say. What is true here can be with everyone. 



Here is a 



Uniontown Pa., June 27, 1902. 
WISCONSIN WHEEL WORKS, Racine Junction, Wis. 

Gentlemen ; — Yours of the 26th at hand. Everything is " O. K. " now. I wrote you after my second trial, and things did seem to be going against the machine. Some told me, 
after seeing I was not doing any hill climbing, that others had used them at various places, but that they always failed on the hills, but I have shown them since, after my third trial, 
that the Mitchell could go up hills if others could not. It seemed to be a thing of life on the third trial, so different from my former experience. It simply walked, or rather ran up the 
hills without any trouble. I was afraid, after seeing what an elaborate machine it is, that I would not be able to run it, not at least, until I had broken it beyond repair, but I left it 
standing, and took to studying my machine, and this proved the best thing I could have done. After my first trial, the coaster-brake gave me trouble. At my second trial, it, the coaster- 
brake, gave me some trouble, but there was an evident progress, but I became discouraged because it would not walk right off under any conditions. At my third trial, I started out at 
the bottom of two hills, and away it went, up both. Then I was happy, and it has been going ever since. Nothing gets wrong, at least nothing but what I find is my own neglect. 
The machine is a daisy, and evidently every thing that could be desired. Certainly, these roads are a proving ground for any machine. I have not tried the speed as yet, but will do so 
in a day or two on the " National Pike " where the way is long and smooth. 

If I could in anv way state thin -s more enthusiastically, consider it so stated. The machine is all you claim, and more than I could think possible. Any greeny can learn it. I 
had not been on a bicycle of any kind for nine years, yet learned this with ease and pleasure. Yours, E. P. ROSELY, M. D. 

OUR PROPOSITION TO GOOD AGENTS COMPRISES EXCLUSIVE TERRITORY, 

PROTECTION AND IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. 

Otrie HAJVDSOME No. IO CATAIvOG-JUST OUT- 



-Ss*EJP<j:r> POR IT. 



The Hitchell Agency, MKSSff is Worth Your Investigation. 



writ. th. Manufacturer. WISCONSIN WHEEL WORKS, Box W., Racine, Wis. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



"STANDARD" 






TUBING 

FORK 
REAR 
REAR 
FORK 
SEAT 



SIDES 
FORKS 
STAYS 
STEMS 
POSTS 






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V*s. 







-CD 



GOOD GOODS AT THE RIGHT PRICE. 

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CLEVELAND, 
OHIO. 




THE BICYCLING WORLD 



It isn't 1 

what a coaster brake I 

may be; 

it's what it 
is. 




That's 
one of the reasons 

why 

THE MORROW 

so easily 
holds its lead. 



ECLIPSE MFG. CO., Elmira, N. Y. 




, 






The Bicycling Wcxrld 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated "The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review" and the r American Cyclis:."" " V" 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, October 2, 1902. 



No. I 



PRESIDENT BROMLEY RETIRES 



flatlack Also Is out — Walker's Power In= 
creased— Queer Situation In Chicago. 



Little light has been thrown on the affairs 
of the American Cycle Mfg. Co. during the 
week. The only occurrences known to have 
transpired are these: 

Receivers have been applied for in Cali- 
fornia. 

J. C. Matlaek, vice-president, has resigned 
and has secured a berth with the Interna- 
tional A. & V. Tire Co. J. E. Bromley, 
president, has not resigned, and in New 
York he is still officially the head of the 
company; unofficially it is admitted that he 
has retired. At the factory in Chicago he 
said his good-byes last week. 

C. E. Walker, manager of the Eastern 
sales department, has had his authority en- 
larged and is now both factory and sales 
manager for the Columbia, Crawford and 
Westfield plants. He will have his head- 
quarters at Hartford. When affairs in Chi- 
cago are straightened out, A. L. Atkins will 
occupy a similar position in the West. 

The several factories have had their work- 
ing forces reduced to the minimum pending 
reorganization, and also because of "the high 
price of coal," as the official announcement 
states. 

In Chicago a rather awkward and unex- 
pected state of affairs prevails. Before the 
receivers appointed by Judge Jenkins of 
Milwaukee— Messrs. Pope, Coleman and 
Miller— had qualified a firm of ambitious Chi- 
cago lawyers moved among the company's 
creditors, and, obtaining a sufficient number 
of authorizations, they routed out Judge 
Kohlsaat of Chicago and had him name J. C. 
W. Rhode and Max Whitney as receivers. 
The latter promptly filed their bonds and 
took possession of the four factories in Chi- 
cago. At last accounts their custodians were 
still in charge. 

The situation has, of course, given rise to 
a plentiful crop of rumors, many of them 
too tall for belief. One of the latest and 
most interesting has it that Col. Pope and 
Mr. Coleman have agreed to divide the fac- 
tories, the former taking those in the East, 
the latter those in the West. 



riotor Bicycles Barred. 

Motor bicycles will not be permitted to be 
exhibited at the automobile show in Madi- 
son Square Garden in January next. The 
rule is declared to be absolute. As a cycle 
show is highly improbable, the situation has 
given impetus to the talk of a purely moto- 
cycle show, which the New York Motor 
Cycle Club has had in contemplation for 
some time. 

Corson on the Spot. 

That redhot motocycle enthusiast, E. H. 
Corson, manager of the Automobile and 
Motor Cycle Company, Boston, has an ex- 
hibit of motor bicycles at the annual Me- 
chanics Fair Institute in that city, which 
continues for some six or eight weeks. He 
is also securing the names of motocyclists, 
pesent and prospective, with a view of or- 
ganizing a club in the Hub. 



INDUSTRIAL IN TROUBLE 



Rigdon (ioes With International. 

S. G. Rigdon, for many years with the 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., has joined the 
staff of the International A. & V. Tire Co., 
and will have charge of their bicycle and 
automobile tire sales department. Few men 
are better or more favorably known in the 
trade or have had more experience, facts 
which stand Rigdon in good stead. 



More Balls in Prospect. 

Advices from Meriden, Conn., say that the 
negotiataions of the German-American Steel 
Ball Company for the purchase of the plant 
of the Meriden Malleable Iron Company 
have been practically concluded. The ball 
concern is capitalized at $1,000,000, and it 
will manufacture steel balls under German 
patents. 

Two Speed Gear Coming. 

According to reports that have leaked out, 
a two-speed gear will make its appearance 
from the Columbia factory in time for next 
season's trade; 66 and 101 are understood to 
be the variations which the gear affords. 



Fisk Enlarges. 

The BMsk Rubber Co. is among those that 
have enjoyed a prosperous year. Substantial 
evidence of it is being upreared at Chicopee 
Falls, where a considerable addition to the 
plant is being made. 



riakers of De Long Motor Bicycle Admit In- 
solvency — Compromise Offered Creditors. 



The Industrial Machine Co., of Syracuse, 
N. Y., are in financial straits and have ad- 
mitted insolvency. An offer of 35 per cent 
has been made to the creditors, which, if 
not accepted, will probably throw the con- 
cern into banqruptcy. 

The company set out to manufacture the 
De Long motor bicycle, and despite consid- 
erable outlay failed to overcome the many 
difficulties incident to such production. It 
is understood, however, that some of the 
stockholders are willing to further contribute 
if the compromise with creditors can be ef- 
fected, and there is a possibility therefore 
that operations may be continued. 



One View of Nameplates. 

The dealer— one in a town on Long Island 
—had remarked that, while he handled and 
had sold a number of bicycles of well 
known brands, he had sold more bearing his 
own nameplate. 

"Why?" he responded to the question. 
"Simply because, if there is any reputation 
to be made, it might as well be mine. The 
manufacturers of the other bicycles now 
rarely, if ever, advertise, and so influence 
few sales. If I must get out and build up a 
name and demand, why should I do so for 
others when I can do it for myself?" 



Germany's Export Record. 

The German customs returns for the five 
months ending with May show that the im- 
ports of foreign cycles and parts into the 
country during that period only amounted 
to 131 tons, as compared with 146 tons in the 
corresponding period of last year. On the 
other hand, the exports of cycles and parts 
from Germany show a noteworthy increase— 
from 889 tons in the first five months of 
1901 to 1,169 tons in the five months ending 
with May last. 

Recent Incorporation. 

Cleveland Automatic Machine Co.; capital, 
.$1,000,000. Incorporators— George H. Kelly, 
George G. Whitcomb, James G, Russell and 
Arthur L, Owford. 



6 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



FAR EAST BOUGHT HEAVILY 



Helped August Increase its Export Record- 
Japan now our Second Best Customer. 



According to tl^e, fetlrps,: A-'y'&usj:/ father 
unexpectedly interrupted* the 'downward, 
movement (If cycle c exports, that ,hfld cpn- 
tinued for ''& c consifierdBl&'.pfetHid! T&at 
month netted ji/gain of some $27,000 over 
August, 1901, iftKlVche/ptiy bypngjbjt .the tfefal'<, 
for the eight months ab,ave fhe? .eight liion'chs 
of last year. 

August's advances with one rare exception, 
British North America, were made in the 
Far Eastern countries, Japan alone increas- 
ing its purchases to the extent of $33,000. 
Its total, $270,024, makes that country Amer- 
ica's second best customer, England still re- 
taining pride of place. Australia, Africa, 
China, Asia and the East Indies were also 
ou the right side of the book, and though 
the month was an "off" one as regards 
Europe, the eight months' total show that in- 
creases still rule; only in Great Britain and 
Prance are shrinkages recorded. 

The figures follow: 



Quakers to Re-regulate Traffic. 

The Century Wheelmen of Philadelphia 
have been invited to appoint a committee of 
two to confer with committees from all road 
users for the purpose of agreeing upon an 
ordinance regulating road traffic in that city. 

The call was issued last week by the Auto- 
mobile Club of Philadelphia. After reciting 
the efforts made a few months ago to pass 
a«"vdinance applying only to automobiles, 
=' ^he-Call goes on to state: 
'c« e "Whereas, This ordinance may be objected 
to on the ground of its being 'class legisla- 
tion,' therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the president of the Auto- 
mobile Club of Philadelphia appoint a com- 
mittee of two from this club, request the 
president of the Road Drivers' Association 
and the president of the Century Wheelmen 
each to appoint a committee of two from his 
organization and request the presidents of 
the steam and electric railroads of the city 
of Philadelphia to send representatives to a 
meeting of the above committees, said meet- 
ing to formulate a general ordinance govern- 
ing the use of all vehicles of whatever kind 
in the city of Philadelphia, said ordinance 
to be presented to Select and Common Coun- 



BOOST FOR CHANGEABLE GEAR 



Exported to- 



United Kingdom 

Belgium 1 

France 

Germany 

Italy 1 

Netherlands 1 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Central Amer. States and British Honduras. 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 1 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia . . . . : 

Venezuela 3 

Other South America 

Chinese Empire 

British East Indies 

Hong Kong 

Japan 

British Australasia 

Hawaii 2 

Philippine Islands 

Other Asia and Oceania 

British Africa 

All" other Africa 

Other countries 



Total. 



August- 



S mos. ending August- 



1901. 
Values. 



29,173 
2.010 
8,393 
9.490 
5,159 
7,479 
6,255 
9,347 
121 
2.537 
1.767 



1902. 
Values. 



18,100 
76' 
6,745 
4,S93 
4,192 
4,537 
2,940 

11.679 

131 

1,941 

1.113 




3,704 
396 
412 



1900. 
Values. 



1901. 
Values. 



1902. 
Values. 



374,546] 

1 

172,880 
309.S70 



-! 



575,300 

336,613 

1,044 

10,761 

63.377 

1,461 

32,903 

61,538 

14,351 

3,400 



1.724H 



4.030 


2.391 


37S 


47.779 


16,885 


150 


5.501 



10,522 
1,302 



30,705 

17,966 

42.547 

5,785 

182,181 

154,182 

32,473 

39,645 

20,532 

| 33,300 j 

I 357| 



383,369 

26,527 

170,684 

170,356 

39,452 

116,331 

237,794 

269.393 

3,734 

16,636 

8,243 

1 

35,647 

4,762 

4.42S 

575 

1,306 

1S.799 

42,831 

38,720 

2,813 

173,932 

126,292 



26,230 

14,743 

47,599 

5,441 



included in "Other Europe prior to January, 1901 

2 Now American possessions. 

B Included in "Other South America" prior to J a 

Name Still a Value. 

The sky has been thoroughly searched for 
cycle names; sun, moon, planets, stars, all 
have contributed; the names of successes in 
other fields have been utilized to shed lus- 
tre over some particular cycle or cycles, 
and yet, with it all, much as there undoubt- 
edly is in finding a suitable name for a cy- 
cle, a good deal depends, and must ever de- 
pend, upon the man or the firm behind the 
cycle, no matter how apt or inapt the name 
of the cycles may be; but the fact remains, 
"There's much in a name." 



125,0281 152,214|12,517,717|1,986,919 1,997,479 



326,173 

39,336 

153,426 

233,306 

55,476 

121,947 

249,015 

145,163 

2,133 

1S.320 

9,390 

34,907 

5.6S9 

4,046 

740 

309 

13.783 

22.9SS 

37.440 

4,297 

270,024 

144,397 

11,726 

19,500 

68,179 

5,766 

12 



nuary, 1901. 

cils of this city with the request that it take 
the place of all existing ordinances." 

The resolution was adopted, and on motion 
Mr. Morris and Captain Muckle were ap- 
pointed the committee from the Automobile 
Club. 

An ordinance has been passed at Law- 
renceville; N. J., fixing the maximum speed 
of motor cycles and other motor vehicles at 
12 miles per hour. The penalty for violation 
of the law is not less than $10 or more 
than $15. 



French Touring Club's Tests Result In Its 
Being Singled out for the Awards. 



Paris, Sept. 19.— The Touring Club de 
France have just published the awards in 
the bicycle competition which was held re- 
cently over a specially long and mountain- 
ous road in the south of France, and in mak- 
ing these awards the committee have been 
influenced solely by the behavior of the ma- 
chines themselves, the performances of the 
riders being only regarded as of secondary 
importance so long as they rode at a fail- 
average speed on the long up grades and put 
the bicycles to the severest possible test. 
The bicycles were afterwards taken to pieces 
and thoroughly examined and points given 
according to the state of the bearings and 
parts, as well as for the behavior and gen- 
eral efficiency of the machine. 

Awards were also given for complete ma- 
chines and for bicycles possessing novel 
features of special merit. The gold medal 
has been secured by Terrot et Cie, of Dijon, 
for a bicycle with four speeds and two 
chains, and the other prizes are as fol- 
lows: Gilt medals — Manufacture Francaise 
d'Armes et de Cycles a Saint-Etienne for a 
bicycle with two speeds and two chains; 
Peugeot Freres, of Valentigny, for a machine 
with two speeds and one chain. Silver 
medals — Durieu, of Angers, for a chainless 
bicycle with two speeds; Clement et Cie, of 
Paris, a chain two speed bicycle; the Societe 
La Francaise, of Taris, for a chain two 
speed bicycle. Bronze medals— Georges 
Richard, of Paris, for a bicycle with three 
speeds and two chains; Le Metais, of Paris, 
for a chain bicycle with two speeds; Robert, 
for a chainless two speed bicycle; and Coste, 
of Lyons, for a two speed bicycle with chain. 

It will be noticed that all these awards 
have been given for bicycles with two or 
more changes of speeds and this is a factor 
of considerable importance at the moment, 
for it not only shows that the two speed ma- 
chine is efficient in hilly countries but it 
also points to the trend of public opinion in 
favor of the two speed bicycle. For a long 
time experts here have been advocating the 
machine which will allow of the rider chang- 
ing his gear according to the nature of the 
road, and the matter has perhaps been re- 
ceiving more attention in England than in 
this country, where nevertheless there are 
several interesting change speed devices in 
use and they are fitted on nearly all the 
special grade machines of leading makes. 

The change speed gear is going to be a big- 
thing in the early future and will become 
almost as popular as the coaster brake, for 
the class of cyclists, that is, who go in for 
long distance riding, and it is very probable 
that the two speed hub will have the effect 
of reviving the spirit of touring which has 
been falling off considerably the last two 
or three years as the result, it may be, of 
the fatigue of riding long distances unless 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



the cyclist IS thoroughly fit. The two speed 
gear will make touring much easier and 
pleasanter, and American firms would do' 
well to look out for the requirements in 
change speed hubs which are hound to be- 
come very considerable before long. For 
this reason the report on the tests promises 
to be interesting and instructive, and when 
available we will summarize the commit- 
tee's judgment on the different machines. 



SEE SIGNS OF SHORTAGE 

Every Indication Points That Way, Says a 
flanufacturer— His Baal* of Reckoning. 



Disputed the Repair Bill. 

Of special interest to bicycle dealers in 
their repair business is a dispute over the 
payment for repairs to a bicycle which has 
resulted in the attaching of the bank ac- 
count of a resident of New London, Conn. 
The story told in regard to the matter is 
as follows: 

The owner of the hicycle sent it to the 
repair shop, and when it was fixed the bill 
was something over $4. The repairer de- 
clined to let the bicycle leave his possession 
unless the bill was paid, and when the 
owner tried to take it he threatened to use 
a hammer to restrain him. 

Later the owner of the wheel had another 
interview with the repairer, and tendered a 
check in payment for the work. The check 
was accepted and the wheel taken away. 
When the check was presented at the bank 
it was found that payment had been stopped. 
This made the bicycle man wroth, and he 
promptly secured the services of a lawyer, 
who made out the writ of attachment which 
was served in due time by Sheriff Martin M. 
Bailey. There was money on hand to cover 
the attachment, and it alooks as though the 
contractor would be called on to pay some- 
thing more than the original bill before the 
matter is settled. 



Well Said by Wheelwright. 

D. R. Wheelwright, the Racycle agent in 
Brigham City, Utah, is in New York this 
week after a visit to the Miami factory at 
Middletown, Ohio. He has no fault to find 
with the business in his part of the country, 
which has never felt the slump as the East 
felt it. Although Brigham City has but 
3,000 inhabitants, it has four bicycle deal- 
ers — "three who sell wheels and one who has 
wheels for sale," as Wheelwright aptly ex- 
pressed it. 

"Last year," he said, "I myself paid little 
or no attention to bicycles, and sold but ten 
of them. This year I made up my mind to 
sell them, and as a result disposed of fifty- 
four, nearly all of them high grades." 

Wheelwright says that while mail order 
bicycles cut a figure in his part of the coun- 
try, they are are no longer a source of worry. 

"The repairs on them," he remarked, "are 
a source of profit to us, and few men buy 
such bicycles twice." 



During the first six months of this year 
Belgium exported motocycles and parts 
thereof to the value of $184,000, as against 
only $19,000 during the corresponding period 
of last year; the bulk of the exports was 
motors. 



"To at this time predict or discuss a prob- 
able shortage of bicycles may appear an un- 
due stretching at Time's forelock, but never- 
the less I am firmly convinced that a short- 
age will ensue, and unless I am very much 
to the bad in my reckoning it will ensue next 
season." 

The man who gave voice to this remark 
is easily one of the most conservative, sure- 
footed and analytical manufacturers in the 
trade. He is not much given to wild guess 
or idle talk— a fact that adds weight to his 
remarks and entitles them to respectful 
heed. 

"The marke? is practically cleared of old 
stock," he went on, "and, as year after year 
manufacturers have been contracting their 
outputs, the volume of bicycles in sight for 
next year was never more limited. Not 
only are there fewer factories, but the em- 
barrassment of the American Bicycle Com- 
pany is also a considerable factor in the 
reckoning. Its natural curtailment of pro- 
duction will be made greater by its troubles. 
Even if it is but 10 per cent it means a 
good many bicycles. Of course, you will 
hear the usual reports of makers who next 
year 'will turn out more bicycles than ever 
before,' but place no faith in such assertions. 
We all have those dreams, but when the 
time for action comes and we reckon the 
cost they speedily dissipate, and with the 
greatly increased cost of material that con- 
fronts us I do not believe that any man in 
his proper senses will enlarge his output by 
so much as one bicycle. More than this, 
they will either have to -get more money 
for what they produce or go out of business, 
and of the money obtained or in sight more 
of it must be spent for publicity if the health 
of the industry is to be fully restored. The 
bicycle must be kept in the public eye. 
During the past season not more than four 
makers have made any effort in that direc- 
tion, and one of them advertised so many 
different bicycles in such a small space that 
I question whether it served any purpose. 
As a result, the magazines, weeklies and 
newspapers that once thought it worth while 
to give space to cycling matter no longer 
do so; they now devote it to automobiles. 

"But whether or no I am convinced that 
a shortage is due and will result before the 
season of 1903 is far advanced. It should 
prove a year of unusual prosperity, the 
measure of which will depend on the manu- 
facturers themselves. Those who continue 
to believe that low price is all important 
will not enjoy much of it, however. Aside 
from overproduction, that has been one of 
the troubles of the cycle trade. Mere sales- 
men have occupied managerial positions, 
and the height of the average salesman's 
delight is to be able to underquote a com- 
petitor. As a rule, I believe a better class 



of managers' arV coming into power, and 
that, too, will help the business. 
"When I was a very young man a; sUc- 
- cessful business man delivered -himself of 
a commercial creed that I have always. kept 
in sight. 'He's a poor merchant who ob- 
tains less money fbr his 7 goods than his Com- 
petitors;' any tool can do that.' he told me. 
'He's a good merchant who obtains as much 
as they do, but he is a better one whp ob- 
tains more.' " 

Ready to Raise Prices. 

"We shall undoubtedly make an advance 
in our prices for the season of 1903," writes 
the Bean Chamberlin Mfg. Co., Hudson, 
Mich. "The price of legitimate bicycles 
has been too low for three years, and it 
has been held there by certain conditions, 
we believe, rather than by the manufactur- 
ers themselves. The advance in the price 
of material will necessitate an advance to 
the trade, and while we expect to give just 
as much value as any other legitimate man- 
ufacturer, still we do not wish to continue 
at present prices. 

"We feel that inasmuch as each one will 
have to make an advance, the business 
might just as well be put upon a good basis, 
which would enable manufacturers to take 
care of their trade in a better manner, and 
this would certainly increase the energy 
and ambition of all parties interested. The 
market at the present time is in a fairly 
good condition, and now is the proper time 
to bring about the change. We should be 
most happy indeed to do our share in main- 
taining prices in order to bring about the 
results which are most desired by the bi- 
cycle people." 

Evidence of Jobbing Prosperity. 

The Norvall Shapleigh Hardware Co., of 
St. Louis, one of the biggest jobbing houses 
in the West, report one of the best seasons 
in bicycles and supplies they have ever ex- 
perienced. The difference between last year 
and this one, and a difference that argues 
well for the year to come, is the condition 
of the stock room. At this time last October 
it was almost full; now it is practically 
clear of everything, and as a result' they 
are preparing for next season on a large 
scale, how large may be judged from the 
tprder [recently placed with the National 
Cement and Rubber Mfg. Co., of Toledo, 
which exactly doubles their order for this 
year's requirements. 



Morgan In Tires. 

According to one report, J. P. Morgan is 
now interested in fires. It is said he came 
into considerable stock in the Rubber Goods 
Mfg. Co. at the time of Charles R. Flint's, 
troubles, due to his having advanced cash 
to the latter and taken Rubber Goods se- 
curities as collateral. 



According to Bicycling News, mail advices 
have been received in England referring to 
a decided slump at Johannesburg, and trad- 
ers are warned to be careful in financial 
matters. Other parts of the colony are rer 
ported as being in a better condition. 




8 THE BICYCLING WORLD 

It's a Good Thing: to Know 

Where You are Going; to 

Get Your 1 903 Bicycles. 

Some wideawake, up-to-date dealers are wondering if they will be able to get their old lines in 
1903, but they are not NATIONAL DEALERS. 

NATIONAL DEALERS 

know that the NATIONAL factory is like time — it never stops — keeps on producing "good bicycles only" 
through all kinds of weather. 

In a hard finish it is rather reassuring to feel certain of being "first" or "place." 

THE NATIONAL AGENCY ANYWHERE 

IN 1903 WILL BE WORTH 

MORE THAN IT EVER HAS BEEN, 

and there will only be one in each town. 

NATIONAL CYCLE MFO. COMPANY, 

BETTER GET IT. BAY CITY, MICH., U. S. A. 



s\CSLSOf\ it out for yourself — 

We use the best material — 
We employ only skilled workmen — 
We have done our experimenting, 
Our construction is superior to any- 

Now — wouldn't it be strange if 

FISK TIRES 

were not the best ? 

A TRIAL WILL CONVINCE YOU THAT THEY ARE. 




FISK RUBBER COMPANY, = Chicopee Fails, Mass. 

BRANCHES ; 

BOSTON. SPRINGFIELD, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, WASHINGTON, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Dwlght St. 83 Chambers St. 916 Arch St. 427 10th St., N. W. 

SYRACUSE, BUFFALO DETRIOT, CHICAOO, SAN FRANCISCO, 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Genesee St. 252 Jefferson Ave. 54 State St. 114 Second St. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



-THE 





FOUNDED| 

and;v#roCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
" The Wheel " and the " American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The Goodman eoMPaNY, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 

Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... 10 Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscripiions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents: The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

W£T* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

§§T* Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, October 2, 1902. 

How Costs Have Increased. 

Looking forward to the year of manu- 
facture that is being entered, the situation 
assumes not a few unusual phases. 

The market has been denuded of job lots, 
the price of practically everything entering 
into bicycles has increased, labor costs more 
and is not readily obtainable, steel is not 
over plentiful, and coal is so high and so 
scarce that what once seemed reasonable 
margins of profit have been, if not wiped 
out, reduced to proportions that are in not 
a few instances precarious. 

If the lesson has not been lost the em- 
barrassment of the largest producer of bi- 
cycles in this country and in the world has 
brought sharply home to the public that the 
existing prices of bicycles are not lucrative 
prices. 

While the fact is plain to factory heads, 
we question whether retailers fully realize 
how keen are the conditions that now con- 
front the manufacturers. The price and 
scarcity of coal cannot have escaped them, 



but how many know how sharply raw ma- 
terial has advanced? 

With tubing 25 per cent higher than last 
year, steel 40 per cent, saddle leather 15 per 
cent, rims 50 per cent and steel balls 33 1-3 
per cent, some idea of the added cost of 
bicycle manufacture may be obtained. With 
the advance in coal and labor, the figuring 
necessary to assure a safe balance may be 
easily imagined. 

As we once before stated, the producers 
of jobbing bicycles were able to solve the 
problem easily and quickly. They have al- 
ready advanced the price of their goods 
some 33 1-3 per cent, and there is no assur- 
ance that another advance will not be made. 
The makers of the well-known brands are 
not so happily positioned. They realize that 
profits are uncomfortably narrow, but with 
established catalogue prices and no prece- 
dent for increasing them, some of them, at 
least, are "between the devil and the deep 
blue sea." 

That the desire exists to establish the 
precedent is not to be denied, and that some 
manufacturers, at least, will do so seems 
sure, while a fairly general advance in trade 
prices is even more certain. 

In the present temper of the trade, and 
faced by such conditions as those outlined, 
it needs but a leader to bring about an up- 
lifting of the prices in the majority of 1903 
catalogues. 

If the leader does not make his appear- 
ance the retailers' "season of discontent" will 
be heralded later. Either the agent or the 
rider will be required to pay more for his 
1903 bicycles, and unless he makes himself 
heard shortly it will be the agent. 



Changeable Gear Qains Impetus. 

Whether the American trade views with 
indifference the subject we have so often 
urged— that of changeable gears— the letter 
of our Paris correspondent published in an- 
other column will force home the fact that 
abroad it is a subject that is rapidly becom- 
ing a live issue. 

The fact that the French Touring Club's 
committee in charge of the elaborate tests 
to develop the best bicycles for tourists made 
awards only to those bicycles equipped with 
changeable gears stands out so clearly that 
its significance scarcely requires comment. 

As our correspondent states, the situation 
and indications are such that the variable 
gear is likely to prove as popular as the 
coaster brake, and that makers who seek 
foreign trade must be prepared to supply 
it if thov would hold their positions. 



Tn at least one factory in this country we 
have reason to believe that preparation ot 
the sort have been made, and we have some 
cause to suspect that in another plant a 
gear of the sort is also in process of produc- 
tion, but when either will make its appear- 
ance cannot be foretold. 

That these good things will be reserved for 
foreign riders we cannot well believe. We 
have recently tried such a gear only to fur- 
ther confirm our opinion that it is a distinct 
benefit and one that, ridden until the first 
queerness passes, will be generally appre- 
ciated. 

While variable gears are not essentially 
new to this country, like many other useful 
and meritorious devices they made their ap- 
pearance at a time when bicycle manufact- 
urers were burdened with an excess of pros- 
perity and perforce "too busy" to consider 
anything that entailed substantial depart- 
ures from the then accepted models. At this 
time they have have more time for consid- 
eration of the sort, and as we have repeat- 
edly stated, there is nothing more deserving 
of thought than the changeable gear. 

It will give them something to herald, 
something to make the year 1903 noticeable, 
and that will stimulate cycling talk and 
sales. If the variable gear is desirable in 
England or France or anywhere else, it 
should be and can be made desirable here. 



Clearance Sales. 

Many bicycle dealers have annual clear- 
ances about this time of the year, and the 
means employed are not always commenda- 
ble. Opportunity is often taken to make up 
and fake up a lot of stuff for this special oc- 
casion, a policy which thoughtful considera- 
tion will show as being detrimental to the 
business of the majority of those who 
adopt it. 

Another plan which is not commendable is 
to run the sale on for an indefinite period, 
on the chance of catching strangers una- 
wares. These people frequently put a high 
grade machine in the window at a ridiculous 
price, but when any one wants to buy it, the 
tale is always ready that it was sold half 
an hour ago, and something else is put for- 
ward for sale. 

It is always better to conduct a clearance 
sale on exactly the same lines as regular 
business, in such a manner as to create con- 
fidence on the part of customers. 

On the other hand, there are dealers who 
are so open and above board in their meth- 
ods that they cannot fail to make the sale 
not only immediately profitable, but as a 



10 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



means toward future goodwill and extended 
reputation for fair dealing. 

As an instance of this kind, there is remem- 
bered a circular sent out last fall by a dealer, 
in which was announced a fortnight's sale 
for cleaning up stock on hand. The circular 
told its readers to ask for a catalogue, in 
which the make, height and price of every 
machine was specified. This catalogue was 
a neatly printed four-page circular, describ- 
ing nearly fifty new and second hand ma- 
chines at all prices. The second hand ma- 
chines were sold on the condition that the 
money would be willingly refunded if they 
were found unsuitable, and returned within 
three days. 

Such a straightforward policy commends 
itself to the riding public, and is much more 
satisfactory than going to mail order con- 
cerns, where no guarantee is given and no 
exchange is possible. This circular suggests 
the reflection that straight dealing makes a 
firm respected, and whatever they may have 
to say is sure of a hearing and considera- 
tion. 



Pastimes and Bicycles. 

There was once a cynic who, posing as a 
philosopher, wondered what the future cos- 
mopolite would think when he gazed with 
marvel, in a museum of ethnology, at a col- 
lection of roller skates, croquet mallets, golf 
sticks and other ' impedimenta of outdoor 
sports, and at bicycles. 

The man fell into the error of considering 
cycling only in the light of a craze on equal 
terms with roller skating, and failed to place 
any value whatever on the bicycle as a 
practical vehicle. Such reasoning is too 
faulty to permit of its acceptance by sensi- 
ble men None of us will deny for a moment 
that the days of the craze are gone, but we 
do maintain, and with good reason, that the 
craze was but an incident in bicycling and 
that the utility of the vehicle will result in 
its steady sale and use until such a time 
as a newer vehicle, equally or more service- 
able, and at an attractively low price, comes 
into the market. 

Just as there are reasons for the decadence 
of such sports as roller skating and croquet, 
• there are reasons for the continued life of 
cycling. The lack of permanent value has 
had to do with these games that have passed. 
The velocipede was supplanted by the bi- 
cycle. Roller skates were useless except on 
a floor especially prepared for them, and 
they lacked business utility. No business 
man could skate to his office. Just so with 



archery, croquet, baseball, lawn tennis, golf 
and the latest of popular sports, ping pong. 
To what practical use can archery be put 
in these days of fine guns? Can one ride to 
work aboard a baseball bat? Do lawn ten- 
nis racquets vie with street cars as a means 
of locomotion? It is true that the advocate 
of golfing might golf his way from home to 
his business and back again, particularly in 
New York, with its subway upheaval offer- 
ing miles of hazards, but this sort of recrea- 
tion is not likely to appeal to any one but 
lovers of the ridiculous. True, ping pong is 
played in business offices, but not on the 
way to and from. 

As for the bicycle, we can entirely dis- 
pense with its sporting side and still have 
left something that is worth retaining. The 
bicycle saves street car and railroad fare 
and time. It serves to carry many a mes- 
sage, and has turned the A. D. T. boy from 
a sluggard to a Mercury. Orders for small 
shopkeepers are taken with its use, and even 
small articles are delivered by its use. It 
gives health to those who use it properly. 
It can take its rider to places where other 
modes of transportation do not lead. In 
many instances its use cannot be dispensed 
with without financial loss and inconven- 
ience, and cynical views touching upon the 
decadence of the bicycle are not going to 
alter the positive conditions of its daily use 
and needs. 



How Motocycling is Injured. 

We have also seen more than the "Nov- 
ice's" motor bicycle received with nuts miss- 
ing and with nuts, bolts and screws that 
did not bind and that could not be made 
bind— small things in themselves, but small 
as they were they entailed endless exaspera- 
tion and both mental and physical distress. 

With a machine so strange to the average 
buyer and so susceptible to trifles, it would 
seem that the manufacturers would appre- 
ciate that nothing is more important or 
should be more microscopically searching 
than the final inspection. That such appre- 
ciation is not as deep or as general as should 
be the case we have seen enough to con- 
vince us, and while it remains the case 
there will be more trouble with motor bi- 
cycles than is good for their interests and 
advancement. 

The "Notes of a Novice" dealing with his 
motocycle experience, which are published 
in another column, portray graphically not 
only the trials and tribulations of the pio- 
neer and his process of obtaining knowledge 



but they convey to makers Of motor bicycles 
suggestions that should not be suffered to 
pass unheeded. 

We can readily appreciate the position of 
the pioneer in the backwoods, to whom he 
makes reference. The insufficiency of in- 
formation and illustration bearing on their 
operation and care that accompany most 
motor bicycles is enough to drive such a 
man to drink and to disgust him with the 
"twentieth century bicycle." Experience is, 
we know, the best teacher; but we can name 
more than one motor bicycle that is deliv- 
ered to purchasers without even their funda- 
mentals being explained or depicted. To 
assume that a man can grasp them by in- 
tuition is assuming too much. 



L. A. W. Inactivity or Worse. 

It is quite apparent that the present ad- 
ministration of the New York Division of 
the L. A. W. is hard pressed for a defence. 
The enlivening campaign being waged by 
the independents has finally provoked the 
chief consul into writing two letters to the 
press. They are designed to refute the 
charges that he has done nothing during 
his term of office; together they would fill 
the better part of two long newspaper col- 
umns. Devoid of verbiage and of a long 
hard luck story involving a prior administra- 
tion of his friends, this is all that the chief 
consul himself can place to his credit after 
nearly a year of service: 

(1) He has expended $75 for printing and 
stationery; (2) he has reduced the debt of 
the division from $4,000 to $2,200 (that is, 
he has taken in money with one hand and 
paid it out with the other, which is no great 
trick), and (3) he has kept the membership 
of the division from falling behind that of 
other States, or, as he artfully puts it, New 
York now contains 33 per cent of the total 
L. A. W. membership, which disguises the 
fact that the State has lost, unofficially, 
some 700 members, or about 25 per cent, 
during his term of office. 

The chief consul concludes his defence 
with the semi-prophecy that "the salvation 
of the division and of the league itself may 
depend on the result of the approaching 
election" — a prophecy in which we can share. 
Another year of such activity (?) and ac- 
complishment (?) such as have marked the 
Obermayer administration, and as he him- 
self has detailed, and even the men who 
cling to the organization because of pure 
sentiment may well throw up their hands 
in despair. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD jj 



READY FOR BUSINESS. 

Agents wanted in every part of the United States to sell the celebrated 

Orient Bicycles 

NOW IS THE TIME TO RENEW OUR AGENCY. 
NOW IS THE TIME TO APPLY FOR IT. 



ADVANCE SPECIFICATIONS READY. 



Waltham Mfg. Company, waitham, Mass. 



The Jobber Who Closes for 1903 

before obtaining the new quotations on 

VIM .- HARVABdTIRES 

may be doing himself justice; but we doubt it. He 
has but to write for our figures to convince himself. 



BOSTON WOVEN HOSE S RUBBER CO. 



BOSTON, 
MASS. 



12 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



DON'T YOU WORRY 





"About any connection between my pedals and the patent troubles 
aired in circular letters now being plentifully distributed. 

Concerning this attempt to intimidate conservative and cautious 
buyers, permit me to say that my plant and facilities are 
pioneers in the pedal producing business, and have weathered 
successfully every storm of contention on lines similar to this. 
Backed up by expert opinion, and careful research, in the use of 
my pedals I promise you will in no wise be inconvenienced, 
affected or disturbed. I will fully protect and defend you. " 



QESESEE. 




KEIM. 



ALSO 



WITH 



Hubs, Handle Bars, 

ONE AND TWO PIECE HANGERS, 

SEAT POSTS-GENERAL BICYCLE HARDWARE, 

FRAME SETS AND BUILT FRAMES, 

ADULT-JUVENILE— RIGID— SPRING. 



JOHN R. KEIM, Buffalo, N. Y., U.S. A. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



13 



NOTES OF A NOVICE 



Being the Truthful Record of the Joys 

and Sorrows Born of Motor Bicycles 

and of the Lessons Learned. 



These are the notes of a novice— not of a 
green as grass novice, because I had ridden 
a motor tricycle half a dozen times and a 
motor bicycle about as often. I had also 
read "Motocycles and How to Manage 
Them," and some other similar literature, 
but as for practical experience, that is, prac- 
tical study or care of the machines, I was a 
veritable tyro. I read and knew enough 
not to expect perfection in any motor bi- 
cycle that I might select. 

Chance threw a particular one my way, 
and I took it. If under other circumstances 
it was not the one I would have selected, I 
knew it would give me the experience I 
sought. It has done that very thing. It 
has given me experience in large chunks, 
and in small ones, but for all of that I am 
not sorry, and have small complaint to 
make. 

If I had had no trouble I should have been 
disappointed, and though for the lessons 
they convey these notes may appear notes 
only of trouble, let no man fancy that pleas- 
ure has been at a discount. I have had 
hours and days of the sweet sandwiched 
with the bitter, and sweetness such as six- 
teen years' experience with motorless bi- 
cycles had not afforded— sweetness such as 
those who do not ride motor bicycles can 
never experience. I care not where they may 
be or where they may go. 

I still possess a leg driven bicycle than 
which better does not exist, and for which I 
retain sincere affection, but I now view it 
with that sort of love that is akin to pity. 
It is my "old reliable," but with it cycling 
is now as tame as a lap dog. I use it only 
when necessity requires. 

When the machine is running rightly there 
is nothing comparable with motocycling. 
The exhilaration, the delight, the absolute 
fascination is inexplicable and beyond meas- 
ure; it makes amends for volumes of short- 
comings. I devoted one week to a motor 
bicycle tour, and, while I had toured before, 
never had I experienced such pleasure. My 
troubles were trifles, and just enough to add 
spice to the trip. I have learned to love the 
music of the well tuned motor and to know 
the keen delight that comes of ability to 
laugh at hills, head winds and perspiration. 
And now for the notes. 



The motor bicycle arrived to-day. If I 
lived in the backwoods and was in absolute 
ignorance of the machine I would have been 
"up against it." Not a scrap of descriptive 
matter regarding its operation and care ac- 
companied it. Not caring to trust myself 
in traffic I had it ridden and left for me at 
an appointed place. When I mounted it 



was without misgivings of any sort. But 
my experience began early. The motor gave 
a few fitful explosions and then stopped. I 
fingered first one lever, then the other. I 
moved the first one way, then the other, 
pedalling the whole. It availed nothing. 
But still I fooled with those levers— and 
pedalled. I reasoned that if the other chap 
had ridden it the fault was with me. Oh! 
how I worked! The bicycle weighed 100 
pounds, and the perspiration oozed from my 
every pore and my breath came literally 
in "quick, short pants." When finally I dis- 
mounted to catch my breath and to give my 
heart a chance to quiet itself, my clothing 
simply clung to me and the sweat fairly 
spurted. I retraced my way to my friend's 
store — still pedalling, still perspiring. There 
I left the bicycle until the next day. I had 
been disagreeably surprised, but was in no 
wise disheartened. I yet attributed the 
trouble to my lack of knowledge. 



almost instantly "unstuck" and the motor 
"moted" beautifully. 



Five hours of this day (Sunday) were spent 
at my friend's bicycle store. Two of his re- 
pa ir men were there and we all had about the 
same smattering of motor bicycles. Never- 
theless, we jacked up the rear wheel of my 
machine and went at it. We did everything 
we could think of, but to no effect; it refused 
to budge. Finally an "expert" happened in 
and spent a couple of hours doing over all 
that we had done, and a little more that 
came of his superior knowledge. As a last 
resort and at the end of five hours tinkering 
it was suggested that he try his spark plug 
in my motor. He did so, and presto! all was 
right in an instant. My spark plug had gone 
wrong. (There has since been a spare plug 
in my pocket at all times.) 



This morning we — an invited friend and 
myself— were on the road before breakfast. 
He had never ridden a motor bicycle before, 
but mastered it at the first attempt and with- 
out trouble; in fact, he got better work out 
of it than I could. In his hands it behaved 
well; in mine it ran in streaks involving 
pedalling and perspiration. We decided that 
I had not obtained the proper mixture, and I 
had about concluded that I was an ass. Ac- 
cordingly, the moment he came to a stop and 
without altering the levers in any way, I 
mounted, and as promptly the machine re- 
fused to move. When, after some pedalling 
and manipulation of the levers, it did run it 
would stop the very next time I moved them 
to vary my speed. I got home without pedal- 
ling, but with the resolve that I would never 
again leave it until I had the motor running 
properly in a stand. (This resolve has been 
almost religiously adhered to.) 



To-day the blamed thing refused to run in 
the stand. After removing the spark plug 
and finding it clean and the spark perfect, 
the thought occurred that the piston rings 
may have gummed. A thimbleful of gaso- 
lene poured into the compression tap proved 
the diagnosis to be right. The rings were 



Tried it again to-day, and after pedalling 
like a convict on a treadmill and moving the 
levers in all directions, discovered that I 
had failed to turn on the gasolene. Remarks 
unprintable. 



More trouble to-day. Followed the usual 
procedure. Examined plug, "unstuck piston 
rings," tested spark, wires, nuts, etc.— no 
results. After a half hour of fuming and 
swearing I wet a rag with gasolene and 
passed it to and fro between the trembler 
spring and the platinum screw. Could see 
no dirt but tried cleaning them on general 
principles. The cleaning "did the business;" 
the motor worked immediately. (Two or 
three weeks later I learned that by simply 
loosening one screw the trembler spring- 
can be easily and quickly removed and be 
cleaned and allow the platinum screw to be 
as easily and properly cleaned with emery 
cloth. Chump? I admit it frankly.) 

To-day was the day of days. I had made 
an engagement to ride with some other fel- 
lows. I didn't keep the appointment. For 
two solid hours I worked and glared at the 
stubborn brute. All that I had ever done 
before I did to-day. I flushed the motor with 
gasolene, tried new spark plugs, tested all 
nuts, bolts, wires and found them secure; 
passed the gasolene-wetted rag between the 
platinum tips and then did it all over again, 
and again and again. The while I swore in 
seven different languages, and when my wife 
came near and offered suggestions I drove 
her away and threatened to do murder. 1 
was tempted to take an axe and smash the 
machine into smithereens. I consigned the 
makers of it to the region 20,000 leagues 
under hell and in my mind formulated a let- 
ter to them expressing my unrestrained 
opinion that they should be put in jail for 
creating a fraud. Then, screw driver in 
hand, I glared at the machine. Scarcely 
knowing why, I gave the platinum screw a 
half turn downward; it consumed about one- 
quarter of a second and of course brought 
the screw tip nearer the trembler spring; 
then, for perhaps the fiftieth time, I mounted 
the bicycle — it was jacked up in a stand — 
and gave the pedals a spiteful dig. Eureka! 
Excelsior! Revelation! Joy and everything 
else that conveys surprise and delight! The 
motor worked— worked like a charm. Some- 
where I had read of the elation that follows 
the triumphs of overcoming such exaspera- 
tions. I had never experienced it so fully 
before. But I can bear witness that it IS 
a glorious sensation. It cannot better be 
described. 



Ran beautifully to-day for about half a 
mile, then "she" stopped suddenly. Pedalled 
a while, then turned into a lonely street and 
dismounted; took out wrench and screw 
driver and prepared for another siege. Had 
just attacked the spark plug when I dis- 
covered that the gasolene was turned off; my 



14 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



leg had touched and turned the cock in cross- 
ing a car track. (1 now look at the gasolene 
cock before even dismourting.) 



Ever since I have had the machine it has 
developed no great power or speed, and each 
alteration of the speed lever has been fol- 
lowed by skipping'or almost abrupt stoppage. 
The longing for more pace and fewer skip- 
pings led to consultations with motor ex- 
perts. They decided that the explosions 
were wrongly timed, and to-day I had the 
timing cam shifted an eighth of an inch. 
The effect was marvelous. The machine 
almost ran away with me, and for the first 
time I obtained the full measure of pleasure. 



After the readjustment of the cam and 
after the knowledge I had already obtained, 
my troubles and their correction were in- 
consequential. I may be wrong, but it has 
since appeared to me that the seat of all 
my ills was the improper timing referred to; 
they all could have been avoided by more 
care and proper assembling and inspection 
in the factory. With so much depending 
on the timing of the spark there is small 
excuse for the maker who permits an im- 
properly set cam to leave his premises. My 
machine also came to hand minus the check 
nut on the gas lever. As a result, the mix- 
ture was changed by every severe jolt. 



simple a thing as removing the belt. Until 
I saw how quickly it could be slipped off by 
simply prying it over the edge of the pulley 
with the fingers or a stick and then slowly 
revolving the rear wheel, I preferred to let it 
alone. Again, until recently I thought it 
necessary to remove the plug and the cover 
of the contact breaker to learn whether I 
was getting a spark of any kind. Now I 
know that while it does not prove the spark 
is jumping the plug terminals, I know that 
by merely teaching the plug and the nut 
securing the wires with a screw driver or 
by making a similar bridge or connection 
between the platinum screw and the outside 
of the contact breaker box showers of sparks 
can be obtained sufficient to remove the fre- 
quent suspicion or assertion that batteries 
are "dead." I have learned that ordinary 
picture wire will serve as well as copper 
wire, and that when rosin is not to be had, 
oil and dust or sand on the belt will give it 
a grip and serve to prevent slipping. I 
have found, too, that it does not pay to guess 
at the quantity of lubricant; it is wiser far 
to use the measure that comes with the 
motor; it required much smoke from the 
muffler, several smutted spark plugs and 
many miles of "skipping" to firmly con- 
vince me of the fact. 



In all that I have read regarding motor 
bicycles it seems to me that either the writ- 
ers take too much for granted or that I 
am a bigger "chump" than most of the men 
who have used motocycles. Certainly since 
emerging from my relatively "big troubles" 
I have picked up many useful practices 
which, while elementary in themselves, never 
occurred to me. Take, for instance, even so 



For the possession of much of the knowl- 
edge I now possess I am stating simple 
truth that to membership in a motor bicycle 
club is not a little of it due. The extensive 
and varied and ripe experience possessed 
by the many men who make up such or- 
ganizations is beyond price. On two runs I 
was quickly helped out of two straits that 
at any other time would probably have "kept 
me guessing" and made me "push, pant 



and perspire" for the Lord knows how many 
miles. Once I had pedalled for 200 or 300 
yards without getting an explosion and was 
getting into a "stew" when the clubman 
came up and his practiced eye saw that 
while the belt was slipping around it was 
not turning the engine pulley, and that there 
was no compression and that the motor, of 
couse, was not working. On the other occa- 
sion, the bolt which holds the rod to my 
compression tap in place had been lost, and 
the machine unaccountably (to me) lost 
power, on hills particularly. The clubman's 
ear quickly detected that compression was 
being lost, and following his advice, an oc- 
casional pushing back of the rod corrected 
the fault, the loss of the bolt was not felt 
and I was none the worse for it. 

Such instances as these have served to 
convince me that no other form of cycling 
club ever served such personally useful and 
money-saving purposes. 



Wide Open Installment Plan. 

Competition must be growing unduly keen 
in England. One of the best known makers 
in heralding the beauties of his particular 
instalment plan cites these wide open con- 
ditions: (1) No agreement to be signed; (2) 
no witnesses or references are required; (3) 
discount for prompt payment; (4) standard 
cycles delivered within three days; (5) after 
first payment cycle becomes customer's 
property; (0) payments may be made month- 
ly, or a sum paid down and the balance by 
payments, as may be arranged, or by any 
special arrangement to meet customer's 
views; (7) all orders controlled by the com- 
pany, not handed to financial agents; (8) if 
payments are promptly m? do the last pay- 
ment may be deducted as discount. 




BOSTON BICYCLE CLUB, CHESTNUT HILL RESERVOIR, MARCH 30, 1378. 
FROM PHOTOGRAPH OF FIRST CLUB RUN IN AMERICA.-, 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



15 



WHAT IT DOES GRANT 

Some Erroneous Ideas Corrected In the 
Matter of Patent Rights 



Most men who are blessed with at least 
ordinarily astute minds naturally suppose 
that when an inventor takes out a patent 
he gets thereby a right to proceed unmolest- 
ed with the manufacture, sale and use of his 
invention. That is not the case, however, as 
can be seen from a little investigation. 

The origin of the erroneous idea above 
stated, may, perhaps, be traced to the lan- 
guage employed in the patent grant itself, 
and in the clause which is really the basis 
of the patent system. 

That by the grant of a patent the gov- 
ernment does not give the inventor the right 
to make, sell or use his own invention, is 
evident from the fact that prior to such 
grant he already has such right provided 
there are no patents to earlier inventors 
which he infringes; and in case such other 
patents or conflicting rights exist, the mere 
issue of a patent to him will not relieve from 
the charge of infringement any attempt to 
make, use or sell his patented device, wheth- 
er such attempt be made by him or any one 
else. 

Whether a patentee has a right to operate 
under his own patent or not is entirely de- 
pendent upon the existanee or non-exist- 
ance of prior claims held by others, which 
would be infringed by such operation; and 
this is a question entirely different from the 
question as to whether this particular pat- 
entee's rights are valid, or infringed by later 
inventors. 

What has been said concerning the nature 
of the patent grant will, perhaps, help to 
explain what so many have difficulty in 
understanding, ie., how it can be possible for 
more than one to hold what appears to be a 
valid patent upon substantially the same 
thing. As a matter of fact, that is not pos- 
sible; it is only an appearance. The diffi- 
culty generally arises in a case where one 
man holds what is known in patent law as 
a broad or generic patent upon a certain 
invention which has been improved upon by 
others in various ways, the others securing 
patents upon their several improvements. 

The man who holds a broad or generic 
patent has a right to prohibit its use by 
every one else, so long as his grant continues 
alive; but he has not the right to prevent or 
prohibit others from exercising their in- 
ventive faculties in the development of im- 
provements upon his invention, nor has he 
the right to prevent or interfere with others 
securing patents upon such improvements. 
That would not "promote" the progress of 
science and the useful arts, but manifestly 
retard it. The disclosure of a broad, generic 
or pioneer invention not only does not stop 
or check development along the same line, 
but rather serves to stimulate it. 

To illustrate the distinction between what 



is known as a generic and what is known as 
a specific patent, and the rights of the parties 
holding the same, let there be taken, as an 
example, the case of a car coupler. Suppose 
A invents an improved vertical plane coupler 
or drawbar, comprising, essentially, three 
parts, a head, a knuckle and a locking pin. 
Suppose he is the first who has ever em- 
ployed such three parts in combination in 
a coupler. He is entitled to and can procure 
a patent upon the combination between a 
head, a knuckle and a locking pin, his claim 
being entitled to the broadest interpretation 
by the courts. 

Suppose B now takes a coupler made in 
accordance with A's invention, and, in using 
the same or studying upon it, works out a 
different form or arrangement of the locking 
pin and knuckle. B is entitled to procure, on 
the filing of proper papers, a patent on his 
invention, claiming his specific or particular 
improvement on A's generic invention. The 
existence of A's patent has not had, and 
obviously should not have, any effect at all 
in preventing B from securing a perfectly 
valid patent on the specific improvement 
which he has invented; for a patent, be it 
remembered, does not grant the right to 
make or use an invention, but only the right 
to prevent others from doing so. The gov- 
ernment has given B a patent on his specific 
improvement, although it is to be remem- 
bered that there has been a prior generic 
patent issued to A, broadly covering all 
couplers employing a combination of a head, 
a knuckle and a locking pin. B's patent, 
therefore, does not give him the right to 
make or use his own invention, becauase his 
invention cannot be made or used, except in 
making or using the invention which is al- 
ready patented by A. Obviously, if this were 
not so, the value of A's broad patent would 
be destroyed as soon as any one patented an 
improvement upon it. 

The enforcement of such a rule would 
practically upset the whole patent system, 
since nearly every invention is or may be 
broad or generic to others, in the same line, 
which follow after. 

The above illustration may serve to make 
plainer the peculiar nature of a patent grant, 
alerady explained; i. e., that it is not a grant 
by the government of the right to make, use 
or sell a mans invention, but merely a grant 
of the right to prevent or prohibit others 
from making, using or selling it unless they 
pay tribute to the patentee. It is largely 
because of this distinction that it is possible 
for so many perplexing cases to arise in 
which it appears to the uninitiated as if a 
man, having procured a patent, has in some 
way been unjustly treated, because he finds, 
when he attempts to exploit his invention 
in practical work, some other patent previ- 
ously granted stands in his way. 

It is incumbent upon patentees, as well as 
those contemplating purchases, manufacture, 
or other dealing involving patent rights, to 
find out just what relation the patent in 
controversy bears to others in the art, and 
«-uide their actions accordingly. The mere 
Tssue of a patent to an inventor, by the gov- 



ernment, shows nothing more than the prima 
facie ownership, vested in the grantee, of a 
right to prevent others from making, using 
or selling the particular invention or specific 
improvement defined in the claims, and indi- 
cates nothing at all as to the existence or 
non-existence of any prior rights in others 
which may be infringed by commercial 
working under the patent. That can only 
be ascertained by personal investigation or 
search by an agent. It is said the patent 
shows only prima facie ownership, because 
all patents are subject to be defeated in case 
proper defence can be brought against them 
in the courts. 



Long Island's Good Year. 

Although adjoining New York, Long Isl- 
and, strange to say, and excepting Brook- 
lyn, of course, is practically free of trolley 
lines. Beyond Jamaica, eight miles from 
Brooklyn, there is not an electric streetcar 
in operation. Instead there are more than 
100 miles of well kept cycle paths. As a 
result bicycles are in practically every house- 
hold, and are wellnigh indispensable, and it 
is reasonable safe to say that there are 
more exclusive cycle dealers on the island 
than iu any other given territory. Most of 
them have enjoyed a good season. G. Ben- 
uett Smith, of Freeport, who has the best 
appointed and most attractive store on the 
island, sold nearly 250 bicycles; C. W. Cole- 
man, at Patehogue, 150, and J. S. Allen, at 
Southampton, 350; C. C. Higgins, at Bay 
Shore; Joseph Downs, at Islip; H. B. Smith, 
at Babylon, and Stenger & Rohm, at Say- 
ville, have also done well— in fact, the agent 
on Long Island who speaks ill of the busi- 
ness is a rare exception, and as none of the 
towns are large ones, and as nearly all con- 
tain two or more cycle dealers, the volume 
of business doue to support them all may 
be imagined. 

As a Winter Side Line. 

Now that the season for side lines is ap- 
proaching, dealers should bear in mind that 
ping pong or table tennis is due for a big 
run during the coming winter. A number 
of dealers who catered to the demand last 
winter found that the selling of the game 
was particularly remunerative, and that the 
capital required was very small. 

There seems to be something particularly 
fitting in the fact that table tennis sets are 
being made by the Bicycle Wood Work Com- 
pany, of Urbana, O., and that the company 
is catering particularly to the bicycle dealer 
in the selling of its goods. 



About Two Speed Gears. 

Recently overhearing a remark that "two 
speed devices on bicycles will not come into 
use because they were tried eight or ten 
years ago and proved to be failures," leads 
to the reflection that when one sees a new 
application of legitimate mechanical princi- 
ples in connection with bicycle propulsion 
it often happens that the judgment is misled 
by fiascos which have attended unmechani- 
cal inventions exploited by inflated enthusi- 
asts who had more enthusiasm than clear 
understanding of conditions involved. 



u 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



How to make 
money in winter 

is the problem that confronts the cycle dealer. 

ONE WAY 

is to seize opportunities when they present themselves. 

TUCKER'S TABLE TENNIS 

presents an opportunity of the sort. It's an indoor game and perforce pre-eminently a winter 
pastime. There's a brisk demand for it and being in the cycle trade ourselves we have a kindly 
feeling for the dealer and can give him some prices and particulars that will earn many dollars 
for him during the snow-fly months. 




TUCKER BICYCLE WOOD WORK CO., Urbana, Ohio. 



IT'S ALL 



IN THE 



INTERNATIONAL 



TIRES 



Chase Tough Tread. Chase Roadster, 

International AA. International BB. 

Metropolitan. 
Fox Brand Motorcycle Tires. 



We have a Line of Bicycle and Motor Cycle Tires 
which will interest JOBBERS. 



OUR ELECTROTYPES ARE NOW READY FOR 1903 CATALOGUES. 



INTERNATIONAL A. & V. TIRE CO., =■ flilltown, N. J. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



17 



PACEMAKING OVERDONE 



How Freak riaehines Created new Records 
and Imperiled Life —Reaction Ensues. 



Paris, Sept. 19.— When the motor bi- 
cycle first replaced the human pacemaker 
on the cycle track the cyclists themselves 
complained that it couldn't go fast enough 
to satisfy them, but as the gasolene pro- 
pelled machine was the only thing that could 
possibly "fill the long felt want" the makers 
went ahead in improving it until there are 
now complaints that the motor bicycle 
travels too fast. While the tourist is con- 
tent with a modest 1% horsepower motor, 
and would hardly like to trust himself with 
a much larger engine, the pacing bicycles 
have been increasing powers up to 10 and 
even 11 horsepower. They are mischievous 
awe inspiring monsters, and when travelling 
around the track the rider seems to be sit- 
ting, or rather crouching, on a magazine of 
concentrated energy which may at any mo- 
ment send him by a short cut into the other 
world. 

A typical example of a pacing bicycle is 
that which has just been constructed for 
Jacquelin, the old professional cycling cham- 
pion who for years upheld the reputation of 
France against the foreigner, and having 
made a brief but luckless incursion into the 
automobile business he has returned once 
more to the track. His bicycle is fitted with 
a De Dion motor developing 14 horsepower, 
which is certainly the most powerful ma- 
chine of the type yet constructed. The head 
tube carries two short cross pieces to the 
ends of which the frame tubes are brazed. 
The upper pair curve upwards and outwards, 
and then bend downwards to join the 
diagonal. The bottom pair also curve out- 
wards in much the same way, and to these is 
bolted the huge vertical motor, while to the 
upper pair of tubes is fixed the gasolene 
tank. This of course gives an enormous 
wheel base to the machine, and its length 
seems to be still further exaggerated by the 
fact that the saddle, as is the case with all 
pacing and racing motor bicycles, is placed 
right behind the driving wheel. Owing to 
its great length the machine cannot be 
steered with the usual elongated handle bar, 
and it is therefore fitted with a steering- 
wheel and pillar, the end of which is con- 
nected with the front wheel by rod and 
joints. Power is transmitted direct from 
the motor shaft by a broad belt to a big 
aluminum pulley on the rear wheel. 

Such machines are of course capable of 
travelling at tremendous speeds, and in or- 
der to let the cyclist profit from this as much 
as possible the bicycles have big shields 
which completely cover the riders. In one 
case the shield not only curves out each side 
of the driver but is extended up above his 
shoulders, leaving -just enough space for his 
head to pass through. When a cyclist gets 
behind such a formidable instrument he is 
actually sucked along "oy the air current, 



and there is no reason why he should not 
travel as fast as the motor bicycle can go. 
It is merely a question of having the nerve 
to follow the machine, for so long as the 
cyclist can keep a few inches behind the 
pacer he can do forty-five miles an hour 
and more with ease, but should he happen 
to drop behind the area of suction the motor 
bicycle sails away leaving the cyclist help- 
less. Of course it is merely a question of 
nerve, and it was this which allowed Jimmy 
Michael, on his first appearance as a bicycle 
rider since he gave up the jockey business, 
to do his marvelous performance of some- 
thing like 17 miles an hour. 

This competition among pacers in the way 
of increasing the powers of their motors and 
augmenting the area of the wind shields 
offers so much danger on cycle tracks, which 
are not sufficiently banked for such fantastic 
speeds, that the pacers themselves have 
found it necessary to come to some arrange- 



Morgan xWRiGHfliRES 

ARE GOOD TIRES 



see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 
no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



New York Bbanchi 214-216 West 47th Street 

ment for suppressing a system which not 
only endangered their own lives but also 
detracted from the sporting character of 
cycle racing. They have therefore decided 
to do away with wind shields, and the meet- 
ing at the Pare des Princes track on Sunday 
was announced to be the last at which such 
pacemaking aids would be employed. As 
the discussion had shown the public that 
there was great danger in the use of wind 
shields they of course went to the track in 
thousands. I do not say that they hoped 
to see a general smash up, but if there was 
an accident they wanted to be there. This 
craving for excitement and sensation is one 
of the features in French cycling, and sports' 
promoters are not always behindhand in 
catering for il. 

There is not the slightest doubt that these 
huge pacing machines are dangerous, as 
witness the fatal accident a month or two 
age on the Pare des Princes track when the 
motorcyclist Berlin was killed, and then 
lluret, the great long distance champion, 
found his racing career cut short by having 
his ankle smashed. Huret was thrown from 
his bicycle and when getting on his feet a 



pacing machine following steered clear of 
him, but Jimmy Michael, who saw nothing 
behind his wind shield, struck the French- 
man with the pedal. On Sunday there was 
another accidant when Devilly drove his 
motor bicycle into the barrier and Bouhours, 
who was following, was flung among the 
spectators and then bounded back onto the 
track. Fortunately his injuries were not 
serious, but the escape was a marvelously 
lucky one. The wind shields are now utter- 
ly condemned, and it will be interesting to 
see in future races how much they have been 
responsible for the tremendously high figures 
to which the records have been put. The 
way they minimize the athletic value of 
a cyclist was fully shown on Sunday when 
Jimmy Michael found his match both in 
Bouhours and Cotenet, who were travelling 
quite as fast as he did behind the shields. 

Pacemaking bicycles cannot of course be 
expected to have any influence upon the de- 
sign and construction of touring machines 
and may be regarded more in the light of 
curiosities, if not of monstrosities, but we 
may reasonably expect to look for some in- 
teresting development in the new racing 
motor bicycles. In some respects these are 
almost as extraordinary as the pacing ma- 
chines. At the Deauville kilometre test there 
was quite a remarkable collection of bicycles 
with one, two and four cylinders, some of 
the single cylinder engines developing as 
much as six and eight horsepower, and as 
they were usually without pedal gear it was 
a matter of great difficulty to set them go- 
ing. Even with a flying start of 600 yards 
many of the machines could not get up full 
speed until half way down the course, and 
their times were consequently far less satis- 
factory than the lighter bicycles that crossed 
the line at top speed. These big motors are 
a failure. Apart from the difficulty of start- 
ing them they require very tight belts and 
this of course means a high absorption of 
power, at the same time that the jumping 
of the machine makes steering very erratic. 
This jumping also implies a loss of power, 
and altogether the belt propelled bicycle 
wilh a motor of four horsepower and more 
is about as uneconomical and inefficient a 
machine as it is possible to devise. 

No maker of a motor bicycle recommends 
his customers to take a machine with a 
motor of more than 1% horsepower, and even 
for long distance racing a motor of 2'/L> horse- 
power is held te about represent the limit of 
efficiency. Anything above this is not only 
painful and even dangerous tor the rider, 
but is liable to all sorts of trouble, and any 
additional pow.T is largely nullified by the 
hiss through necessarily tight belts and the 
jolting and jumping of the machine. The 
question with makers now is how to enhance 
the efficiency of bicycles with motors of 
l'/i and X% horsepower. Some of them think 
that this can be done by dispensing witli 
the belt, which is of course a wasteful form 
of transmissio l, though it is much more 
pliable and adaptable than chains and gear- 
ing, but as the motors themselves can now 
be so easily regulated the old objections 



18 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



against the jumping and jerking of chain 
driven bicycles at starting no longer exist. 
The chain is therefore meeting with increas- 
ing favor in this country, and it is character- 
istic that both of the motor bicycle events 
at Deauville were won with Bruneau chain 
driven bicycles with motors of 1% horse- 
power, thus beating all the big machines 
which necessarily travel much faster in the 
hands of experienced drivers when they can 
be got to start. 

In tricycles much the same thing is observ- 
able, though not to the same extent. As 
the eight and ten horsepower motors are 
geared down to the axle there is not the 
same loss of power, and Kigal and Osmont 
with their Buchet and De Dion machines 
have been doing astonishing performances, 
but if big engines are more easily adaptable 
to tricycles these machines have the defect 
of not being always built to resist the strains. 
As the racing tricycles are limited to weight 
the makers have been inclined to sacrifice 
the strength of the frame with the result 
that they appear to be dangerously light, 
and in the race between Salon and Aries on 
Sunday the axle of a tricycle snapped as 
the machine was turning at Salon and both 
tricycle and rider were thrown among the 
spectators. It must be confessed, however, 
that tricycle records have lost much of their 
value of late years since these machines 
have been ousted out of the market by 
quadricycles and voiturettes, and thus at- 
tention is being largely centered in the motor 
bicycle which is going to take the place of 
the ordinary bicycle in the same way that 
the tricycle has been superseded by the four 
wheeled machine. 



VARIABLE GEAR FROM FRANCE 



The Distribution of Weight. 

The distribution of weight on cycles is 
theoretically an achievement which has 
often been attempted, but never been 
reached. Practically it is considered to be 
better to load the heaviest weight on the 
rear wheel, and to leave the front wheel 
as free as possible. Several trials have 
shown that the overloading of the front 
wheel by leaning too much toward the front 
is a mistake, and ought, specially in mo- 
ments of danger, to be avoided. The front 
wheel ought to be protected against sudden 
runs over stones or similar obstacles, as 
they have a weakening effect on the whole 
frame. 



Drouth has Helped Bicycles. 

For the past eight years Australia has been 
afflicted with a drouth unparalleled in the 
history of the Continent. For want of water 
and feed the live stock has been dying in 
millions. Under these circumstances, says 
a ■writer, the bicycle has been substituted 
for the horse to an extent that has to be 
actually seen in order to be credited. The 
same circumstances have impelled many of 
the shearers, who, in the earlier days, were 
invariably horsemen, to adopt the bicycle as 
a method of locomotion. 



Incorporates Some Ingenious Ideas and may 
be Marketed In This Country. 



While England stands to-day as the strong- 
est advocate of two-speed hubs, France is 
not without its hub of the kind, as shown in 
the accompanying illustrations of one that 
is made by Glaenzer & Co., 35 Boulevard de 
Strasburg, Paris. 

The makers have a New York house at 26 




and 2S Washington Place, and intend investi- 
gating the demand in this country for vari- 
able gear hubs, with a view toward import- 
ing if conditions Avarrant. 
The bub is of standard width, making it 



making it desirable to bring down the gear 
56 would be that obtained. 

The mechanism of the hub is shown in 
figures 1 and 2. The operation of the speed 
change is controlled by a lever placed on the 
top tube of the bicycle frame. This lever 
is connected by a wire running over a pulley 
at the seat cluster and to the small chain 
coming out of the axle at the left. On the 
axle, 2, drilled out and provided with a 
geared ring, is a clutch, 3, which can be 
moved from the saddle by the hand lever, 
and is operated in drum, 7. At the right 
side, this drum carries pinions 8, 9, 10 and 
11, on countersunk pivots. The teeth of these 
four pinions are in mesh with the inner teeth 
of sprocket 12. In drum 7 is fixed a ring, 
13, also provided with teeth. On axle 2 
rotates a pinion, 11, in constant mesh with 
pinions 8, 9, 10 and 11. While clutch 3 is 
held in ring 13 by springs 15 and 16, a di- 
rect relation is established between the lat- 
ter and sprocket 12 and the high speed is 
obtained. 

Low speed is obtained by throwing gear 
3 on pivot 1, as sprocket 12 is then in mesh 
with pinions 8, 9, 10 and 11, and these en- 
gage the movable pinion 14. 

For coasting, with each of the two speeds, 
drum 7 is provided, on the left side, with 
notches 21. These notches contain balls 
which fall, of their own weight, in grooves 
22 of hub shell 17. The latter, which is 
movable on drum 7, is then driven forward 
by the drum. Pivot 18 of drum carries a 




applicable to bicycles of standard tread. 
'The change of speed can be made either 
way, high or low, whether the bicycle is 
running or at a standstill, up hill or down, 
pedalling or coasting. Free wheeling is ob- 
tained at any time by slightly back pedal- 
ling, while a spoon brake is applied by fur- 
ther movement in this direction. The differ- 
ence between the two speeds in the hub is 
about 30 per cent. That is, if the gear used 
for ordinary riding was at 80, for hill 
climbing, head winds or other conditions 



vertical lever, 19, provided with a hole, 23, 
holding a ball, 24. If by back pedalling the 
drum is rotated backward, ball 24 falls in 
one of the grooves, 25, of drum 7, and this 
pulls back lever 19 and operates the brake 
by means of the steel wire, 20, running to 
the spoon forward of the tire and under and 
back of the crankhanger. 



"Motorcycles and How to Manage Them"; 
126 pages, 41 illustrations; cloth bound, $1. 
Tne Goodman Co., Box 649. New York ••• 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



19 



ACCENTED EXPERIENCES 



Noting Advantages and Disadvantages Will 
Help for Future Betterment. 



"While I give way to none in my advo- 
cacy of the motor bicycle, it does not follow 
that I cannot see both the advantages and 
disadvantages of this type of machine," re- 
cently remarked a man who is fairly a 
pioneer in their use and publicity. Continu- 
ing he pointed out that lengthy and varied 
experiences had served to accent both sides 
of the question. 

"By this I mean," in further explanation, 
"that while I highly esteem the good points 
of the present-day machines, I have a higher 
appreciation of the possibilities of the future. 
The principal defects have, on the other 
hand, shown up in more glaring colors by 
reason of the extended wear and tear, but 
as these are m many cases of a minor na- 
ture, due to want of experience or to over- 
sight on the part of the designers, it is clear 
that the majority will be speedily remedied. 

"And right here I want to digress a bit 
and I let out a few views on designers and 
their experiences. I know I am inviting 
some awful return shots, but I am willing 
to stand for them. When I get in a crowd 
of motoeyclists and hear them praise one 
designer to the skies and condemn another 
to perdition, I want to call their attention 
to the fact that experience is the thing all 
through. The best in the lot will be im- 
measureably better when his machine has 
been made and sold up somewhere near the 
thousand figure. The sample may work first 
. class, so may the first dozen, and even the 
first fifty; but I had my point most ma- 
terially strengthened recently by one of the 
best by his saying that af/'oi: the first hun- 
dred machines had been delivered he com- 
menced to learn things. On the other hand, 
I know of one man who has had an experi- 
ence running into several hundreds, nearly 
a thousand probably, and he isn't much 
wiser than at the start; he is too bull-headed. 
"However, whether that is a wrong view 
or not, the most important problem just now 
is undoubtedly that of transmission, for, 
though the requisite power is developed by 
the motor, it will avail little unless it can 
be suitably transmitted to the road wheels. 
At first glance this transmission problem 
does not appear in the least difficult of solu- 
tion, and the question may well be asked: 
If a satisfactory transmission gear can be 
devised for a 40 h. p. car, why not a simple 
bicycle? It is only when we come to con- 
sider the side issues that the difficulty of 
answering the question becomes apparent, 
and a still further sifting out of the pros 
and cons serves to demonstrate the fact that, 
although there are certain methods of trans- 
mission which on paper are well enough, 
they one and all involve other points in con- 
struction which adversely influence adoption 
on the present-day machine. 
"The fact is, the motor bicycle has ar- 



rived at a stage where it must of necessity 
cease to be so much of a bicycle with a 
motor attached, as a completely re-designed 
machine in which the perfected motor is in- 
corporated in the most advantageous posi- 
tion, having regard to cooling effects, sta- 
bility, strength and durability. 

"In the earlier motor bicycles a small com- 
pact motor of about 1 h. p. was considered 
sufficient, and this type could well be fitted 
to a bicycle without involving any serious 
departure from cycle-building practice. Then 
came the V-fc h. p., and in order to still keep 
this within the limits of the ordinary cycle, 
the design of the motor itself had to suffer 
in the matter of lack of provision for hard 
wear and tear by an undue cutting down of 
many of the detail parts, chiefly in order 
that the motor might work somewhere with- 
in the crank radius and within the ordinary 
roadster width of tread. 

"Although excellent performances have 
been accomplished on some of these 1% h. p. 
machines, it is commonly conceded by those 
who have had the greatest experience that 
the power must go still higher, and there is 
every indication that for the 1903 season a 
2 h. p. or 2% h. p. will be demanded. The 
only alternative to this course is the adop- 
tion of some form of two-speed gear to the 
1% or 1% h. p. engine, but a perfectly satis- 
factory gear of this description has yet to 
be evolved, and in any case it is by no means 
certain that with an air-cooled cylinder such 
a gear would be of much practical value, 
because immediately the low or hill-climbing 
gear was thrown into action the engine 
would race away at top speed, yet the cylin- 
der would not be getting the necessary cool- 
ing effect by reason of the slow progress of 
the machine through the air. 

"In any case, the position to-day is, that 
the hill-climbing power of the motor bicycle 
is insufficient, and will have to be increased, 
either by the adoption of two-speed gear or 
a higher-powered motor, and whilst it is not 
safe to prophesy with absolute confidence, it 
would seem that the higher-powered engine 
will carry the day. 

"The objection commonly raised to a fur- 
ther increase in power is that, the power 
being in these small motors entirely depend- 
ant on piston speed, it rapidly falls as the 
engine slows down on climbing a steep hill, 
and that the increased power given at full 
piston speed cannot be utilized on the level. 
This in theory is perfectly sound argument, 
but the degree to which it is applicable prac- 
tically is dependent on the precise design 
of the individual motor. 

"We' may increase the effective horse 
power of any internal combustion engine in 
three ways— first, by increasing the bore of 
the cylinder; second, by lengthening the 
piston stroke and consequently the leverage 
on the engine crank shaft, and third, by 
increasing the ratio of compression. Now, if 
we follow step by step the various moves 
in the evolution of the bicycle motor, we 
shall find that the majority of makers have 
sought to increase power chiefly by increas- 
ing compression, for this method of obtain- 



ing increased power adds nothing to the 
weight of the motor, but as the compression 
is increased (other things being equal) so 
will the piston speed be increased. There- 
fore, as the excessively high piston speed is 
a disadvantage in severe hill-climbing, it 
would appear better to obtain power by one 
of the other methods, and work at a lower 
piston speed. This, however, brings us to 
the crux of the whole matter, for to work 
on these lines the motor must of necessity 
weigh more and occupy more room, hence 
the ordinary design of cycle frame is no 
longer suitable for a further increase of pow- 
er; and, assuming the neavier and more 
powerful motor to be a necessity, it is equal- 
ly necessary that the frame of the machine 
should be strengthened beyond the mere 
substitution of extra stout tubing. All the 
sockets or connecting lugs, together with 
minor parts in bearings, etc., must be of 
increased dimensions if safety and durability 
are to be assured." 



Sane View of the Situation. 

The troubles of the American Bicycle Co. 
have naturally created a considerable wave 
of comment and supplied the basis for much 
editorial expression. Some of it is not cal- 
culated to help the bicycle, but here and 
there a sane view of the situation is taken 
and real common sense preached. Of this 
character is the following from the Chicago 
Record-Herald, which merits reproduction in 
other public prints: 

"The troubles of the bicycle trust have led 
to expressions of wonderment at the collapse 
of the bicycle fad, but that had begun be- 
fore the trust was formed, and there is no 
mystery as to its cause. The first of them 
was a reaction against the common Ameri- 
can fault of overdoing things. Men and 
women half killed themselves by riding too 
far. Every pleasure trip became a pleas- 
ure exertion, in which the weaker competi- 
tors were painfully exhausted. An abso- 
lute disgust for the wheel followed among 
the victims, many of whom would never 
mount a wheel again after one such heart 
breaking and body racking ride. 

"Another cause was the cheapening of 
wheels, which brought them within the 
reach of the plainest people and raised 
doubts among the aristocrats, who could af- 
ford to pay $150 for a wheel. The incursion 
of the commoners came just in time to save 
the liverymen, who were about to expire, 
and brought back to the horse some of his 
old value. 

"Another cause in many places was the de- 
testable condition of city streets and coun- 
try roads. Except on a first class road a 
bicycle is a sorrow, and the bicycle rider 
soon exliausts the delight of a few boule- 
vards and an occasional highway that hap- 
pens to be in fair condition. He wants va- 
riety and novelty without getting them at 
the cost of terrifically hard labor and of 
considerable bodily peril. 

"It is said besides that the exercise is not 
as beneficial as some others, but under fa- 
vorable conditions it affords a pleasant 
means of getting about and seeing town and 
country, and the probabilities are that the 
present reaction will be followed by a 
period of increasing and healthy demSnd 
for wheels. In fact, dealers and repair men 
say that this period has already begun." 



20 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Racing. 

Two motor bicycle races were run in con- 
nection with the automobile meet at Minne- 
apolis Sept. 27. Ten men competed in the 
five-mile event, which was won by John Nill- 
son (Holley) in 9 minutes. Thos. L. Bird 
(Mitchell) was second and W. Dokken third. 
The consolation event fell to V. Stormquist 
(Auto-Bi). The track was wet and heavy. 



A cable from Berlin states that on Sept. 2S 
Robl, of Munich, defeated Jimmy Michael 
in an hour's race on the Friedenau track. 
Michael led up to the eighty-fifth lap, when 
his pace-makers' motor went wrong. After 
that he was unable to recover the lost 
jrround. 



Walter Sanger, one time champion, "tried 
his hand" again last week at Pabst Park, 
Milwaukee, but failed to make an impres- 
sion. He was beaten by Woody Headspeth 
three heats out of four in a mile paced 
match race, the last heat being ridden in 
2:06 1-5. 



Marcus Hurley easily won the two bicycle 
races which formed part of the athletic tour- 
ney at Vailsburg on September 28. His time 
in the half mile was 1:14; in the two mile 
handicap, from scratch, 4:54 4-5. 



The racing scene has now shifted to the 
South, the first meet occurring in Savannah 
on Tuesday last. On that occasion Jay 



Eaton beat Turville in two straight heats 
of a three-mile race — times, 4:413-5 and 4:35 
and Walthour easily ran away from Gus 
Lawson in the first heat of a five-mile race, 
when rain fell and caused a postponement. 
Time, 7:36. 

Tourist Cars on the Nickel Plate Road. 

Semi-weekly transcontinental tourist cars 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts 
are operated by the Nickel Plate and its con- 
nections. Tourist cars referred to afford the 
same sleeping accommodations, with same 
class of mattress and other bedclothing, that 
are provided in the regular Pullman sleep- 
ing car service. These tourist cars leave 
Boston on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 
leave San Francisco on Tuesdays and Fri- 
days. Berths In these tourist cars are sold 
at greatly reduced rates. Conveniences are 
offered without extra cost, for heating food, 
or preparing tea or coffee, affording every 
facility for comfort on a long journey, espe- 
cially for families travelling with children. 
Lowest rates may be obtained always via 
the Nickel Plate Road for all points in the 
West. For special information regarding all 
trains on the Nickel Plate Koad, including 
these tourist cars, consult your nearest 
ticket agent, or write A. W. Bcclestone, D. 
P. Aer.. 385 Broadway. New York City. ••• 



"Defects (In motocycles) and How to Rem- 
edy Them." See "Motorcycles and How to 
Manage Them." $1. The Goodman Co.. Box 
619. New York. ••• 



The Retail Record. 

Brentwood, N. Y.— John Haberman opened 
store. 
Westport, Conn. — Fred Kemper closed 

store. 

Windsor, Conn. — August Pouleur closed 
store. 

Livermore, Cal.— Crane Brothers succeed H. 
R. Crane. 
Cazenovia, N. Y.— Hoffman & Weaver have 

closed store. 

Ashtabula, O.— Charles A. Williams suc- 
ceeds C. L. Scrivens. 

Washington, D. C— Essel R. and Cordelia T. 
Maxwell assigned. Liabilities $822.11, as- 
sets $774. 

Manitowoc, Wis.— Manitowoc Cycle Works 
closed on chattel mortgage for $1,200. As- 
sets between $3,000 and $4,000. 

New York, N. Y— Cycle Checking Lock Co., 
Alfred J. Johnson appointed permanent re- 
ceiver. Assets and liabilities not given. 

Burnham, Pa.— Freed & Glegg, shop partly 
wrecked by explosion. 



To Protect Tourists. 

For the benefit of foreigners the Touring 
Club of France has decided to erect sign 
posts at all dangerous gradients on roads 
with indications that can be understood by 
cyclists of all nationalities. Arrows painted 
on the sign mean, if diagonal, go slow; if 
vertical, to dismount; if horizontal, that 
there is a dangerous curve in the road. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. 



IAVE A 



PROPOSITION OF UNUSUAL INTEREST TO JOBRERS 



FOR 1903, 



Write for Particulars. 



ERIE, PA. 




FORCE able 



IS THE MOTOR THAT 
WILL DRIVE ITS CAR UP 

a habit lhat THOMAS WORLD'S RECORD MOTORS have. There's guessing in a claim, but there^s 
forceable proof in a photograph — it shows actualities, a Buffalo TonneaU climbing a 25 per cent. grade. 



25% Grades, 



Motor Vehicles and Motor Bicycles, 



P And there's that famous 

THOMAS AUTO-BI, 

the original Motor Bicycle of them all. It is made in two 
models and two prices, and holds the official gold medal record 
for gasolene economy 

Model 3. Price, $150. Model 4. Price, $ I 75. 

BUFFALO AUTOMOBILE & AUTO-BI GO.,1190-1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 




BOSTON OFFICE, 174 Columbus Avenue. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 29 West 42d Street. 



The Week's Exports. 

The exports to Africa were easily the 
feature of last week's manifest; they at- 
tained a value of nearly $13,000. Only Eng- 
land and Denmark took any other consider- 
able parcels, the record in detail being as 
follows: 

Antwerp.— Five cases bicycle material, 
$280. 

Amsterdam.— One case bicycles, $30; four 
cases bicycle material, $25. 

British West Indies. — Twenty eases bi- 
cycles and material, $568. 

British Possessions in i) f rica.— One hun- 
dred and fifty-nine cases bicycles and ma- 
terial, $12,S83. 

British Guiana. — Five cases bicycles and 
material, $109. 

British East Indies.— Seventeen cases bi- 
cycles and material, $968. 

Cuba.— Two cases bicycle material, $21. 

China.— Two cases bicycle material, $156. 

Central America. — One case bicycles and 
material, $23. 

Christiania. — One case bijycles, $25. 

Copenhagen.— Two bundled cases bicycles, 
$2,000; four cases bicycle material, $142. 

Dutch West Indies.— Thirteen cases bi- 
cycles and material, $189. 

Genoa.— Eleven cases bicycle material, 
$233. 

Hong Kong.— Eight cases bicycles and ma- 
terial, $510. 

Hamburg.— Fifteen cases bicycles, $156; 
thirty eases bicycle material, $607. 

Havre.— One case bicycle material, $10. 

Liverpool.— Forty-two cases bicycles, $881; 
three cases bicycle material, $215. 

London.— Forty-four cases bicycles, $1,700; 
twenty-five cases bicycles and material, 
$1,287. 

Mexico. — One case bicycle material, $54. 

Southampton.— One case bicycles, $65; 
eighteen cases bicycle material, $S34. 

Uruguay.— Nine cases bicycles and mater- 
ial, $319. 

Trolley Car Pacing. 

Attention was recently called to the dan- 
gers of the practice some bicycle riders have 
of hanging onto motor bicycles. There is 
also the practice of riding behind trolley 
cars, which is open to severe criticism as 
well, a recent case in point being the kill- 
ing of a bicyclist in San Francisco. 

The rider, he was a boy, was trailing in 
the rear of the car and suddenly emerged 
in front of another in an effort to forge 
ahead. He was following a practice more 
than ordinarily common, it seems, among 
the wheelmen of that town. Many accidents 
have resulted from it, and many more have 
been averted by the narrowest margins. 

Responsibility for such accidents cannot 
be attached to the motormen. They can 
have no knowledge of the cycling trailer in 
the rear of an approaching ear on the other 
track, and there is nothing that is calculated 
to so shatter the nerves of a motorman as 
the sudden emergence of a cyclist from the 
rear of the car he is passing, and his ap- 
pearance in front of his own car. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

Then, again, the danger from such a 
source to street-car passengers alighting is 
ever present. It is also a standing menace 
to the safety of every pedestrian on the 
street crossings. At any moment one or 
more wheelmen may suddenly shoot from 
the rear of a passing car and run down the 
person on the street crossing before he has 
time to get out of the way. 



21 



Alloy of Aluminum and Antimony. 

The extensive use of aluminum in the con- 
struction of motor bicycles and the possibili- 
ties of its even wider use as it is better 
understood gives interest to the following 
from the Aluminum World: 

Aluminum and antimony both melt in 
the neighborhood of 630 degrees Cent. 
(= 1,165 degrees Fahr.), yet the alloy 
Al Sb, containing 18.S7 per cent of aluminum 
and 81.13 per cent of antimony, melts only 
at 1,0S0 degrees Cent. (= 1,975 degrees 
Fahr.), which is a most market exception to 
the general rule that alloys are more fusible 
than the least fusible metal they contain. 

Another general rule is that alloys have a 
smaller volume than their uncombined con- 
stituents, or, in other words, are heavier or 
denser than their theoretically calculated 
specific gravity. Edmond von Aubel has ex- 
amined the alloy Al Sb in this respect, and 
finds that it is phenomenal in respect to its 
density as well as in its melting point. Its 
calculated specific gravity is 5.225, which 
is the density it would have if its ingredients 
alloyed with no contraction or expansion of 
volume. Its true specific gravity is 4.218, at 
16 degrees Cent. 

This shows a large expansion of volume 
during alloying, and is thus a marked ex- 
ception to the general rule that alloying is 
accompanied by contraction. To put the 
figures in another way, 7.07 cubic centi- 
metres of aluminum alloying with 12.07 
cubic centimetrese of antimony, produce 
23.71 cubic centimetres of alloy. 



Here's the Latest Reason. 

There have been many reasons given for 
the falliug off in the sales of bicycles from 
the days of the boom, but the most unique 
we have heard is that the bicycle has had 
its lowering in sales for the reason that 
for three years past the number of patents 
issued on bicycles and bicycle improve- 
ments has been rapidly decreasing, so that 
for the past year only a very few applica- 
tions have been made. 



Travel Thursday to Sunday for $5.00. 

Thursday, Oct. 9, over the Boston & Al- 
bany R. R. to Albany, Hudson River Steam- 
er to New York. Thence via Fall River Line 
back to Boston for $5.00. Descriptive leaf- 
let. Address 

A. S. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Agent, 
*** Boston. 

"Defects (In motocycles) and How to Rem- 
edy Them." See "Motorcycles and How to 
Manage Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 
040. New York. •*• 



Catalog-Time 

is approaching, which means 
that another opportunity will 
be presented to the few who 
during the past year failed to 
list and make the most of 

BEVIN 




We make a sufficient variety of 

each article to satisfy any 

demand. 



BEVIN BROS. MFG. COMPANY 

EAST HAMPTON, CONN. 

FOUNDED 1832 



22 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



G& J I IRES 

MADE FOR THOSE WHO WANT THE 
BEST. 

They are detachable, 
double tube ; are made 
from the best mater- 
ials; ride easiest and 
wear longest. Anyone 
can repair them any- 
where. 

Catalogs and Prices on Request. 

O&JIiRtCo. 

INDIANAPOLIS, U. S. A. 
Makers of Q & J Tires for Bicycles, 
Motor Bicycles, Automobiles and 
Driving Wagons. 




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II AND AND FOOT PUMPS, 

Oilers, Repair Tools, 
Valves, Name-plates, etc. 

Spelter Solder 



Sheet Brass, 
Brass Wire and Rods. 

SPECIALTIES to order 
MADE of BRASS. 

SCOVILL MFG. CO. 

Factories: Waterbury, Conn. 

Depots: 210 Lake St., Chicago. 

433 Broome St., New York 

▼WVWV W WVW^V ▼▼▼▼▼▼ WW 



L 



.J 



HIGH GRHDE 

wheels must have the 
best equipments. 

There is nothing that gives more value for 
the money than the use of the 

MORSE a, CHAIN 




NOISELESS IN MUD, WATER OR 
DUST AND ALWAYS EASY RUNNING. 

The only chain having Frictlonless 
Rocker Joints. Insist on having the 
Morse Twin Roller. Fits regular 
sprockets. 

Send for Catalogue and 
Trade Price to 

Morse Chain Co., Trumansburg:, n. y. 



WANTS AND FOR SALE. 

1 5 cents per line of seven words, cash with order. 



\^OUNG MAN (21) wishes to learn machinist 
trade or work in bicycle shof ; has six years 
expeiience as bicycle repairman. Fletcher I. 
Rockefeller, East Quogue, L. I. 

\\f ANTED — Everyone interested in motor bi- 
cycles to purchase "Motocycles and How to 
Manage Them." Contains 126 pages bristling 
with information. $1.00 per copy. For sale by 
The Goodman Co , 154 Nassau St., New York City. 

The 1902 BRECKENRIDGE GAS LAMP 
The 1902 Light Weight Oil Lantern. 

STANDARD BICYCLE LAMPS OF THE WORLD. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE NATIONAL CEMENT & RUBBER MFG. COMPANY, 

Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Send for our complete 1902 Catalogue. 



Single, 

Tandem, 

Triplet, 

absolutely the best Quad and 

— Motor Cycles. 

Lightest, Nearest Dust Proof, and 
Easiest Running Hanger in the World. 
Park City Mfg. Co., Inc., Chicago. 

ALL ROADS ARE EASY WHEN THE 

STAR 

BALL 
RETAINER 

IS USED. 

With millions in daily use, it has stood the test for 
more than live years, and is adaptable to ball bearings of 
any kind. 

If you are users of ball bearings we would be pleased to hear 
from you and mail you our catalog with the latest information, 
which we know would be profitable and interesting to you. 

THE STAR BALL RETAINER CO., Lancaster, Pa., U. S. A. 





Elwell European Motorcycle Tour. 

Summer of I 903. 
Write F. A. ELWELL, 58 Prospect St., Waltham, Mass. 

WA N T e: d. 

TO BUY JOE LOTS OF 

Bicycles Jires, Sundries and Fittings. 

WRITE US WHAT YOU HAVE TO SELL. 

E. P. BLAKE CO., 57 Sudbury St., Boston, Mass. 
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— You all know what the diamond stands for among X 
▲ precious stones. You can't well afford ^ 

X not to know that 4 

| IM*A«N«0*IM)*T«hLM*8 I 

a occupy the same plane among res. X 

? DIAMOND RUBBER CO., Akron, O. ♦ 
»♦ ♦ ♦ *♦» ♦♦ ♦♦< " 



The Crosby Company, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., 

Sheet Metal Stamping. 



SPLITDORF SPARK COILS. 

HIGH GRADE ru. 




C. F. SPLITOOHF, 17-27 Vandewater St., New York 

Wolff-A merican Bicycles. 

STEARNS BICYCLE AGENCY, 

General Distributors, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



♦ 
i 
♦ 



TO THE LIVE DEALER 

who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that 
concerns his business this blank will be hint enough: 

♦♦♦♦♦♦»»»♦♦♦♦♦♦«»»♦♦♦■»<»»»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦? 

THE GOODMAN COMPANY, | 

124 Tribune Building, New York. 



Enclosed find $2.00 for which enter my subscription 
to the BICYCLING WORLD for one year, commencing 
* with the issue of 



♦ 
♦ 
♦ 



♦ 
♦ 
♦ 



Name. 



Address 



^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦■^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦» ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



23 



The Week's Patents. 

709,463. Chainless Bicycle. Frederick 

Booth, Tefft, Ind. Filed October 14, 1901. 

Serial No. 78,642. (No model.) 

Claim. — 1. A bicycle having one of its 
lower frame bars extended rearward from 
the rear axle, a driven gear upon the rear 
hub, a driving gear mounted on the exten- 
sion and meshing with the iear of the driven 
gear, and a lever fulcrumed for reciproca- 
tory movement upon one of the frame bars 
and having one end in engagement with the 
driving gear and the other end in engage- 
ment with one of the pedal cranks. 
709,479. Coaster Brake. Charles Glover, 

New Britain, Conn., assignor to P. & F. 

Corbin, a Corporation of Connecticut. Filed 

June 11, 1901. Serial No. 64,096. (No 

model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a device of the character 
described in combination, an axle, a wheel 
hub, a driver, a worm carried thereby, in- 
ternally threaded sleeve mounted on said 
worm and co-acting therewith, a brake and 
a brake actuator, clutch devices separate 
from the sleeve and between said sleeve and 
said hub and between said sleeve and said 
brake actuating means for independently 
connecting or disconnecting the driver with 
said hub or with said brake actuating means. 

709.549. Motor Attachment for Cycles. 
Leonard M. Meyrick-Jones, East Dereham, 
England. Filed September 20, 1901. Serial 
No. 75,777. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. The combination of two bi- 
cycles, a set of clamps engaging their frames, 
a second set of clamps adjustably carried by 
the first set, and a motor frame carried by 
the second set of clamps. 

709.550. Motor Attachment for Cycles. 
Leonard M. Meyrick-Jones, East Dereham, 
England. Filed January 21, 1902. Serial 
No. 90,653. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. The combination of two bi- 
cycles, a framework connected to the frame 
of both bicycles by clamps and coupling 
them side by side at a distance apart, a road 
wheel carried by the framework and a motor 
driving this wheel also carried by the frame- 
work. 

709,588. Cycle Rest. Hans U, von Troschke, 

Hanover, Germany. Filed December 16, 

1901. Serial No. 86,117. (No model.) 

Claim.— In a cycle rest the combination of 

a clamping part adapted to be secured to 

the frame tubing close to the crank axle 

bearing, a pin journaled in said clamping 

part, a bifurcated rest composed of two legs 

symmetrically bent out of the middle plane 

of the cycle, said legs being pivoted on said 

pin, cross braces connecting the bent legs of 



the said rest, an extension of the said clamp- 
ing part adapted to partly surround the 
crank axle bearing, a clamp forming the end 
of the said extension adapted to be clamped 
about the frame tube supporting the saddle 
or the legs of the rear wheel fork, a helical 
spring, secured with one end to the upper 
cross brace and with the other end to the 
said extension clamp, and a wire, chain, 
cord, or the like, attached to the lower cross 
brace, guided through suitably arranged eyes 
or rings and adapted to be secured with its 
upper free end at different heights to the 
frame tubing, the parts being constructed, 
arranged and working, substantially as and 
for the purpose set forth. 
709,679. Bicycle. Charles H. Ocumpaugh, 
Rochester, N. Y. Filed April 29, 1898. 
Serial No. 679,184. (No model.) 
Claim. — In a bicycle, the combination of a 
pedal shaft, the cupshaped wheel having an 
interior sleeve fixed to the shaft and a con- 
centric rim. rollers journaled to revolve 
wholly within the cupshaped depression of 
the wheel near its mouth, the ends of the 
rollers being mounted in the sleeve and rim, 
and a disk shaped wheel having radially ar- 
ranged pin rollers to mesh with the rollers 
of the cup wheel, substantially as described. 
709,718. Bicycle Frame. Robert F. Mona- 
han, Buffalo, N. Y. Filed September 20, 
1901. Serial No. 75,676. (No model.) 
Claim— 1. A bicycle wheel frame, having 
resilient frame bars extended between the 
saddle post and the rear axle, and a brace 
extending between the resilient frame bars 
and the saddle post. 



A Rare October Trip. 

Over the Boston & Albany R. R. to Al- 
bany, the Hudson River Steamer to New 
York, and the Fall River Line to Boston. 
Thursday, Oct. 9. $5.00 buys whole trip. 
Send for descriptive leaflet. 

A. S. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Agent, 
*** Boston. 



tfc 



PERFECT" 




OILER. 



For High Grade Bicycles. The best and neatest Oiler in the 
market. DOES NOT LEAK. The "PERFECT** is the 
only Oiler that regulates the supply of oil to a drop. It is ab- 
solutely unequaled. Price, 25 cetns each. 

We make cheaper oilers, also. 



CU8HMAN & DENISON, Mfrs., 240-242 W. 23d St., NEW iORK. 



EACH 

SUCCEEDING 

YEAR 

has witnessed an 

increase in the 

number of 

Cushion 
Frames 

in use. 

1903 

will prove no excep- 
tion to the rule. The 
Cushion Frame is one 
of those articles that 
is the better liked the 
longer it is used. 



HYCIENIC WHEEL COMPANY, 

owners or 

CUSHION FRAME PATENTS 

220 Broadway, NEW YORK. 

Home Office, Philadelphia. 




STEEL 
BALLS 



WE ARE THE ONLY MANUFACTURERS WHO DAN MAKE THE FOLLOWING GUARANTEES: 

That every ball is a perfect sphere. 
That every ball is within i-io,ooo of an inch of exact size. 
That the balls are made of the best quality of true crucible tool steel 

That ualls bought from us at one time will be exactly like balls of a similar size bought rom ua 
at any other time. 



THE STEEL BALL COMPANY, 



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CHICAGO, ILL. 



"MOTOCYCLES AND HOW 
TO MANAGE THEM" 



REVISED EDITION 



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24 



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THE BICYCLING WORLD 

INEVER LEAK 

STOPS LARGE PUNCTURES. 

This is the only fluid that can be legally used in pneumatic 
tires. Suits now pending. 

BUFFALO SPECIALTY MFC. CO., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




Through Train and Car Service in 
effect June 15, 1902. 

TWO FAST TRAINS 



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11.40 " 




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11.50 " 


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running through to Chicago. 

For other service west, time tables, reservation, etc., address 

A. S. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Agt., Boston. 



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or intend to ride or sell 

motor bicycles 

" Motocycles and How to Manage 
Them " 

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The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, October 9, 1902. 



No. 2 



FOURTEEN ARE DROPPED 



L. A. W. Administration Ticket Sadly De= 
pleted by Declinations— Independents Act. 



The campaign which is being waged in the 
New York Division, L. A. W., and which has 
done much to re-arouse a degree of interest 
in the organization, has taken an almost sen- 
sational turn, suggesting a semi-collapse ot 
the regular ticket. 

Although for vote-catching purposes the 
present administration has been struggling 
hard to make an eleventh-hour show of ac- 
tivity, its real impotency was uncovered this 
week when it was compelled to drop no less 
than 14 candidates from its ticket; the men 
declined to accept the nomina'tions or to pay 
the small election assessment which the 
regulations impose. 

That the startling and unexpected lack of 
strength and influence on the part of the 
ruling regime, which the situation discloses, 
will redound greatly to the benefit of the 
Oatman or independent candidates who are 
seeking to restore life and purpose to the 
L. A. W. cannot well be doubted. 

Of the regular nominees who declined to 
stand for office, two are from New York and 
one from Brooklyn. All other districts of 
the State are entitled to but one representa- 
tive each. Those left vacant by the declina- 
tions are the 7th (Newburg), 8th (Albany), 
10th (Saratoga), 11th (Cortland). 12th 
(Oneida), 13th (Onondaga), 14th (Oswego), 
15th (Elmiral, 17th (Rochester), 20th (Catta- 
raugus). 

The independents on the other hand have 
found a loop hole in the regulations which 
they believe gives them a fighting chance to 
elect additional candidates who are in sym- 
pathy with their effort to awaken the or- 
ganization. The loop hole in question per- 
mits members to insert in the ballots the 
names of whoever they may desire to vote 
for. Taking advantage of it the independ- 
ents have issued a call urging that in 
addition to their regularly nominated candi- 
dates, written votes be cast for the follow- 
ing: 1st District, E. Lee Ferguson and Chas. 
P. Staubach, New York; 2d, H. V. Macrery, 
Brooklyn; 3d, C. W. Coleman, Patchogue; 
4th, Edward Gei'bereux, Yonkers; 8th, Harry 



W. Smith, Albany; 12th, Robert Bruce, Clin- 
ton; 17th, J. Henry Sager, Rochester. 

Ferguson and Macrery were originally on 
the ticket, but were disqualified on techni- 
calities. The nomination of the others had 
been intended, but through a misunderstand- 
ing were held until too late for them to be 
printed on the ballots. 



WILL FIGHT BANKRUPTCY 



2oo mies on One Gallon. 

Going for a motor bicycle endurance and 
economy run on Sept. 17, J. Van Hooydonk 
on a London, England track covered 200 
miles in 6h. 42m. 52 2-5s., and used just one 
gallon of gasolene. One short stop was 
made to tighten the belt, which robbed the 
event of its non-stop feature. The affair 
was run under official timing and judging. 
The motor was 2%x2% inches, bore and 
stroke. 

In one hour 29 miles 600 yards were cov- 
ered. In three hours 87 miles 100 yards. 
Six hours, 177 miles 1,550 yards, and in the 
last hour 30 miles 1,550 yards was the score, 
the last mile being ridden in lm. 49 4-os. 



Linscott Enlarges. 

J. M. Linscott has just given additional 
evidence of the prosperity that has attended 
his management of the Boston Cycle and 
Sundry Co. He has leased the old Shoe and 
Leather Exchange, at 47 Hanover street, 
Boston, and will use it as a wholesale estab- 
lishment only, still retaining the retail store 
at No. 7 on the same street. In the face of 
these moves it seems almost superfluous to 
add that Liuscott has enjoyed an unusually 
good year. 



Penrose Retires. 

Morris Penrose having retired from the 
jobbing firm of Penrose & Clark, Boston, 
the style is now A. G. Clark Co., with 
offices at the same address; the new firm 
will continue to represent the Pennsylvania 
Rubber Co. in New England. 



Ban on Hotor Bicycles Withdrawn. 

The management of the automobile show 
at Madison Square Garden have rescinded 
the order excluding motor bicycles; the 
presure was too strong to be resisted. 



American Cycle Mfg. Co. Resists Attempt 
and Moves to Untangle Receiverships. 



Ambitious Chicago lawyers appear bent on 
"piling the agony" on the American Cycle 
Manufacturing Company. Following the 
successful effort of one legal firm in having 
appointed and placed in charge a conflicting 
set of receivers, another Chicago attorney 
has now secured the signatures of a sufficient 
number of minor creditors and is aiming to 
throw the company into bankruptcy. 

The latter attempt took form last week 
when a petition alleging insolvency and ask- 
ing that the American Cycle Manufacturing 
Company be adjudged a bankrupt was filed 
in the United States District Court for the 
Northern District of Illinois. The petition- 
ing creditors and their claims are: Badger 
Brass Mfg. Co., .$400; Bennett & O'Connell 
Co., $490, and the Advance Packing & Sup- 
ply Co.. $9.39. 

Immediate steps were taken to fight the 
bankruptcy proceedings and they will be 
disputed at every step; the officials of the 
company maintain that there is no ques- 
tion about its solvency. Steps have also 
been taken toward the ousting of the re- 
ceivers now in control in Chicago, and the 
substitution of those first appointed and who 
failed to qualify in time — Messrs. Pope, Cole- 
man and Miller. This move will take the 
form of an appeal from the decree appoint- 
ing Messrs. Rhode and Whitney, and praying 
their removal. As, however, the law re- 
quires that 30 days' notice of such appeal be 
given, it is obvious that the administration 
of Receivers Rhode and Whitney cannot be 
terminated for some little time. 



Joins the International Staff. 

Morris Penrose, who recently retired from 
the firm of Penrose & Clark, Boston, has 
joined the staff of the Intnernational A. & 
V. Tire Company. He will have charge of 
the company's New-England branch in Bos- 
ton when it is opened, probably next month. 

Having previously engaged such well 
known men as S. G. Rigdon and J. C. Mat- 
lack, that the International people are gun- 
ning for big game is evident. 



30 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



UP TO THE MAKERS 



Jobbers' Proposals Submitted and fleet 
With Favor— One Dissenter's Views. 



During the current week the resolution 
adopted at the Albany meeting of the New 
York State Association of Jobbers of Bicy- 
cle Supplies was formally transmitted to the 
manufacturing trade. Speaking generally it 
has been well received. It is only here and 
there a dissenting note has arisen. The dis- 
senters take the ground that if they agree 
to the jobbers' proposal the latter should 
agree to catalogue their goods. The situation 
was discussed in several man to man talks 
at Albany. 

"My idea of a jobber is that he consti- 
tutes or conducts a supply house, and a sup- 
ply house to my notion should catalogue and 
supply whatever the market affords," is the 
fashion in which one manufacturer's repre- 
sentative summed up his views. "It does not 
seem exactly proper for jobbers to push one 
brand of goods to the exclusion of another," 
he added. 

When this opinion was carried to a metro- 
politan member of the Jobbers' Association 
he thought for a moment and said: 

■■The jobber does conduct a supply house 
and does catalogue and supply that for which 
any demand exists. He can scarcely be ex- 
pected to list unknown or little known goods 
or those for which there is no call. He 
knows best the wares that are in demand 
and they are usually to be found in his cat- 
alogue. 

"Some makers appear to think it is the 
business of the jobber to create a demand 
for their goods. Why the idea should pre- 
vail I cannot imagine, but it does prevail in 
several quarters. As supply houses we keep 
in stock those articles for which a demand 
exists, and when a thing is neither cata- 
logued or stocked it is pretty good evidence 
that there is no call for it. It is the manu- 
facturers' duty to create a demand for his 
productions, not ours. We can enlarge the 
demand but there is no justice or reason in 
expecting us to start it. 

"I suppose there are some manufacturers 
whom we cannot hope to have fall in with 
our proposals, but I have yet to hear of one 
who lias not agreed to them, and though it 
may appear that they are giving much and 
receiving little or nothing in return, they cer- 
tainly are obtaining the good will of the job- 
bers, and though it may be intangible, good 
will usually counts for considerable in the 
long run." 

The full text of the resolution adopted at 
Albany which was withheld at the time is 
now public property. It is as follows: 

Resolved. First, That we earnestly request 
the manufacturers of bicycles, bicycle parts, 
sundries and tires from whom we buy, to re- 
frain from selling their goods in New York 
State to any individual or firm not included 



in the lists above given except at an advance 
of at least — per cent, above jobbers' prices; 
names may be added to the list from time 
to time by the Executive Committee of this 
association; and 

Resolved, That we sincerely agree among 
ourselves to refrain from cutting prices of 
any goods now sold under contract; and 

Resolved, That* we should be glad to see 
all goods sold under similar contracts which 
shall provide a margin of at least — per 
cent to us jobbers; and 

Resolved, That the members of this As- 
sociation will give preference to, and push 
the sale of goods manufactured by firms who 
will make and maintain an agreement with 
us, and who establish selling prices which 
pay us as jobbers a satisfactory profit. 

In the case of any substantial dissent on 
the part of manufacturers, which does not 
now appear probable, there exists a confer- 
ence committee of three members of the Job- 
bers Association which was provided for 
to meet such a contingency. 



UP TO THE JOBBERS 



One Manufacturer Submits a Proposal of his 
Own— Shows how Profits may be flade. 



Unique Advertising Scheme. 

A Missouri merchant took three new silver 
coins— a dime, a quarter and half-dollar— and 
stamped his initials on each one. He then 
put these in circulation through separate 
channels. After a week he took liberal space 
in his daily paper and advertised to give $10 
in gold for the return of each one of the 
coins. The consequence was that he had 
everybody for miles around examining their 
money. He claimed that every time a man, 
woman or child in his territory came into 
possession of coins of this denomination they 
at once looked for the initials, and while 
doing so unconsciously thought of his store. 
The rather strange part of it is that, 
although this offer has been made for nearly 
a year, not one of the coins has been re- 
turned. — Ex. 

Handlebar Fashions. 

There is probably no other part of the 
modern bicycle which undergoes so many 
changes of fashion as the handlebar. In the 
course of years it has been seen in all 
widths, curves and shapes. Some of these 
are copied from the particular patterns af- 
fected by successful racing men, while a few 
of the more extravagant forms are purely 
whims of fashion. 

As a matter of fact, many are coming back 
to the belief that the most comfortable bai- 
lor general purposes is a plain flat one, with 
the grips at approximate right angles to the 
stem, and wide enough to comfortably clear 
the knees. It should be adjusted at such a 
height that, with a slight forward poise of 
the body, the palms of the hands can rest on 
the grips with the arms quite straight. 



flaking up 3OOO Motors. 

The point to which the small motor has 
come abroad can be judged when it is stated 
that a combination of an English and a 
French maker has now in hand the con- 
struction orders for 3,000 bicycle motors. 



The unavoidable absence from the recent 
jobbers' meeting at Albany of a prominent 
sundry manufacturer deprived that gather- 
ing of having laid before it a proposition 
which would doubtless have proved one of 
the most interesting subjects presented. 

His idea was worked out only after ma- 
ture consideration and the taking into ac- 
count so far as possible the many sides of 
the question, and with the object of provok- 
ing full and frank discussion. As the pro- 
posal, which has since taken letter form, 
states, the contention of the jobber has been 
that there was no money in pushing standard 
sundries on account, of their being cut to 
pieces as "leaders," etc. 

By his plan the manufacturer in question 
hopes to put the issue squarely up to the 
jobber himself. He does not attempt to ar- 
bitrarily set a minimum price at which his 
goods must be sold, but makes it so great an 
object to the jobber not to go below a speci- 
fied price that he cannot well afford to do so. 

It is a very interesting proposition and 
one that should bring out discussion. 

The letter itself follows: 

"Owing to the almost general complaint 
by the leading jobbers that they were unable 
to make enough profit in selling to war- 
rant any extra effort in pushing the sale of 
same, as against other makes, even though 

they concede them 'the best on the 

market' we propose with their aid to estab- 
lish for the season of 1903 a minimum price 
at which can be sold, the faithful main- 
tenance of which will guarantee a reasonable 
profit to jobbers cataloguing and stocking 

them. This minimum price is subject to 

not more than 2 per cent for cash. Firms 
having a greater cash discount must arrange 
prices in accordance with the above, so that 
their net price or prices, less their cash dis- 
count, shall be and no less. Any case of 

violation of this selling price, either by 
printed matter or by sales by travellers unin- 
formed of this price, will not be acceptable 
as an excuse. 

"The lowest prices for the season of 1903, 

ending Sept 15, 1903 on to recognized 

jobbers, will be - and at the end of the 

season or Sept. 15, 1903, providing we can- 
not furnish proof that you have sold at 

less than , we will rebate you by cash 

remittance for all taken between Oct. 

15, 1902 and Sept. 15, 1903. If, however, we 
can submit proof of you or any jobber sell- 
ing at less than , you or they will not 

receive the above rebate, which is entirely 
conditional upon the maintenance of a — 
net price each. 

"There are no stocks of our goods in job- 
bers hands at the present time, so this plan 
will work no injustice. The entire plan is 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



31 



for the purpose of securing our jobbers a 
legitimate profit and a faithful maintenance 

of it means that we pay them out of our 

profits, and is positively not to induce 
further cutting in prices, but for the sole 
purpose of interesting the jobbers in an in- 
creased sale of , to their profit. 

"We are doing this in an earnest endeavor 
to correct a rank abuse in the trade, and 
your faithful and honest co-operation can 
only result in increased profits to you, and 
we shall expect you to aid us whenever pos- 
sible in supplying proofs of other jobbers 
selling at better prices than , for expe- 
rience has taught us that we must have co- 
operation to succeed. 

"Should any jobber cut above mentioned 
selling price, we guarantee he will not re- 
ceive the rebate and by so doing he will be 
selling at no profit and proving that he will 
not take and does not want a profit." 



REFINING THE MOTOR 



An Effort in That Direction That has Re- 
moved flany Possible Sources of Trouble. 



Sees a Spring Frame Boom. 

"I have never at any time been able to ob- 
tain from an opponent of spring frames a 
theory of any kind which attempted to ac- 
count for the alleged loss of power sustained 
by using a frame insulated by springs," says 
a man who sees signs of a boom in spring 
and cushion frames. "Pursued down to its 
source, all this fatalism seems to rise in the 
assertion of an engineering theorist that the 
transmission of power through a yielding- 
medium necessarily involved a loss of power. 
It has always seemed amusingly absurd to 
me that that very sound proposition should 
be tortured into a condemnation of the 
spring frame. What it constitutes is a con- 
demnation of such contraptions as the spring 
gear wheel and other such "freaks." 

"To argue that, in the cycle, the power ap- 
plied by the rider goes through his machine 
to the ground in such a manner as to war- 
rant the acceptance of that disability against 
spring-hung frames, is simply rot. Some 
prominent men have subscribed to it, and 
the spring frame has greatly in consequence 
been tabooed by the only class of cyclist who 
could fairly prove its value— the racing man. 
Perhaps if the racing man could have been 
offered a spring machine within a reason- 
able weight of his rigid frame, he would 
have ventured ere now. But when lie was 
asked to saddle himself with ten to twelve 
pounds as a start, it is little wonder that, 
like the Levite, he passed by on the other 
side. And then the pneumatic tire smoothed 
away much of the road vibration bogey, and 
saddles were improved, until people began 
to wonder why anybody should desire a 
spring frame at all. 

"But the reaction in size of tire and weight 
of material, and the discovery that comfort 
and speed did not go hand in hand in tire 
construction, has been working for the 
spring frame. Also the growing conviction 
that we have progressed so far toward 
finality in rigid frame construction that it 
can be safely left where it is, and others 
searched for the novelty which the moneyed 
public ceaselessly demands in cycling. 

"These are the reasons for the recrudesence 
of interest in spring frames which, I think, 
I can see looming ahead ." 



There is a foreign motor known as the 
^Ecles made for bicycles, in which there are 
no bolts, nuts or pieces of any kind which 
can come loose inside the cylinder or crank 
case. The flywheels are drop forgings, hav- 
ing the crank shaft and crank pin forged in 
one piece with them. The gudgeon pin is 
held in its place without the use of the usual 

J. B. Dunlop as a Motor Bicyclist. 

Although he ranks high as a benefactor of 
mankind, James B. Dunlop, the inventor of 
the pneumatic tire, is rarely pictured— a fact 
which makes the accompanying illustration, 




from a photograph, taken only last month, 
of unusual interest, which is heightened by 
his appearance as a motor bicyclist. Despite 
his sixty-two years, Mr. Dunlop is "no 
slouch" in the handling of his machine. 



troublesome set screw. The shafts, pins, 
etc., are hardened and run in phosphor 
bronze bearings. The crank case is of hard 
aluminum. 

The cylinder, combustion chamber and 
valve chest are of cast iron, cast in one 
piece, with suitable radiating ribs. The 
cylinder is fixed to the crank case without 
the use of bolts. There are projections 
around the bottom of the cylinder which en- 
gage in a groove in the top of the crank 
case. The cylinder is screwed above this 
projection, and a large ring nut is provided, 
which firmly binds the crank case and cyl- 
inder together. This ring nut is so made at 
its lower end that it encircles the top of 



crank case and presses it against the cylin- 
der. 

The two to one gear is of steel. The wheel, 
cam and pin are in one piece, and the pin- 
ion is fixed to the crank shaft by flats, not 
keys or screws. The case for the two to 
one gear lies flush with the crank case. A 
projection on the outside of it forms a very 
substantial guide for the valve rod. 

The contact maker is of the simplest form, 
and strongly made. Its cover can be in- 
stantly removed, as it is not held on by any 
nuts or screws. The driving pulley has a 
D hole fitting on a D provided for it at the 
end of the crank shaft. The motor is sup- 
ported by a U shaped steel bracket, the ends 
of which fit over the main bearings and are 
firmly held there by a nut on each. This 
bracket can be swung around the crank case 
to any position required, and any form of 
lug to fit the cycle frame can be fixed to its 
base. There *s a boss at the top of the 
motor provided for a stay or lug, which 
can be fixed to any convenient part of the 
bicycle frame. 



What an Ad. Does. 

The advertisement is not a clerk and can- 
not sell goods of itself; as well claim for it 
the power and the act of manufacturing 
goods, says Printers' Ink. Its duty and 
limitation are to give publicity. This it can 
do and does with any person, place or thing. 
It is all that should be expected of it and is 
enough and plenty. It lies with the person, 
place or thing advertised to do the rest. 



The Parts in a flotor. 

To show how easily the initiated may be- 
come confused, attention is "called to the 
fact that no less than 139 parts are tabu- 
lated in an illustrated dictionary that is 
being issued by the maker of small motors 
for the convenience of buyers. This idea of 
helping buyers in the particular form taken 
is a most noteworthy one that could be well 
copied by other makers. 



Who's the American Haker? 

Cycling of London claims to know an 
American manufacturer who imported three 
English bicycles in order to post himself on 
all that is latest and best in cycle construc- 
tion. It does not occur to the Britons that 
the bicycles may have been brought over— if- 
they were brought over— as curios. 



Big Profits in Parts. 

The Birmingham Small Arms Co., the 
largest manufacturers of parts and fittings 
in England, have declared a dividend of 20 
per cent. Their profits for the year amount- 
ed to $465,245. 



Adding to the Burden. 

Tiess reports make it appear that the 
trailer is having a considerable vogue 
abroad: it is being used not only with motor 
bicycles but with motorless ones. 



32 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



SATISFIED CUSTOMERS S BEST ADVERTISERS 



September 25th, 1902. 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. COMPANY, 
Bay City, Mich. 

Dear Sirs : — I am still riding the National Chainless on which I made the 
present record from New York to Buffalo a year ago last month. It looks tough 
on account of constant use and little care. It is tough because it has stood the 
racket and runs as nice as when it came to me new. All my National customers 
are fully as well satisfied. 



Yours truly, 



E. A. PAYNE. 



8 "lift 


W^ 






i ^im 


i i 




1 


Zaf 


SOS tusx 




?*Wfe 


mp~ 




i ■-■■ 


JUOHEN&LAN 


H A NATIONAL 6ICVCLE. 


% 


1 






| 



NATIONALS ARE RIDDEN EVERYWHERE. 



It's worth something to a dealer nowadays to have an estab- 
lished line of bicycles like the NATIONAL; one of whose con- 
tinued production there is never any doubt. Wideawake dealers 
recognize this fact. Don't be too late for 1903. 

National Cycle Mfg. Company, 

BAY CITY, MICH.. U. S. A. 



The Ideal Tire 

* F I S K •* 

EASY TO RIDE. EASY TO REPAIR. 
DURABLE. SATISFACTORY IN EVERY WAY. 



£i 



RIDE THE FISK AND RUN NO RISK." 



FISK RUBBER COMPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Mass. 



BOSTON, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 



SPRINGFIELD, 

40 Dwight St 

SYRACUSE, 

423 So. Clinton St. 



BUFFALO 

28 W. Genesee St. 



BRANCHES ; 

NEW YORK, 

83 Chambers St. 

DETRIOT, 

252 Jefferson Ave. 



*» +♦♦♦♦♦•» 



PHILADELPHIA, 

916 Arch St. 

CHICAGO, 

54 State St. 



WASHINGTON, 

427 10th St., N. W. 



SAN FRANCISCO, 

114 Second St. 



-THE 





fOUNDED| 

»nd/#TOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The Goodman company, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
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New York, October 9, 1902. 

Preaching the Right Doctrine. 

"If good bicycles at less than tlip cost of 
manufacture are what people want, then 
they ought to glorify the bicycle trust." 

This is the sharp and intelligent retort 
which the Hartford (Conn.), Times makes 
to one of the hundreds of unthinking or 
uninformed editorial critics to whom the em- 
barrassment of the American Bicycle Com- 
pany has been a source of peculiar inspira- 
tion. The downfall of a "trust" is not an 
every day affair, and when it occurs pens 
must make the most of it. 

The Hartford Times, however, states the 
case fairly. In addition to the foregoing ex- 
cerpt it says: 

"What is the real source of the financial 
weakness and fa.-ure of the American. Bicy- 
cle Company? Merely this, that every year 
since it started in business, it has benefi- 
cently handed to the American people forty 
or fifty thousand bicycles at less than the 
cost of making them. The managers have 
done this in order to compete with their in- 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

dependent rivals. They have carried over 
from season to season those thousands of 
bicycles and have thrown them on the mar- 
ket at the opening of each season, with the 
result that prices have been broken down 
and it has not been possible for anybody to 
make any money in the bicycle business." 

While the statement "no one has made 
money in the bicycle business" is to be ac- 
cepted as a figure of speech, the broad gen- 
eral assertion is nearly correct, and did The 
Times and other papers care to shed further 
light, and light that is directed ahead, not be- 
hind, they might add that in all human 
probability American people will never again 
be able to purchase bicycles so cheaply. 
Those makers remaining have about learned 
their lesson. They must get more money for 
their goods if they would livej and the de- 
sire to live is still paramount. 



Creating a "Leader." 

Some dealers are so fortunately situated 
that they can swing their trade over to al- 
most any make or type of machine which it 
serves their interests to push. 

This power is not always used in the best 
way. The dealer may be tempted by the low 
price of a certain machine, and give it the 
preference over another much superior, but 
costing him more. If the former is bad the 
dealer's course reacts upon himself, for an un- 
satisfactory wheel means a dissatisfied cus- 
tomer. It is the foolish dealer, therefore, 
who suffers in the end by reason of such a 
policy. 

But many times the power referred to is 
used more wisely. The dealer is sincerely 
desirous of trading in the best goods only, 
and he lays his plans accordingly. 

The policy of selling not only the best 
makes of machines, but the best models of 
these makes as well has often been lauded. 
Its wisdom loses none of its force because it 
is not always adopted, because the dealer 
feels that he has to give his customers what 
they ask for and appear to want, rather than 
to persuade them to take what he knows is 
good for them. 

We have in mind the case of a dealer in a 
good sized town in this State who has dur- 
ing the past season carried the policy re- 
ferred to to a commendable extreme. 

He has made the bulk of his sales of chain- 
less, cushion tired, coaster brake machines. 

He began by persuading a few influential 
customers to try machines of this kind. They 
were pleased with them, and by taking ad- 
vantage of this fact, and keeping to the line 



33 

started upon, he managed to turn all his 
better class of trade in the same direction. 

The result is that in that town and sur- 
rounding- country machines of the sort re- 
ferred to are conspicuous by their presence. 

Go where one will they confront one, and 
utterly without exception their riders are 
perfectly satisfied, and pleased that they 
paid a little more money and got what they 
now admit is the most approved type. 

Such a feat as this is not always possible. 
Customers frequently have wills of their 
own, and are not easily turned from their 
preconceived opinions. But a greater effort 
to start things going in this direction is al- 
most certain to bear some fruit. 



Our Export Trade and Others'. 

During the first six months of this year 
Germany's export cycle trade attained a 
value of $2,450,000 or $625,000 more than the 
same period of last year. 

During the first eight months, England's 
foreign trade in cycles amounted to $2,- 
345,000, an increase of more than $500,000. 

During the same period the United States' 
shipments abroad were valued at $2,627,000, 
an increase of but $112,000. 

While any increase is better than none, our 
gains are unworthy of the nation which once 
led all others by millions— not thousands— of 
dollars. It is belittled also by the fact that 
we are constantly sending bicycles to Eng- 
land and Germany while they are sending 
none to us. We have no foreign competition 
to reckon with. With practically everything 
else in our favor, the situation is little short 
of amazing. It may be' attributed to a dimi- 
nution of aggressiveness on our part, but 
as we once before stated we are of opinion 
that our cash-against-bill-of-lading-policy has 
not a little to do with the case. When rivals 
are able to extend credit it would seem that 
we should prove equal to the emergency. 
The fact could not be made plainer than the 
figures make them. 



Improving Hotor Bicycles. 

The self-propelled bicycle as developed to 
date is past the experimental stage, but to 
state that it is perfect would be doing in- 
justice to the capabilities of the scores of 
inventors and developers who are smoothing 
off the rough edges and making better and 
simpler wherever in their judgment there 
may be a chance for improvement, so we 
may expect refinement from time to time 
just as we experienced in the man-propelled 
bicycle. 

The old ordinary of 1SS0 was a commer- 



3t 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



cial article, but it required nearly twenty 
years to perfect it. While this process of 
refinement is going on, the rider is perhaps 
the most important factor, for he furnishes 
the cash with which to encourage the manu- 
facturer and dealer. He suggests improve- 
ments from actual needs learned by experi- 
ence, and he furthermore encourages others 
to join the ranks. 

Next in importance is the reliability of the 
motive power and its application. We know 
of nothing which will discourage the en- 
thusiast so much as the failure of his motor 
to operate and yield its normal power. This 
subject is most exhaustive and should oc- 
cupy the greatest attention. The builder 
should use every effort to make his power 
reliable, and as far as possible proof against 
derangement, causing temporary loss of 
power. 

While weight is not a material hindrance 
so long as the motor is doing the work, never- 
theless it is important to have the ma- 
chine as light as is consistent with ainple 
strength. Considerable exertion is expended 
in handling a cumbersome motocycle while 
storing away or getting ready to ride. 

Lightness, however, should not be in- 
dulged in at the expense of propelling force. 
It has been the belief quite generally that 
the duty of the motor was to assist in 
climbing grades and pulling against head 
winds. This is a mistaken idea. The motor 
should be capable of doing all the work, the 
assistance should only come from the rider 
in extreme circumstances. 



Handicapping; Motocycles. 

An English maker of motor bicycles has 
been trying to evolve a system of handicap- 
ping these machines and he points to the 
dimensions of the cylinder as the proper basis 
of allotment. 

Mechanically he may be correct, but in ad- 
dition to this is the upsetting fact that two 
leg driven bicycles made of parts from the 
same tools and jigs, and under the same roof 
differ in the "life" they have to an extent 
beyond the fine splitting of straws. Dupli- 
cate bicycles do not of necessity ride with 
equal freedom. They do in mere theory; in 
practice they very often do not. 

This same individuality is also notably 
marked in such every day uses as the loco- 
motive, and that it is particularly marked in 
the motor bicycle where parts are multiplied 
over those of the leg driven bicycle, tenfold 
numerically and a hundredfold in degree of 
delicacy, is not to be wondered at when 
thought is given the matter. 



Two nominally identical motor bicycles 
built by even the same workman and driven 
by the same expert would perform differ- 
ently, and while mechanical dimensions 
may impress one, particularly the technically 
inclined, as the correct basis for figuring out 
starts, they come far from covering the ab- 
solute conditions. 

After all is said and done it seems as if the 
"doing" resolves the matter into the old fash- 
ioned scheme of relying on previous perform- 
ances. It may be argued that performances 
may vary with local conditions of the motor 
at various times. These same conditions, 
however, rise with bicycle racers, and the 
handicapper takes this into consideration one 
way or another. 

After all there are matters of design, such 
as the percentage of compression space, that 
seemingly are overlooked by the advocates 
of bore and stroke handicapping. We have 
in mind two motors, one of which has but 
three-fourths the piston sweep capacity of 
the other, yet it is admitted that the smaller 
motor can drive its bicycle at a speed that 
will run away from the bicycle having the 
motor with a larger bore and stroke. The 
maker of one believes in high compression, 
while the other maker has advocated a lower 
compression. ||| ^ 

The fallacy of dimension handicaps was 
well illustrated in the recent English cup 
handicap races where this system was used. 
A handicap for motor bicycles is for ma- 
chines that do not get more tired in ten miles 
than in five, and if a handicapper has 
evolved an accurate start for five miles his 
correct allotment for ten miles would be ex- 
actly double, provided that each race had a 
flying start at full speed. But the handi- 
capper at the Crystal Palace gave the same 
rider 4 laps 300 yards start in five miles, 
and 14 laps 490 yards start in ten miles; on 
a three lap track, the latter allotment setting 
an ideal, unknown, nonexistent scratch man 
the pleasing task of beating sixty miles an 
hour. 



The editor of The Newark (N Y.), Courier 
should have his head examined. Listen to 
this extract from a half column of the poor 
fellow's ravings: 

"Taken as a whole, the bicycle has proved 
to be the most wicked and silly innova- 
tion that has ever been introduced in this 
or any other country. It has been all along, 
and is still, a mere fad, a phantom, a folly. 
There is no substantial value in the contri- 
vance. It is a mere plaything, and it has 
proved to be shortlived, like playthings gen- 



erally. When it was new princesses and ladies 
of fashion rode the wheel; now it is confined 
to workingmen and boys who ride to and 
from their work. A few girls still own ma- 
chines, but generally they are ashamed to 
ride them and prefer walking. There is noth- 
ing in the world to urge in favor of the 
wheel but its speed — but speed at what a 
fearful cost!" 



The "Notes of a Novice," published last 
week, appear to have struck responsive 
chords in many directions. "The 'Novice's' 
experience was my experience exactly; my 
motor bicycle came to hand minus instruc- 
tions and with about every adjustable part 
wrongly adjusted," is the burden of a num- 
ber of letters that have reached us. With 
the fact standing out so conspicuously that 
the motor bicycle needs careful "nursing" 
the conditions are inexplicable. Any manu- 
facturer who will ship one without knowing 
beyond shadow of doubt that it will run and 
run properly, and that each and every part 
is sound and true and in place, and correctly 
placed, is simply injuring himself and re- 
tarding the day of active demand and real 
profit. 



We know dozens of riders in Europe, as 
well as in America, who, despite the high 
charges they have to pay on account of the 
prohibitive tariffs, find they are absolutely 
compelled to buy an English machine if 
they want one of the very best class and 
most durable quality. — The Cyclist. 

Give us the names of even a single dozen 
of such American riders, and we will under- 
take to prove that they are not Americans 
at all, but merely Englishmen who are mak- 
ing better livings here than they could make 
at home. Their hides may appear Ameri- 
can; their hearts are English. 



The illustration of J. B. Dunlop and his 
motor bicycle and the personal experiences 
detailed by J. B. Coons, both of which appear 
elsewhere in this number, prove anew not 
only that there are some men whom age 
cannot wither, but indicate how the motor 
bicycle is enabling some of the old 'uns to 
almost renew their youth. Mr. Dunlop is 
sixty-two. Mr. Coons's age may be guessed 
by his almost touching remark: "The motor 
came just in time; my days for riding the 
foot propelled bicycle were about over," 
which in its way is as eloquent a tribute to 
the motor bicycle as has yet been paid. 



The changeable gear is coming. The fact 
is becoming clearer each day. Makers may 
postpone it; they cannot well stay it. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 35 



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NOW IS THE TIME TO RENEW OUR AGENCY. 
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ADVANCE SPECIFICATIONS READY. 



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36 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Grinding vs. Lapping. 

A writer to an engineering contemporary 
in commenting on a process for trueing bot- 
tom bracket spindles after hardening, says: 

"Whilst glancing through a recent trade 
catalogue I came p cross the following para- 
graph : 

" 'The axles are hardened and tempered by 
a process which has been evolved by the ex- 
perts of the company, and which insures a 
perfectly hard surface for the balls, while 
the other portion retains its natural elas- 
ticity. Moreover, the tendency to warp is 
reduced to a minimum, so that it is possible 
to finish the bearings by a lapping process 
which, while it renders the surface per- 
fectly true, does not remove the hard sur- 
face, as in the case of the usual method of 
grinding with an emery wheel. 

" 'The method of lapping is more usually 
associated with the practice of the tool room 
than with the ordinary repetition produc- 
tion.' 

"Now, with all due respect to the firm's 
method of finishing hardened spindles, I beg 
leave to say a few words on the above sub- 
ject: 

"In the first place, I don't see how it is 
possible, by lapping, to true a spindle which 
has warped in hardening, even if the amount 
be ever so small. 

"It is, of course, a method commonly used 
to produce perfectly round work; but even 
in this connection, if the work be only a few 
thousandths out of shape, it is preferable to 



grind it, and if a polished surface is re- 
quired then resort to the lap; but for most 
work the surface left by the emery wheel. 
properly used, is good enough. 

"As to grinding taking off a large quan- 
tity of material, it is quite an ordinary thing 
to remove on a decent grinder, 1-10000 of an 
Inch. In my opinion, it is rather a poor 
sample of hardening that does not reach a 
depth of 1-16 in., and ordinary case harden- 
ing properly done will stand the surface 
grinding. 

"In tool room practice hardened circular 
work, such as standard gauges, are usually 
ground to within .0005 in., and then copper 
lapped to size, but most certainly not lapped 
to rectify any warping due to hardening. 

"I cannot make out whether the firm 
harden the bearing portions of their spin- 
dles, and leave centres and ends soft, or 
harden the whole surface, and leave the 
cores soft; but in either case I think, all 
points considered, that grinding is the pref- 
erable method of finishing such work." 



From Hand Pump to Foot Pump. 

What appears an unusually useful device 
has made its appearance on the English 
market — a small stirrup or base which may 
be clamped on a hand pump and thus con- 
vert it into a foot pump. It is designed 
more particularly for use in inflating the 
larger tires used on motor bicycles, and as 
it is of a size and shape that may be carried 
in the tool bag or pocket, it is a roadside 
convenience that should meet with appre- 
ciation. 



Waterproof Blueprints. 

Those who have experienced the annoy- 
ance of having blueprints discolored and 
blurred by rain and moisture will appre- 
ciate a simple and inexpensive method of 
waterproofing the prints which renders them 
completely impervious to weather and water. 
The waterproofing medium is refined par- 
affine, and may be applied by immersing the 
print in the melted wax or more conven- 
iently as follows: Immerse in melted par- 
affine until saturated a number of pieces of 
an absorbent cloth a foot or more -quare, 
and when withdrawn and cooled they are 
ready for use at any time. 

To apply to a blueprint, spread one of the 
saturated cloths on a smooth surface, place 
the dry print on it with a second waxed 
cloth on top, and iron with a moderately 
hot flatiron. The paper immediately ab- 
sorbs paraffine until saturated and becomes 
translucent and highly waterproofed. The 
lines of the print are intensified by the proc- 
ess, and there is no shrinking or distortion. 
As the wax is withdrawn from the cloths, 
more can be added by melting small pieces 
directly under the hot iron. 

By immersing the print in a bath of melted 
paraffine the process is hastened, but the iron- 
ing is necessary to remove the surplus wax 
from the surface, unless the paper is to be 
directly exposed to the weather and not to 
be handled. The irons can be heated in most 
offices by gas or over a lamp, and a supply 
of saturated cloths obviates the necessity of 
the bath. 



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THE BICYCLING WORLD 



37 



BONESHAKER TO MOTOCYCLE 



And This Rare Old Timer Vows Motocycling 
Best of ail— His flany Trials. 



Editor of The Bicycling World. 

The "Notes of a Novice" in your issue of 
October 2 struck me so forcibly and recalled 
so many of my own experiences that I feel 
privileged to relate a few, despite the fact 
that I have passed from the novice stage to 
that of entire confidence in my motocycle. 
With gasolene, good batteries and cylinder 
oil, I feel entirely at ease, knowing that if 
roads are passable I am sure of a glorious 
ride with but little or no exertion. 

I am an old rider of the bicycle, going back 
to the old velocipede, one of which I built 
and rode, as far back as 1867, and I haven't 
missed much in wheels since that time. I 
still retain the old wheel of 1895, as that has 
all the improvements that a foot power bi- 
cycle has at present, including changeable 
gear. The cyclometer points high toward 
9,000 miles, and but for the motor bicycle it 
probably would have long since passed that 
mark; and yet the motor came just in time; 
my days for riding a foot-propelled machine 
were about over. But oh! the pleasure I get 
out of the motor-propelled bicycle. It far 
surpasses the pleasures afforded by the other 
bicycles. I can make a run anywhere from 
40 to 90 miles and feel entirely fresh, nor am 
I soaked with perspiration. But I am alone 
as yet; there are no other motocycles here, 
but it will all be changed in the near fu- 
ture—of that I am confident. And now for 
my experiences: 

My bicycle came to hand, crated, and with 
a few brief instructions, and those few not 
comprehensible to me, as you soon will see. 
I set it up, ready to start, had it jacked up, 
mounted, commenced to pedal, turned on 
compression tap, twisted grip and— bang! a 
jerk backward and a dead standstill. I 
looked over the instructions. They said to 
start the machine the speeding lever should 
be drawn as far back as it would go and 
then push forward until sufficient speed 
was attained. I had done that already. I 
mounted again, tried the same operation, 
with the same result. It never occurred to 
me to reverse the procedure and push the 
lever forward as far as it would go, but I 
kept trying, and the machine kept kicking 
backward. After an hour or two I finally 
gave it up. But the thing was on my mind 
and I thought it all out carefully. Finally 
I took out the plug, opened the gear case so 
I could get the exact position of cylinder 
head, and found, by turning it over a few 
times, that the contact breaker formed the 
spark too soon, the charge being ignited be- 
fore it had reached the top and been fully 
compressed. I studied it out, reversed the 
lever, and that made things right. A few 
days later I tried it again, got two or three 
explosions, and it started in right direc- 



tion and then it quit. I kept that test up at 
times for a week, when I came to the con- 
clusion that my battery was exhausted, as I 
had found it all turned on. Some busybody 
had looked it over and left it in circuit, as 
there was no plug. My instructions said 
take out screw in left grip when not in use. 
I had taken out the screw, but had not re- 
moved the grip as I was not instructed to 
do that; I learned later it was not the screw 
that formed the circuit. I ordered a new 
battery, one with a switch, but not until I 
had looked up all the ability I could find in 
the place, but that was very little; no one 
knew any more than I did. By the time the 
new battery was installed I had had the 
machine more than two months, and had 
not been able to operate it. This time, how- 
ever, off it went like a house afire. I 
mounted, pedalled it off the sidewalk, turned 
on the power as I crossed the gutter, and 
it shot off like a rocket— so fast I had great 



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difficulty in controlling it. I was a little 
frightened. I put on brake, but it was of 
small use. Soon there was a terrible thump- 
ing of the motor and I stopped. The pin 
that held the sprocket key in the motor 
shaft had dropped out, and motor was run- 
ning loose. As it is a chain-driven machine, 
I pedalled back. This, my first ride, was 
just one mile, half out and half back, by 
cyclometer, as I use cyclometer and grado- 
meter. But I was proud, even of so short a 
run, . 

A few days later I made another start, 
but it ran too fast to suit me, even with 
the lever pushed as far forward as it could 
go; but as I could not slacken speed I let it 
run until finally it stopped of its own accord, 
and I could not make it take hold, as the 
spark was lost. I pedalled in, four miles, 
traced spark as far as coil; could not find it 
farther, so supposed coil had broken down. 
Called on all the town's ability in electricity, 
but to no purpose. I sent the coil to maker 
and they reported it all right. Ultimately 
I found nothing more serious than dirt on 
platinum points of trembler and screw. I 



ran a fine sandpaper between them and all 
was right. The speed, however, was still 
too great for safety, so I again looked the 
machine over, and finding three impressions 
in cam shaft I pushed back the cam one 
notch, and lo! the speed was under control. 
Off I went, but the ground was frozen so 
hard and rough as to be scarcely ridable; 
but I kept going. At good speed I went, up 
hill and down, for 12 miles, when the motor 
suddenly quit dead. I had to pedal back to 
discover the trouble at the battery; one cord 
was severed at zinc pole. I soldered it back, 
and the same battery has run 800 miles and 
is good yet, after going weak on 40 or 50 
miles, being laid aside for a while. 

You see, up to this time, on each trip I 
had to pedal in. My next trip was to be a 
40-mile run. About half a mile out my inlet 
valve top broke off at the key. I had some 
spring wire with me and fastened it to frame 
so as to give it sufficient pull, and off I went 
for eight miles, then came hit and miss, 
jerking and almost stopping at times. I be- 
gan to look for the trouble and turned back. 
The motor kept working badly until a mile 
from home, when at the foot of a bad hill it 
refused to go altogether. I found the clamp 
that held the compression tap had worked 
forward and held tap open a trifle, and I 
• was laying the blame to the broken inlet 
valve. This time I had nearly ridden home 
without pedalling. 

The next trip was over the same road. I 
got to foot of the long hill and again the 
machine quit. Seeing gasolene run out of 
cold air vent, I soon found that the carburet- 
ter float had caught fast and flooded the en- 
gine. I fixed this, and up the hill I went in 
great shape, until the motor began wheezing 
like a broken-winded horse. I found the 
packing around the porcelain plug had 
blown out. I had no asbestos with me, so 
used cord instead and started. Went two 
miles to a stove shop and there obtained 
asbestos and repaired the plug, but finding 
the porcelain cracked in quarters, I started 
for home, but it ran so well I continued, and 
made a 50-mile run with the- split plug. 

From that time on my troubles have been 
trifling, excepting once crossing the Cats- 
kills, going down some rocky steps in road 
my front fork gave way at crown. The 
power was off, but I rolled over several 
times in the road and left the machine until 
the fork was repaired, coming home by train. 
I have fitted up a clutch and now throw 
motor out of gear when coasting or pedal- 
ling, and find this a great improvement, as 
I can coast much farther and pedal much 
easier over bad places. 

As to mixtures, I have to change my valve 
often. I can tell by the sound of my motor 
just what it wants — oil, air or gasolene. I 
no longer find it necessary to use a jack be- 
fore starting. 

A motor bicycle is certainly a glorious 
creation, but one must be familiar with his 
machine. I did not find it hard to learn, 
but one must have patience. 

J. B. COONS, 

Kingston, N. Y. 



38 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



KBLECOM CHARACTERISTICS 



The Features Tnat Distinguish the Famous 
Belgian Motor and Bicycle. 



While the Kelcom motor bicycle, -which 
made such an excellent showing on the oc- 
casion of its debut in this country in the 
handicap road race in Brooklyn on Labor 
Day, was imported complete by A. N. 
Funke, Duane street, New York, it was only 
so imported to demonstrate the qualities of 
the Kelecom motors. These motors are 
being marketed In this country by Mr. 
Funke for those who desire to build motor 
bicycles, but who prefer to use a motor of 
known reputation rather than enter the ex- 
pensive preparation of building their own 
motors. 

The illustration shows the general arrange- 
ment of the parts, those in the sample ma- 
chine being placed somewhat different in 



ment for filing the cup. The top of the 
plunger is of an inverted cup shape, giving a 
broad top surface for the hand in manipu- 
lating. By removing a top cap the plunger 
becomes a funnel for filling. 

The coil and carburetter are placed under 
the tank in the bay of the front diamond. 
The muffler is inconspicuously placed di- 
rectly under the motor and rear forks. The 
rear pulley is of wood and notched on its 
inner face to hood in each spoke, overr 
which is placed a small brass plate secur- 
ing the run in position. 

Not shown in the illustration is a lever 
belt tightener. This is pivoted on one of 
the forward bolts of the crank case. For- 
ward of the pivot the lever is straight and 
runs to a notched rack placed diagonally 
alongside the forward section of the large 
tank. The rear section is curved down and 
back, the extreme end being forked for the 
idler roller. 

In the matter of control and general run- 
ning there are the following details: The 



struction, and one that will undoubtedly 
come into general use as the motor bicycle 
advances, is that the cylinder proper and the 
combustion head, together with the valve 
houses, are cast in one piece, thereby doing 
away with the joint at this point, an item 
of construction which was long ago advo- 
cated, and its advantages detailed in the 
Bicycling World. It is an item of detail in 
this construction that with the Kelecom the 
top of the head is flat and the ribs run fore 
and aft to direct the passage of the cool- 
ing air. 

Racing. 

Hugh and Alec MacLean, the well known 
pace followers, left for Australia, October 
7. They will join Beauchamp and "Bill" Mar- 
tin at 'Frisco, anu with them will compete in 
all the big Australian events. 




minor details only. In the frame construc- 
tion the tubes running back from the crank- 
hanger are larger than on the ordinary bi- 
cycle, extending to the point of meeting the 
mud gear. About midway between these 
two points is a cress bridge from which ex- 
tend the rear forks to the rear wheel axle. 
The rear steps are, of course, correspond- 
ingly extended. Connecting the two and 
running in an approximate line with the tire 
are bracing tubes. 

The motor is made with a half lug cast 
with the base, the other half being free. 
These two halfs are bolted together and 
surround the seat post tube. The motor 
rests on the double rear forks, and is held 
from any side movement tendency by a lug- 
clamping around one tube and bolting to the 
crank base by means of an ear. 

A combination tank is used, gasolene oc- 
cupying the front two-thirds and the bat- 
tery the rear section. The lubricating sup- 
ply is carried in a elongated glass cup at the 
right of the head. The feed is made by 
pushing down a plunger, a feed tube run- 
ning from the bottom to the crank case. 
With this plunger is an ingenious arrange- 



gasolene feed is controlled by a needle 
valve, the upper end of which extends 
through the top of the tank and has a 
milled edge flat head. On the top frame 
tube are three controlling handles — one for 
the pet cock, one for the mixer and the third 
fof the spark advance. The rear wheel is 
free, the braking being done on the front 
wheel with a rim brake controlled by a lever 
on the handlebar. The sparking current is 
controlled with the left grip and the cut out 
plug is placed in the usual pinch plates on a 
rear insulated block fixed to the rear of the 
handlebar T, a convenient position for quick 
removal if needed. 

The motor itself, of course, works on the 
well known four cycle principle, with the 
two to one gear and spark cam on one side, 
the pulley on the other and the flywheels 
enclosed. In the joining of the cylinder and 
crank case there is a radical departure, the 
cylinder screwing into a ring projecting up- 
ward from the two-part crank case. This 
does away with the need of bolts to bind the 
two together and gives a long contact sur- 
face to prevent the escape of oil. 

A most notable feature in the cylinder con- 



Motor troubles robbed the meet at Savan- 
nah, October 7, of much interest. It was 
notable only because Walthour easily de- 
feated two men in two separate ten-mile 
races. He took Nelson's measure in 14:39 
and Jay Eaton's in 14:48. 



Walthour disposed of "Joe" nelson in two 
straight heats of a five mile paced race at 
Savannah, Oct. 3. In the first heat Nelson 
was beaten by two and a half laps in 6m. 
57 3-5s., and in the second by about two laps 
in 6m. 54 4-5s., which is claimed to be the 
fastest five miles ever ridden in competition. 

The motor bicycle and the running horse 
met at Baltimore on Oct. 3, and the horse 
won. Robert French rode the bicycle, but 
was able to win but one of the three half 
mile heats, which constituted the race. The 
horse, Rosebud by name, took the first and 
third heats in 55s. and 56s., respectively, and 
French the second in 53s. The track was in 
poor shape. 



Zimmerman's reappearance in Paris drew 
a good crowd, including many cycling nota- 
bles, and he was accorded a warm reception. 
He gave two exhibitions behind pace, cov- 
ering one mile in 1:44 3-5 and five kilometers 
in 5:30. In the former he suffered a nasty 
spill and was considerably bruised. At a 
subsequent meeting he doubled up with 
Eddie Bald and they were beaten in two 
straight heats of a tandem race with Jacque- 
lin and mate. 



The nania for High Powers. 

A French automobile publication in an ar- 
ticle on the increasing mania of constructing 
heavy racing cars and high powered motor 
bicycles, calls attention to the fact that sport 
is not the only issue before the two indus- 
tries, and that sport lovers will soon be satis- 
fied. It further scores in saying that nobody 
needs a 100-horse power car going 60 miles 
an hour for any ordinary or useful purpose, 
and that settles the madness of constructors 
who find everything in cars of the kinds and 
motor bicycles on similar overpowered lines. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



°>9 



INDUCTION COILS 



Principles of Construction and Action of 
Primany and Secondary Wiring Explained. 



Fortunately for the users of motor bicycles, 
the best makes of coils give very little 
trouble with anything like proper usage, but 
if a coil does go wrong, it is a delicate job 
to attempt a repair, and should not be at- 
tempted in the absence of a thorough knowl- 
edge of coil construction. While it is the 
purpose to here convey a general knowledge 
of coils, there is no intent to enter into de- 
tails and specifications for their construc- 
tion, this being a job outside the capabili- 
ties of the average amateur, unless he has 
had previous experience of the fine points 
involved. 

An induction coil is really a transformer, 
i. e., the electric energy given off by the 
battery (which is a low tension current with 
little power to overcome resistance) may be 
transformed to a high tension current of 
practically any strength or power to over- 
come resistance, but always at the loss of 
quantity, the ratio between the tension of 
the primary current and the induced cur- 
rent being controlled by the relative propor- 
tions in length and thickness, or diameter 
of the primary and secondary windings. 
Thus if the primary of the coil consisted of 
but two layers of very thick wire, and the 
amount of current supplied by the battery 
was sufficient to flood this wire, or, if the 
current supplied was up to the full carrying 
capacity of the wire— then if the secondary 
consisted of a very large number of layers 
of very fine wire, the E. M. F. at the sec- 
ondary terminals would be high enough to 
jump across a considerable air space, and 
coils have been built from which, under 
special conditions, a spark a foot long was 
obtainable. 

But with coils of such power, the most 
extraordinary care is required to maintain 
the insulation between the various layers of 
the secondary winding, which are in great 
danger of being burned. 

A characteristic of all coils is that where 
the secondary winding is of fine wire of 
great length, the spark is proportionally 
long and fine, or thin, and where the second 
winding of the coil is comparatively thick 
and short, the spark will be thick and short. 

Now, for the purpose of firing the charge 
in a gas engine, there is not required a 
spark a foot long, but there is required a 
thick spark, because the thick flaming spark 
is a more certain igniter than the long thin 
wiry looking spark. As a matter of fact, 
the spark cannot be too short, provided it be 
a well defined spark, but for mechanical 
reasons it is necessary that the sparking- 
plug terminals be separated an appreciable 
distance, as vibration or working loose of 
one or other of the terminals might bring 



the points into contact, when, of course, no 
spark would occur, because there would be 
no resistance to the path of the current. 

It would not be wise, however, to depend 
on a coil whose maximum spark producing 
power was equal onry to covering the air 
gap at the usual working distance apart of 
the points, for the same conditions which 
might cause the points to come in contact 
might set them further apart. So that in 
designing a coil for this particular purpose, 
a happy medium must be struck which 
shall, from a given battery current, produce 
the thickest possible spark with the neces- 
sary margin of safety in the matter of spark 
length to cover faulty adjustment or acci- 
dental disturbance of the sparking plug 
points. 

To understand the action of induction coils 
generally it is necessary to grasp the mean- 
ing of the word induction, or rather the 
principle of induction, as applied to elec- 

International Signal Code. 

At the recent convention of the Interna- 
tional League of Touring Associations held 
in Geneva, Switzerland— at which America 
was not, of course, represented — the design 
for universal warning posts was adopted; 
the arrow was made the basis of all signals, 
the direction or inclination of it serving to 
indicate the manner of warning conveyed. 
The following are the designs chosen: 



«* 



c 



RIDE WITH ATTENTION 



DANGER - DISMOUNT 



CAUTION- DANGEROUS CORNER 
CAUTION OBSTRUCTION 



trical matters. If a coiled wire carrying an 
electric current be brought near to another 
coil of wire, though not in contact with it, 
then a current will be induced in the second 
coil, and if the ends of the second coil be 
brought together, a momentarily induced 
current will pass through its coils at the in- 
stant that the contact is made or broken in 
the first circuit. 

The terms first and second coil have led 
to styling the first coil the primary and the 
second coil the secondary, and in like man- 
ner the current flowing through the primary 
coil is styled the primary current, while the 
current set up in the second coil is termed 
the secondary or induced current. 

As before explained, the E. M. F. (electro 
motive force) produced in the secondary coil 
by the action of the primary is in proportion 
to the current passing through the primary, 
and to the relative number of turns of wire 
in primary and secondary. Consequently, if 
the number of turns of wire and the area of 
such wires were equal in the two coils, the 
induced current would be about equal in 
E. M. F. to the primary current, subject to 
small variations due to self induction and 
other causes. 

Self induction means that the inductive 



action explained as existing between neigh- 
boring separate coils is also at work be- 
tween the various layers of both coils, thus, 
whether the current flowing through a coil 
of wire be a primary or induced current, the 
current flowing through the inner or first 
layer of wire will set up a small induced 
current in the adjoining or second layer, 
and this current will be added to the orig- 
inal current coming through layer No. 2, 
which in turn will have a more powerful in- 
ductive effect on layer No. 3, and so on, 
each layer assisting in building up the 
E. M. F. given at coil terminals. 

So that if the primary coil is taken alone, 
and supposing it to consist of several layers 
of wire, insulated from each other, then the 
E.M.F. at the terminals of- such coil will be 
considerably higher than the original bat- 
tery current supplying energy to the coil. 

If the two coils are gradually drawn a 
greater distance apart, the inductive effect 
will be proportionately weakened, until at a 
certain distance the effect ceases altogether. 
On the other hand, the nearer the coils are 
brought to each other, without, however, 
making metallic contact, then the more pow- 
erful the inductive effort. The natural in- 
ference is that the whole of the layers of 
the secondary coil should be as near to the 
primary as possible, and that the individual 
layers of each coil should be as close to- 
gether as possible. 

If, in addition, it is remembered that the 
object is to get the greatest number of lay- 
ers or length of wire in the smallest space, 
it is seen that the reel formation best fulfils 
the conditions, and that the insulating ma- 
terial between the various layers should be 
as thin as possible, consistent with perfect 
prevention of leakage of current between 
primary and secondary coils, and between 
the individual layers of each coil, the weak- 
est part, of course, being the outer layers 
of the secondary coil, for it is here that the 
E.M.F. is highest, and at the same time the 
consideration of distance from the centre 
or primary demands the thinnest possible 
insulation. 

The exact proportion between length and 
diameter of a coil will be dependent on the 
amount and size of wire and the purpose for 
which the coil is to be used, as in a short 
coil of great proportionate diameter the out- 
er layers will be further removed from the 
primary and the initial inductive effect will 
be less than in the case of a similar length of 
wire wound on a longer lobbin. On the other 
hand, the self induction of both primary and 
secondary will be greater in the short coil. 



Helps and Hindrances. 

Everything that the business man does is 
an advertisement, either helping or hinder- 
ing his business; just which it is is generally 
decided by the voiced opinions of those who 
observe the action; it may not hinder much, 
it may not help much, but in the long run 
these tiny, insidious advertisements tell, 
one way or the other. 



40 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



TESTING THE LATHE 



How Advantage can be Taken of the Dull 
Months to Come. 



With small shops, such as is usually con- 
nected with a dealer's store, it is too often 
the case that the lathe does not receive the 
attentive care that so meritorious and con- 
venient a machine tool should. The machine 
has probably been used for a great many 
jobs that in a large establishment would 
have been carried out on such machine tools 
as the drill press and milling machine. Be- 
cause of the necessary conditions it is fair 
to state that the lathe has not only been 
pretty well worked, but that at times it has 
been abused. Now that the slow season is 
approaching time should be given to over- 
looking the machine, and one of the probable 
conditions to be found is that it is out of 
alignment. 

The first thing to make sure of is that the 
fast headstock spindle is true to the bed and 
in line with the tailstock spindle, and a 
simple manner of doing this is to bring up 
the tailstock and test the meeting of the 
center points. If the points meet, so far so 
good, but this does not prove that the back 
end of the headstock spindle occupies the 
same position in relation to the bed. 

To find this out, take a steel rod, say, five- 
eighths of an inch in diameter and 20 inches 
in length, center carefully and turn up about 
one inch true at one end. Reverse the rod, 
and square up its end, then grip the turned 
end in a self centering chuck, withdrawing 
the support of the back center, and note 
whether the center dot coincides with the 
back center point. If it does there is nothing 
much the matter with the alignment of the 
headstock spindle. 

It will frequently happen though that the 
rod end will not run true owing to some er- 
ror in the chuck jaws, in which case a fresh 
position in the chuck may be tried until 
the unsupported end of the rod runs fairly 
true, then its end face should be chalked and 
a small circle scribed. The true center of 
the rod will be the center of this circle and is 
where the back center should strike when 
brought up to it. But suppose the center 
point to come above, below, or to one side 
of the center of the scribed circle; it proves 
the headstock spindle correspondingly out of 
line in a minor degree, because the error 
has been magnified by extending the length 
of the spindle. 

If the variation is above or below the rod 
center the fault is difficult of correction, for 
it means refitting the base of the headstock 
to the bed, but if the error be sideway most 
headstocks nowadays have an adjusting 
screw working between the lathe shears by 
which in conjunction with the test described 
the heads may be set exactly in line. 

The test might be repeated with rods of 
different lengths, according to the length of 



the bed, and if variations be found at differ- 
ent positions it proves either that the lathe 
bed is not straight or that the loose head- 
stock does not fit equally well at every por- 
tion of the bed. 

Having put the fast and loose headstocks 
in line to the extent possible under this test, 
the next move will be to test the cross slide 
of slide rest for being at right angles to the 
lathe bed. To do this turn up a large face 
plate, letting the tool run self-acting from 
outside to center of face plate, then try right 
across face plate with a good straightedge, 
when any error will be shown by the plate 
being rounded or hollow at the center, the 
actual error here being again magnified ac- 
cording to the size of the face plate. 

Now, to prove the truth of the holes carry- 
ing the lathe centers, the fast headstock 
center is often marked so that it may oc- 
cupy the same position, but it is obvious 
that if both center and hole were true there 
would be no need for this. 

Have two castings or forgings made like 
a pair of lathe centers, with disc ends about 
three inches in diameter. Turn up these be- 
tween centers, particular care being taken 
to get the taper correct, then turn up the 
faces and also edges of these discs so that 
they fit well face to face, and are exactly the 
same diameter. Supposing this job to have 
been properly done and the tapers a good 
fit, then there can be made some very deli- 
cate tests, as it will be seen that when these 
disc-ended centers are in position and 
brought together, the slightest variation will 
be noticeable, either in the meeting of the 
two faces or the coincidence of the edges, 
and by their use there can be determined not 
only the truth of the taper holes, but the ex- 
act coincidence of the center points and the 
parallelism of the back headstock barrel. 

First place the discs in haphazard position, 
bring up the tailstock and note whether they 
exactly meet, touching all over the faces 
and showing no deviation at the edges. If 
this should prove to be the case it will ap- 
pear that all the points involved had been 
tested and ground true, but this would not 
necessarily be, as one error might be cor- 
rected by another. 

To deteremine this a still finer test can be 
made by turning one of the discs round to 
the opposite diameter, having first marked 
the first position, when if the discs still meet 
correctly there is nothing wrong with that 
taper hole, when the remaining disc may be 
treated likewise, and quarter position also 
tried. But it must be remembered that these 
are excessive tests and nothing but the high- 
est class tools would come out of them with 
absolute accuracy. 

There have been shown, however, the chief 
points and the line to be taken to enable the 
intelligent mechanic to devise for himself 
other testing devices. 



TYPES THAT PREVAIL 



Divided Into Three Classes the Carburetter 
has flany Given Names. 



Abroad carburetters on motor bicycles in- 
clude three classes of apparatus adapted for 
producing from hydrocarbon oil an explosive 
mixture suitable for the propulsion of ex- 
plosive engines. Broadly, they include what 
ordinarily are known as carburetters and 
vaporisers. 

The three classes are the surface, wick, 
and spraying carburetters. In t he first 
class, which was employed on the old De 
Dion motors and on machines like the Wolf- 
muller bicycle, the air was saturated with 
the gasolene vapor by simple surface con- 
tact. In some cases the efficiency was in- 
creased by splashing up the liquid by means 
of a revolving fan. 

In wick carburetters the principle is simi- 
lar, but the gasolene ascends the wick by 
capillary attraction; relatively a very large 
surface of the liquid is brought into contact 
with the air to be carburetted and the effi- 
ciency is directly increased. 

Spraying carburetters depend upon the 
principle of injecting or spraying the oil 
into the intake passage through which the 
air rushes into the motor cylinder whilst the 
piston is making its suction stroke. The 
finely divided spray together with the vapor 
enters the combustion chamber, where the 
spray is converted to vapor by the heat of 
the cylinder walls and by the heat produced 
by compression of the charge. 

In this country the latter class is almost 
exclusively used, but there is not a general 
agreement as to the exact terminology. 
Whether they shall be called crburetters or 
just plain mixers is more or less in dispute. 
Some hold that each name represents a dif- 
ferent type, while others contend that by 
either name they work as well. 

Why any one type should arrogate to itself 
the name carburetter to the exclusion of the 
other types is somewhat difficult to deter- 
mine. They all are designed as apparatus 
used to charge air with volatilized carbons. 
To be strictly correct vaporizers are hot car- 
buretters, and were first used only for 
heavier oils than gasolene. 



"Defects (in motocycles) and How to Rem- 
edy Them." See "Motocycles and How to 
Manage Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 
(349, New York. *** 



The Color of Mica. 

Coloration in mica is a defect, but only for 
certain uses, such as for stove glazing, and, 
in ground mica, for decorative purposes. 
The color may be anything from black, 
dark green or wine color to yellow and pure 
white, or, rather, colorless; the former kinds 
are useful principally for electric and the 
latter for glazing purposes. The color is de- 
pendent on the composition, and both to- 
gether are the main guides to the value of 
the mica, says the Engineering Magazine, 
independently of other defects, which may 
include specks, ruling, ribbon and wedge 
formation. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



41 



DON'T YOU WORRY 




"About any connection between my pedals and the patent troubles 
aired in circular letters now being plentifully distributed. 

Concerning this attempt to intimidate conservative and cautious 
buyers, permit me to say that my plant and facilities are 
pioneers in the pedal producing business, and have weathered 
successfully every storm of contention on lines similar to this. 
Backed up by expert opinion, and careful research, in the use of 
my pedals I promise you will in no wise be inconvenienced, 
affected or disturbed. I will fully protect and defend you. " 




GENESEE. 



KE1M. 



ALSO 



WITH 



Hubs, Handle Bars, 

ONE AND TWO PIECE HANGERS, 

SEAT POSTS-GENERAL BICYCLE HARDWARE, 

FRAME SETS AND BUILT FRAMES, 

ADULT— JUVENILE— RIGID— SPRING. 



JOHN R. KEIM, Buffalo, N. Y., U.S.A. 



42 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



HANDLE-BAR MANUFACTURE 



Some of the Interesting Processes Employ- 
ed or That may be Employed. 



Now that handlebars can he bought bent 
to every conceivable shape or curve, the 
needs for bending methods have been re- 
duced to an occasional special job, frequent- 
ly outside of bicycle equipment. There are, 
of course, many ideas relative to doing the 
work, particularly in the material used for 
loading the tube. Of the mauy substances 
used, rosin and a clean, dry and fine sand 
stand at the head in the estimate of most, 
with the latter taking the lead. The trouble 
with rosin is that it is apt to develope bad 
pockets, not running free when melted, 
thereby causing unsightly kinks. It is also 
more dangerous from possible spurting 
through the vents, and at best could only be 
used cold. 

While handlebar work is seldon done and 
outside jobs are not of frequent occurrence, 
the motor bicycle will probably offer oppor- 
tunities calling for tube bending work.. As 
stated, the material that gives the best all 
round satisfaction is a fine sand, which 
should be clean and free from loam. AVhile 
there are other methods, that detailed here 
is one of the simplest, entailing no great 
waste of time or material, and when prop- 
erly carried out is a thoroughly effective and 
satisfactory method. 

The tube to be bent should be of the very 
best material, and not too thin in gauge. It 
should be cut off into a length about S 
inches longer than the finished bar requires, 
the extra 4 inches at each end being for 
purposes of manipulation, and saving their 
own cost in material bv reason of the de- 
creased care of handling. The length of the 
tube to be bent should be heated to a dull 
red in the blowpipe and allowed to cool 
slowly, this has the effect of annealing the 
metal and preventing it kinking. This an- 
nealing process can be more effectually car- 
ried out if the tube is heated dull red while 
a rod of iron or metal is inside it, the slow 
cooling of the solid rod ensuring the slower 
cooling of the outside tube. 

It is well to force a roll or pad of coarse 
emery cloth through the inside of the tube 
to remove any scale which may have 
formed. Scale is one of the greatest causes 
of kinking in bending steel tubes. The 
ends of the tubes should be fitted with solid 
steel plugs about -4 inches long and with a 
very slow taper. These plugs should lit 
tightly, and each plug should have a groove 
filed along it to allow the escape of any 
steam or gases which may be generated dur- 
ing the neating process. This groove need 
barely be one-eighth of an inch deep, and 
may well be cut with a three-corner hie. 

The packing sand should be carefully 
sifted through a very fine mesh seive. Any 
lumps may cause kinking on the inside of 



the bend. The sand should be dried per- 
fectly dry, so that there is not a particle of 
moisture in it. This can very well be done 
by spreading it out on a disused tray or 
other flat receptacle and letting it lay on 
the brazing hearth, leaving it over the red- 
hot coke after any brazing has been done. 

It should be kept in a tin can along with a 
tin scoop and a tin funnel, for purposes of 
filling the tubes. The can should have a 
good fitting lid and should be kept in a dry 
place as the sand will absorb moisture if 
any be about. 

It is very dangerous to heat sand packed 
tubes with tigh.tly fitting plugs if there is 
any moisture in the sand. This fact should 
be carefully remembered, otherwise a very 
serious accident may result, often causing 
loss of sight, or very great damage to the 
eyes of the operator, or any one who may be 
at hand when the explosion takes place. 

In filling the tube one plug must be tightly 
driven in and the tube held vertically. The 
sand may now be poured in through the 
funnel by means of the tin scoop. After 
about three inches of the tube has been 
filled with sand it should be rammed down 
as tightly as possible. The ramming can 
best be done with a length of round Besse- 
mer rod of a diameter just under the dia- 
meter of the inside of the tube. This rod 
should be about three feet long, and should 
be jumped up and down in the tube much in 
the same manner as a ramrod is jumped in 
the muzzle of a muzzle-loading gun. This 
operation of ramming down the sand is a 
most important one, and should be very 
thoroughly carried out, the ramming being 
repeated for each three inches of the tube 
filled with sand. 

When the tube is nearly filled the top plug 
should be tried, and if this comes in contact 
with the sand at about the same time as it 
becomes a fit in the tube, it may be driven 
home by heavy blows of the hammer, thus 
effectually closing up the tube and giving 
the final compression to the sand. 

The operation of bending may now be pro- 
ceeded with. This is an operation ditficult 
to teach on paper. It can only be performed 
after experience, but if careful note is taken 
of the conditions of the tube during bending, 
the workman will soon be able to regulate 
his hsat and manipulation in the right direc- 
tion. 

A board is provided preferably covered 
with sheet iron. On this board are scribed 
a horizontal and a vertical line dividing 
the board into four equal parts and crossing 
in the middle. If the tube to be bent is to 
have a double and equal curve it should 
have a chalk mark made around its center. 
A pair if half round clamps should now be 
ready in the vice and the board at a handy 
distance for it and as near the brazing 
hearth as convenient. 

Now heat the tube about 4 inches from the 
center mark and for a distance of about 5 
inches along toward one end. Keep turning 
it round in the fire and regulating the flame 
of the blowpipe so as to get an even heat all 
round it. When it is a good light red color 



take it out holding it by the end furthest 
away from the hot end and putting the end 
of the tube in the vice clamps pull it gently 
and deliberately round to about the curve 
desired. 

As soon as scale appears and flakes off 
on the inside of the curve scrape it off with 
an old file, and as soon as the tube begins 
to grow darker in color take it out and re- 
heat it to the same color as before. When 
one end of the tube has thus been bent to 
the required curve lay it on the board with 
the chalked center line over the vertical line 
on the board and the tube lying along the 
horizontal line. Then if there is to be a 
duplicate curve, use chalk to mark the line, 
on the board, that is to be followed in the 
next bending. 

Now proceed to heat the other end of the 
bar in the same way pulling it round and 
trying it on the board to check the first 
curve with the one in progress. Keep the 
heats as local as possible and stop bending 
as soon as the heat goes down. If kinks ap- 
pear on the inside of the curve they should 
be gently knocked down with a round pened 
hammer. 

It often happens that it becomes advisable, 
in order to prevent kinks, and especially on 
very thin gauge tube, to quench the inside 
of the curve with water; this may be best 
applied with a piece of mop or rag on the 
end of a short stick. It must be remem- 
bered that in bending the tube, the metal is 
expanding on the outside of the curve, the 
inside remaining practically of the same 
gauge. 

It should also be remembered that as the 
curves are made, the sand becomes less 
firmly packed owing to more space being- 
made inside the tube. When this happens 
it often becom?s necessary to drive up the 
plugs in the end of the tube and thus again 
tightly compress the sand. This will often 
prevent kinking. 



Sees Big Future for Changeable dears. 

A writer in The Cyclist, in commenting 
on recent English road races, which were 
run over hilly courses on bicycles fitted with 
two-speed hubs, says: 

"My own experiences with the two-speed 
gear convinces me that this device will soon 
be as familiar ou cycles as free-wheels. The 
comfort during a long ride of changing from 
the high to the lower gear is most soothing 
to tired muscles. I am so satisfied with 
three months' experience of this device that 
I do not intend to return to the old order of 
things. I am confident there will be a big 
development in multi-speed gears shown at 
the forthcoming cycle exhibitions." 



Pedestrians Must Keep Eyes Open. 

In a recent suit in England for damages 
because of personal injuries in being knocked 
down by a cyclist, the judge gave judgment 
for the defendant on the score that the plain- 
tiff did not take the trouble to see, as he 
stepped into the road, if something was 
coming. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



43 



GETTING TRUE WORK 



How Chucks get out of True but are not 
Always the Cause of Fault. 



Chucking work to run perfectly true in the 
lathe has ever been a subject of great inter- 
est to all concerned in any branch of prac- 
tical mechanics, and has a double interest to 
employers of labor who have to furnish their 
shops with expensive chucks which may be 
quickly ruined by careless treatment, where- 
as if a lathe is not properly equipped with 
chucks the workman's time is wasted and 
the work often indifferently done. 

A correspondent of the American Machinist 
has some interesting methods to describe, 
from which are made the following extracts: 

"I don't beiieve there is a universal chuck 
made that will hold work true after six 
months' use. The best I have come across 
yet is a patent spiral chuck, in which the 
scroll is cut to an angle of 30 degrees, the 
jaws sliding at the same angle. The teeth 
are so arranged thereby that the outward 
thrust is against the solid metal, and this 
chuck after about two year's rough usage 
shows an inaccuracy of only about two thou- 
sandths of an inch. 

"However, for extremely accurate work 
this is too much, and it was found necessary 
for such work to make adaptations. To 
each lathe was fitted a chuck back, these 
backs being turned out exactly alike. A 
quantity of castings were then obtained and 
fitted to the chuck backs so that they would 
be interchangeable on all the lathes. Enough 
of these castings were fitted up to cover all 
standard sizes. 

"It is evident that if these chucks were 
bored out so that work would slip on easily 
when it was clamped by means of a screw 
it would be a little out of truth. To over- 
come this, it was found necessary to bore the 
holes a tight fit to the work and fit a wing 
screw for the purpose of opening out the 
hole to get the work in. 

"To take odd sizes of stock, a number of 
castings were kept on hand for boring out 
as required. These castings were re-bored 
when needed for larger jobs, and were 
thrown on the scrap heap when they became 
too weak for further use. Of course, before 
they had actually become useless they had 
more than paid for themselves, for by their 
aid some classes of work were handled much 
more conveniently than they could have been 
by the usual methods. 

"Take, for instance, narrow collars or lock- 
nuts. It is customary to turn these on an 
arbor— plain or screwed, as the case may be 
—after boring, or boring and threading the 
hole, and it is hardly necessary to say that 
it is extremely difficult to get them true, for 
either will the hole be expanded by driving 
in the arbor, or if threaded, the angle of the 
thread will throw the work wholly on one 
side, and the hole will then be eccentric with 
the outside when turned. 

"We had bought a 20-inch swing screw 



cutting lathe. It was what we call a '10-inch 
self-acting sliding, surfacing and screw cut- 
ting lathe.' It had a gap bed 14 feet long, 
weighed over two tons and cost less than 4 
cents per pound. One of the first jobs we 
had to do was to make some square-thread 
screws, 10 threads per inch, left hand. I got 
everything ready and made a start. After 
running down a time or two with the square 
thread tool I noticed the thread appeared 
drunken. Thinking that I had set the tool 
incorrectly and that lack of clearance on one 
side caused it during the first cut to make a 
false path, I put in another blank, reset the 
tool and tried again. But, do what I could, 
the lathe would make a drunken thread. 

"Then it occurred to me that the fault 
must be in the lathe itself, and I set to work 
to make an examination. I first tested the 
spindle but could find no end play there. The 
change wheels were cast ones, and I 
thought they might be the cause of the mis- 
chief, but after considering that it would 
take a lot of error in the wheels to make the 
difference shown in the threads, I decided to 
look elsewhere for the trouble and examined 
the lead screw. This screw was slightly bent 
and it was possible that in wabbling it might 
be rocking the saddle backward and for- 
ward. But this idea in turn had to be given 
up, and a solution sought in a probable error 
in the lead of the screw. 

"After testing, we found this error too 
small to be considered. Furthermore, had 
the lead been out, the error would have 
shown in every thread on the work. This 
lead screw was half-inch pitch, and the er- 
ror in the work showed itself repeated every 
half inch. While making the detailed ex- 
amination, I had noticed that the right-hand 
leading screw bearing was heated, and 1 
now decided to take off the lock nuts to put 
the thing right. Upon doing so, I noticed 
that the face of the bracket showed that the 
friction washer which was keyed on behind 
the lock nuts had an uneven bearing. 

"It was found eventually that the face of . 
the bracket was not square with the hole, 
and the lock nuts themselves were out of 
truth. In cutting left-hand threads, the pull 
of the lead screw drew the lock nuts up to 
the bracket, and the uneven surfaces caused 
a slight end movement in the screw. This, 
of course, occurred every revolution, and the 
error was repeated consequently every half 
inch on the work. 

"Now, had either of the two surfaces been 
true, this could not have taken place. Upon 
asking the maker's workman — who came to 
lint the- thing right — how they made their 
lock nuts, he informed us that they were 
turned upon a taper-threaded arbor, and that 
there was always trouble in getting a true 
nut. 

"To make a reliable lock nut or collar, first 
bore out roughly to something under finish- 
ing size, drive on an arbor, and turn down 
sides and across the top — in fact, finish the 
turning as usual. Then chuck in socket, tak- 
ing care that the face goes home against the 
abutment inside the hole. It is now a simple 
matter to bore to size and screw cut the hole 
if desired. For very light work it is not 
necessary to tighten up the screw. 

"It should be remarked that the chucks de- 
scribed above were of most simple construc- 
tion, being simply a split ring and clamping- 
screw mounted on a base, the screw being 
used to distend the ring slightly to admit the 
work." 



ABOUT DRY BATTERIES 



High Amperage not Always Evidence of 
Long Life -Cheap Cells to be Avoided. 



"For the life of me I cannot understand 
how even a beginner can take stock in the 
statement that any dry cell is good enough 
for the battery of a motor-cycle," says E. H. 
Corson. "It is true that any of the common 
doorbell cells will do the work for a short 
time, but their life is of too short duration 
to make them a profitable investment, not 
to speak of the unpleasantness of getting 
out of 'juice' on the road. 

"I have tested about everything on the 
market in the line of dry cells, and have 
settled on an old reliable make as the best. 
I have tested by road work two batteries 
made up of cells that measured the highest 
in amperage of any I had ever found, 25 am. 
each, three of them, to find them of much 
shorter life than cells that do not measure 
as much. It is not always the cell that has 
the highest amperage that is the longest 
lived; it makes a difference as to what the 
cells are made of in regard to their life. 

"If the user of a motor-bicycle desires to 
be absolutely sure about the power of his 
battery he should provide himself with a re- 
liable amper meter. Do not get the idea 
that it is a voltmeter that is needed, for it 
is not. If you have enough amperage, which 
is the power, or quantity of the battery, 
you will get the voltage, or E. M. F., from 
the induction, or spark coil. This is what 
gives a battery the high voltage needed to 
jump a spark between the points of the 
spark plug, and is known as E. II. F., or 
electromotive force. There must be suffi- 
cient battery power to get good work, and 
it is absolutely necessary that the electric 
current have a clean and unobstructed path 
to travel on, and when this track is laid 
there must not be any breaks in the connec- 
tions, or insufficient insulation to prevent its 
leaving the track. It is a fact, that the elec- 
tric current will take the shortest course to 
get to the ground, provided that course is a 
good conductor. The object is to carry the 
power of the battery through the induction 
coil to the spark plug." 



Appearances not Always Deceitful. 

Don't forget that your customers have 
both eyes and ears. All the nice things you 
say about your goods might just as well he 
left unsaid, if, while you are saying them, 
the customer has got his or her eyes on 
something that is not in keeping with your 
assertions. — (Ex. 



The Retail Record. 

Brewer, Me.— A. Beupre closed store for 
season. 

Salem, Mass.— F. E. Wing, Essex street, 
closed for season. 

Wareiuiui, Mass.— Fred Magoon sold out, 
moved to Brookline, Mass. 



44 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



PRACTICAL MICROMETERS 



Interesting Description of Shop Gauges and 
How to use Them. 



A lathe hand of indifferent ability will 
work to within a thousandth of an inch of 
size, if provided with a rigid caliper ac- 
curately set. The average machinist, with 
the same gauge and in the same time, can 
work to within a quarter of a thousand, and 
the fine workman to within a ten-thou- 
sandth of size, though requiring more time. 
These men could have nowhere near ap- 
proached these limits with any degree of 
certainty using the ordinary caliper. 

Now. the question naturally arises in the 
mind of the foreman alive to the economic 
possibilities of his position, as to whether 
or no a caliper, of the necessary rigidity 
and accuracy, could be furnished for gen- 
eral use in the shop at a reasonable cost. 
Limit gauges are, of course, out of the ques- 
tion, for it would be beyond reason to ex- 
pect a gauge or several gauges for every size 
used in the shop. 

The micrometers, however, fill the bill ad- 
mirably, except for the expense of provid- 
ing them for general use in a large shop, 
and the fact that, in a majority of cases, 
the treatment they received would not be 
such that they could be called instruments 
of precision very long. 

The accompanying description is of an ad- 
justable snap gauge that has been used for 
several years as part of a shop system of 
measurement that has been found very sat- 
isfactory- These gauges can be made at a 
very small cost, especially if a number of 
them be made at the same time. This one 
will take in anything up to 3% inches, a size 
of gauge most used in general lathe work. 

The frame is of cast steel, very light and 
rigid; the rod and screw are 5-16 inch in 
diameter, the latter having 20 threads per 
inch and locked when adjusted by a thumb 
screw. No •liffieulty was experienced in 



making the rod and screw come exactly in 
line. It was done in the following manner: 
The holes were drilled on the lathe centers 
and then split with a hacksaw whose soft 
back had been cut down until it would pass 
through the hole. The holes for the thumb- 
screws were drilled next, the top half to the 
whole diameter of the screw, and the bou 
torn half tapped. A cast-iron sleeve, 1% 
inches long and % inch diameter, was then 
made to fit snugly over the shank of the 
tap, which had been shortened by cutting 
off the square end. The shank was entered 
one-half the length of the sleeve and a hole 
drilled through sleeve end tap and fitted 
with a pin. The hole for the adjustment 
screw was then tapped from the inside of 
the gauge outward, the shank end of the tap 
being supported in line by a rod passed 
through the other hole into the sleeve and 
rigidly clamped by the thumb-screw. The 
tap was turned by a small bar fitting into 
holes drilled around the sleeve. The ends 
of the rod and screw are hardened and 
ground. 

Under the system employed and found 
satisfactory there was used .1 inch square 
steel wire for "points," as the users called 
them. If a man had certain sizes to turn 
that had to be quite accurate, he would cut 
off pieces of this wire about the length re- 
quired, stamp the size on it and round and 
taper the ends so that they were about 1-32 
inch in diameter. These points were made 
approximately to size and then given to the 
foreman, who tested them with a vernier' 
caliper in his office, fitting each with a rub 
or two of the file, or perhaps a blow of the 
hammer on a small anvil beside the instru- 
ment, to bring it up. to size. It is then a 
simple matter, when the work is roughed 
down nearly to size, to quickly and accu- 
rately set the snap gauge to the point, mak- 
ing practically a solid gauge. These 
"points" are very quickly made, and can, of 
course, be kept for future use. 

A workman seldom required more than 
the suggestion that he could get his points 



ready while his machine was running before 
he made a practice of doing so. For sizes 
over 10 inches there was used a piece of 
broom handle or other wood, with a pointed 
wood screw in either end, flattened for a 
wrench. 

When extreme accuracy was necessary in 
the smaller sizes, a small piece of wood was 
drilled out and pressed over the wire to 
keep the heat of the fingers from expanding 
the gauge while setting. These "points" 
are excellent for inside gauges, especially in 
getting the size of a hole already bored 
when it is necessary to turn a piece to fit it 
exactly. 

Besides these snap gauges there were a 
number of the regulation micrometer cali- 
pers of all sizes in the toolroom, and ac- 
cessible to any one competent to use them; 
but it was noticed that it was not long be- 
fore there was hardly any call for them, 
even by the best workmen, after they had 
become accustomed to the new system. 



FAVORITE 
BICYCLES. 

ADULT and JUVENILE. 

Our 1903 Proposition is one 
that will interest you. 

WRITE US AKD WE WILL CONVINCE YOU. 



TheToledo Metal Wheel Co., 

TOLEDO, OHIO. 



Are you ready for quotations and electrotypes 7 




NEWARK CYCLE SPECIALTY CO 



Newark, New Jersey. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



45 



The Week's Patents. 

709,897. Motor Vehicle. (Bicycle). Frank 
C. Goddard, Akron, Ohio. Filed Sept. 9, 

1901. Serial No. 74,801. (No model.) 
Claim.— 1. The combination, -with the 

framework of a vehicle, a driving wheel and 
an explosive engine having its cylinder 
rigid with the framework, of a mixing 
chamber having an air inlet, a port arranged 
to conduct the combustible mixture from 
the said chamber to the chamber of the cyl- 
inder, a passageway for supplying the gas- 
eous or vaporous fluid to the said mixing 
chamber, and a valve having a port adapted 
to register with the discharging end of the 
said passageway and having another port 
for registering with the aforesaid air inlet, 
and the arrangement of parts being such 
that the said air inlet will be in registry 
with one of the valve ports when the other 
valve port is in registry with the aforesaid 
passageway. 

709,900. Free Wheel or Like Clutch. Will- 
iam H. Gurney and Samuel L. Taylor, Fal- 
mouth, England. Filed March 6, 1901. Serial 
No. 50,0S6. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a clutch, the combination 
of a driving member, a driven member, 
ratchet teeth carried by one member be- 
tween the driving and driven members, a 
cylindrical surface adjacent to the teeth 
and carried by the same member, a rocking 
pawl carried loosely by the other member 
to rotate with it and move relatively there- 
to, a rolling body situated between the pawl 
and the cylindrical surface and which rocks 
the pawl into and out of engagement with 
the teeth and a spring which maintains the 
rolling body in contact with the cylindrical 
surface, substantially as set forth. 

709,934. Bicycle Sprocket and Crank. 
Gideon Spence, Newport, R. I. Filed July 
18, 1901. Serial No. 68,773. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. A cycle sprocket, comprising a 
central stationary casing, a revoluble disk 
mounted centrally within the same and pro- 
vided with an angular aperture, a sprocket 
ring connected with said disk and spaced 
asunder therefrom for the purpose of aline- 
ment with another sprocket, and a crank 
arm provided with an angular portion for 
engaging the said angular aperture of the 
disk, said crank arm serving the double pur- 
pose of securing said disk and sprocket to- 
gether and of causing the same to rotate. 

710,048. Railway Car. (Bicycle). Seele 
H. Ellis, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to Hugh 
L. Fox, New York, N. Y. Filed Jan. 27, 

1902. Serial No. 91.36S. (No model.) 
Claim.— 1. The combination with the 

framework and running gear of a car, of a 



motor supported upon said framework, a 
rotating part to which such motor imparts 
rotary motion, a pivoted lever controllable 
by the operator to be thrown into or out of 
operative position, and power receiving and 
transmitting means carried by the pivoted 
lever for transmitting motion from such 
rotating part to the running gear of the car 
and connected with such rotating part and 
the running gear, such connection including 
a friction belt connection controlled by the 
movement of the lever and another connec- 
tion maintained independently of the move- 
ment of the lever. 

710.203. Acetylene Gas Lamp. Arthur 
K. Miller, New York, N. Y. Filed Oct. 26, 
1898. Serial No. 694,586. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. A lamp comprising two verti- 
cally disposed receptacles placed side by 
side, interposed connections securing said 
receptacles together, one connection having 
a bore, a tube connected with and depending 
from said bore to conduct gas, and a burner 
connected with said tube, a cock to control 
the passage of gas from said tube to said 
burner, the other connection leading to said 
receptacles having a cock to control the pas- 
sage of water through said connection, sub- 
stantially as described. 

710.204. Acetylene Gas Lamp. Arthur 
K. Miller, Waterbury, Conn. Filed Jan. 13, 
1900. Serial No. 1,263. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. A lamp comprising a pair of 
receptacles, braces secured to said recepta- 
cles near opposite ends, one brace having a 
bore communicating with both receptacles 
near their lower ends, the upper brace hav- 
ing a bore communicating with one recepta- 
cle, a tube extending between said braces 
and communicating with said upper bore, a 
burner connected with a bore in the lower 
brace, said tube communicating with the 
last mentioned bore, and means to control 
the passage of water between the recepta- 
cles, substantially as described. 

710,245. Driving Mechanism for Bicycles. 
Karmell Brooks, New York, N. Y. Filed 
March 7, 1901. Serial No. 50,206. (No 
model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a driving mechanism for 
bicycles and similar machines, a -pedal shaft 
and its crank arms, one of the crank arms 
being provided with a lateral projection, a 
driving wheel loosely mounted on the said 
pedal shaft and a cushion connection be- 
tween the said driving wheel and the pro- 
jection of the crank arm of the pedal shaft, 
as set forth. 

710,249. Road Vehicle. Pehr Christians- 
son, Scriven, Minn. Filed Nov. 30, 1901. 
Serial No. 84,165. (No model.) 

Claim— In a machine of the character 



described, the combination with a traction 
wheel having a gear of a drive therefor in- 
volving the gear, the vertically movable 
gears, the former engaging the gear, and the 
latter said gear and operating as described, 
of the foot operated lever pivoted and acting 
on said gear and to throw the former into 
and out of engagement with the co-operat- 
ing gear and means for driving said traction 
wheels involving cranks located in position 
to be engaged by the rider's hands, substan- 
tially as described. 

710.329. Explosive Engine for Motor 
Vehicles. Roy C. Marks, San Diego, Cal. 
Filed Sept. 7, 1901. Serial No. 74,654. (No 
model.) 

Claim.— 1. A gas operated motor having 
a crank shaft, a crank casing, a recessed 
flywheel into which said casing extends to 
form a closed chamber, valve operating 
mechanism contained within said chamber, 
and. gearing connecting said valve operating 
mechanism to the crank shaft. 

710.330. Carbureter for Explosive Engines. 
Roy C. Marks, San Francisco, Cal. Filed 
Jan. 2, 1902. Serial No. 88,236. (No model.) 

Claim. — 1. The combination in a car- 
bureter, of an oil tank or reservoir having 
at one end a carbureting chamber, a valve 
for controlling the flow of hydrocarbon from 
the reservoir to the chamber, a gage glass 
arranged on one side of said chamber, a 
series of superposed shelves in the carburet- 
ing chamber, absorbent material on said 
shelves, side wicks for conveying hydrocar- 
bon from the lower portion of the chamber 
to the absorbent material, and a ported air 
valve arranged in the upper portion of said 
carbureting chamber. 

DESIGNS. 

36,091. Bicycle Rack. Mortimer G. Mer- 
ritt, Rome, N. Y. Filed Aug. 4, 1902. Serial 
No. 11S.414. Term of patent seven years. 

Claim.— The ornamental design for a bi- 
cycle rack, substantially as herein shown 
and described. 



TRADE MARK. 

38,973. Cycles, Motor Vehicles and Their 
Farts. Fabrique de Moteurs & de Machines 
(aneienne maison Ziireher, Liithi & Cie), St. 
Aubin, Switzerland. Filed June 23, 1902. 

The word "Zedel." Used since May 1, 
1902. 

"The A. B. C. of Electricity" will aid you 
in understanding many things about motor 
bicycles that may now seem hard of under- 
standing. Price 50 cents. The Goodman Co., 
154 Nassau street, New York. *** 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER GO. 



have: A 



PRnpnsiTIDN flF UNUSUAL INTEREST TO JOBBERS 



FOR 1903, 



Write for Particulars. 



ERIE, PA. 



46 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



WANTS AND FOR SALE. 

15 cents per line of seven words, cash with order. 



OR SALE.— Brand new Marsh Motorcycle; 
bargain, #So. E. W. STEVENS, 

2515 14th Street, Washington, D. C. 



% 2 OO w "' k u y °kl established bicycle repair 
""^J ' shop and stock in Wisconsin town 

population 1 5000 ; doing a big business. Address 
H. E. S., care Bicycling World, N. Y. 



\\l ANTED — Everyone interested in motor bi- 
cycles to purchase "Motocycles and How to 
Manage Them." Contains 126 pages bristling 
with information. $1.00 per copy. For sale by 
The Goodman Co., 1 54 Nassau St., New York City. 

The 1902 BRECKENRIDGE GAS LAMP 
The 1902 Light Weight Oil Lantern. 

STANDARD BtCYCLB LAMPS OF THE WORLD. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE NATIONAL CEMENT & RUBBER MFG COMPANY, 

Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Send for our complete 1902 Catalogue. 

OLD BICYCLES 

can be fitted with the 

GANFIELD COASTER BRAKE 

without any change of hub or fitting. Simply screws 
on in place of the usual sprocket. Address for 
particulars. 

CANFIELD BRAKE COMPANY, Corning, N. Y. 
ALL ROADS ARE EASY WHEN THE 




STAR 

BALL 
RETAINER 



IS USED. 

With millions in daily use, it has stood the test for 
more than live years, and is adaptable to ball bearings of 
any kind. 

If you are users of ball bearings we would be pleased to hear 
from you and mail you our catalog with the latest information, 
which we know would be profitable and interesting to you. 

THE STAR BALL RETAINER CO., Lancaster, Pa., U. S. A 



WA ISI t e: d. 

TO BUY JOB LOTS OF 

Bicycles, Tires, Sundries and Fittings. 

WRITE US WHAT YOU HAVE TO SELL. 

E. P. BLAKE CO., 57 Sudbury St., Boston, Mass. 



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^ You all know what the diamond stands for among a 
a precious stones. You can't well afford « 



not to know that 



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^ occupy the same plane among res. 

♦ DIAMOND RUBBER CO., Akron, O. ♦ 
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The Crosby Company, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., 

Sheet Metal Stamping. 



SPLITDORF SPARK COILS. 

HIGH GRADE < s 




C F. SPLITDORF, 17-27 Vandewater St., New York 



REGAL BICYCLES. 

STEARNS BICYCLE AGENCY, 

General Distributors, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



TO THE LIVE DEALER 

who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that 

concerns his business this blank will be hint enough: 

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THE GOODMAN COMPANY, 

124 Tribune Building, New York. 

Enclosed find $2.00 for which enter my subscription 
to the BICYCLING WORLD for one year, commencing 
with the issue of 



: 

♦ 
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Name. 



Address 



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Tourist Cars on the Nickel Plate Road. 

Semi-weekly transcontinental tourist cars 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts 
are operated by the Nickel Plate and its con- 
nections. Tourist cars referred to afford the 
same sleeping accommodations, with same 
class of mattress and other bedclothing, that 
are provided in the regular Pullman sleep- 
ing car service. These tourist cars leave 
Boston on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 
leave San Francisco on Tuesdays and Fri- 
days. Berths in these tourist cars are sold 
at greatly reduced rates. Conveniences are 
offered without extra cost, for heating food, 
or preparing tea or coffee, affording every 
facility for comfort on a long journey, espe- 
cially for families travelling with children. 
Lowest rates may be obtained always via 
the Nickel Plate Road for all points in the 
West. For special information regarding all 
trams on the Nickel Plate Road, including 
these tourist cars, consult your nearest 
ticket agent, or write A. W. Ecclestone, D. 
D. Agt.. 385 Broadway, New York City. •" 



Through Sleeping Car Line to Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

A Pullman Sleeping Car of latest construe- 
p. m., daily, running through over the Michi- 
gan Central Station, arriving at Grand Rap- 
tion is now attached to New York Central 
train leaving Grand Central Station at 4:00 
ids at 12:55 p. m., next day, connecting in 
Union Station for all points in Western 
Michigan, ffor information and sleeping car 
reservations inquire of New York Central 
Agents. **» 

A Bargain in Travel. 

Regular rate, Boston to Albany $4.50 

Down the Hudson to New Xork city. . 1.50 
Fall River Line and N. Y„ N. H. & H. 
to Boston 4.00 

$10.00 

50% 

The above round trip for $5.00 

Thursday, Oct. 9, on the Boston & Albany 

R. R. For descriptive leaflet address 
A. S. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Agent, 

*** Boston. 



Liberty Dry Batteries 

The best is none too good. Ours is best. Send for 
our illustrated booklet, describing our automobile 
electrical specialties, spark plug, coils, batteries, etc. 

LIBERTY ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO., 

136 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 



ER 



URBANA, OHIO, 
Largest Independent Makers of 

WOOD RIMS «"° GUARDS. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



47 



Uses of Aluminum Powder. 

The uses of aluminum bronze powder are 
everywhere in evidence, and to them has 
been added the painting of motors and parts 
on motor bicycles. 

Germany is the home of bronze powder 
manufacture, and the method of making 
aluminum powder in that country is first 
to roll the aluaainum into thin strips or rib- 
bons, then beat it into a leaf by power ham- 
mers, and finally stamp it into powder. 
Much of the aluminum powder is sold for 
silver bronze. The silver bronze is not 
made from silver, but from a cheap alloy 
having the color of silver. It is sold for 
less a pound than the aluminum, but, the 
silver bronze being heavier, a pound of 
aluminum bronze will cover much more sur- 
face and is really cheaper. 

There is a tendency to adulterate the 
aluminum powder with other metals, which 
destroys the lustre and decreases the value 
of the powdered aluminum. If the pure 
article is wanted it must be made from pure 
metal and kept from other powders. 

It is probable that the next few years 
will see a much larger consumption of alum- 
inum bronze powder than at present. It is 
considered an ideal coating material. When 
mixed with the proper grade of varnish it 
adheres readily to steel, ,md the paint is 
not affected by vary tag temperatures and 
gives a clean, neat appearance to all kinds 
of machinery. 

Powdered aluminum has received recently 
an extremely interesting metallurgical appli- 
cation in the reduction of refractory oxides 
to the metallic state. By mixing the powder 
with oxides and igniting the mixture an in- 
tense heat is generated, which is sufficient 
to melt the reduced metal. 



1 o Preserve Tools. 

Overheating when grinding tools will 
soften them and may cause them to crack, 
and so it is essential that it be avoided. If, 
instead of putting the tool flat on the grind- 
stone, the heel be applied first, the water 
will keep cool the point of the tool, and 
when the bulk of the metal is removed the 
point may be ground with less pressure and 
less risk of its getting hot. 



The Week's Exports. 

Great Britain, with purchases approximat- 
ing $6,000, topped last week's export mani 
fest. France and Denmark were the only 
other large buyers, the record being as fol- 
lows: 

Arnheim— 1 case bicycles, $15. 

Argentine Republic — 4 cases bicycles, $560; 
1 case motor cycles, $135. 

Brazil — 11 cases bicycles and material, 
$844. 

Bremen — 4- cases bicycle material, $400. 

British West Indies — 19 cases bicycles and 
material, $1,0S7. 

British East Indies — 45 eases bicycles and 
material, $1,110. 

Copenhagen— 201 cases bicycles, $2,030; 9 
cases bicycle material, $245. 

Cuba-^t cases bicycles and material, $62. 

Dutch Guiana — 4 cases bicycles and ma- 
terial, $277. 

Egypt— 1 case bicycle material, $200. 

Glasgow— 7 cases bicycles, $210. 

Havre— 2 cases bicycles, $95; 68 cases bicy- 
cle material, $2,283. 

Hamburg— 1 case bicycles, $25; 12 cases 
bicycle material, $4S0. 

Hayti— 3 cases bicycle material, $10. 

Liverpool— 283 cases bicycles, $3,420; 10 
cases bicycle material, $315. 

London— 1 case bicycles, $30; 21 cases 
bicycle material, $2,030. 

Mexico— 2 cases bicycles and material, $65. 

Rotterdam— 13 cases bicycle material, $307. 

Southampton— 1 case bicycles, $50. 

Stockholm— 1 case bicycles and material, 
$05. 

St. Petersburg— 2 cases bicycle material 
$175. 



PERFECT" 



OEM' 



25c. 



333 50. 



LEADER' 



CROWN 




STAR" 



We make oilers for almost the entire trade. The quality of our 
oilers is unequaled. 

CUSHMAN & OENISON, Mfrs , 240-2 W. 23d Si., N. Y. 



BICYCLE 

MANUFACTURERS 

AGREE 

that with the altered con- 
ditions and increased costs 
that confront them they must 
next year obtain more money 
for their goods to assure a 
safe balance. 

In many instances 

THE 

CUSHION FRAME 

MODEL 

was this year the only model 
that gave them a living profit; 
it did the same thing for the 
dealers and at the same time 
gave the buyers more satis- 
faction and pleasure than any 
other type of bicycle. Cushion 
Frames never have been asso- 
ciated with mere "cheapness." 
Is it any wonder that it is 
now looming larger than ever 
in the calculations for next 
year? 

HYCIENIC WHEEL COMPANY, 

OWNERS OF 
CUSHION FRAME PATENTS 

220 Broadway, NEW YORK. 

Home Office, Philadelphia. 




TRADE-MARK 
REGISTERED. 



STEEL 
BALLS 



WE ARE THE ONLY MANUFACTURERS WHO CAN MAKE THE FOLLOWING GUARANTEES: 

That every ball is a perfect sphere. 
That every ball is within 1-10,000 of an inch of exact size. 
That the balls are made of the best quality of true crucible tool steel 

That oalls bought from us at one time will be exactly like balls of a similar size bought rom us 
at any other time. 



THE STEEL BALL COMPANY, 



832-840 Austin Avenue, 



CHICACO. ILL. 



"MOTOCYCLES AND HOW 
TO MANAGE THEM" 

REVISED EDITION BOUND IN CLOTH 

The only Book of the Sort in Existence 

CONTAINS A MINE OF VALUABLE 
INFORMATION 

PRICE, ONE DOLLAR 

THE GOODMAN COMPANY 

123-125 Tribune Building, - New York Giiy 



48 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



If You are Interested In Automobiles, 



THE MOTOR WORLD 



Will Interest You. 



It's readable, 
and you can understand what you read. 



Published Every Thursday 
at 1 23-S Tribune Building, New York. 

$* per Year ; jSpectmen Copies Gratis 



Fast Trains 

Chicago & North-Western Ry. 



The Overland Limited 

California in 3 days 

The Colorado Special 

One night to Denver 

The Chicago-Portland Special 

Oregon and Washington in 3 days 

The North-Western Limited 

Electric Lighted — Chicago, 

St. Paul and Minneapolis 

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The Peninsula Express 

Fast time to Marquette 

and Copper Country 

MO change of cars. The best of every- 
thing. Call on any agent for tickets 
or address 



481 Broadway . New York 
eot Ches't 8t.,Phlladelphia 
368 Washington St., Boston 
301 Main St., ■ - Buffalo 
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507 SmithfldSt., Pittsburg 
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77 CampuB Martius. Detroit 
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ism 




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Di* AulhoDiv ol ihr Cfil* World 


RELIABLE NEWS 

ON ftLL OVOLINO EVENTS 

Interesting & Comprehensive. 
ADVICE TO RIDERS 


WEDNESDAYS, ONE PENNY. 

ILIFFE & SONS Limited. 

3, St. Brld* Struct London, EC 









NEVER LEAK 

STOPS LARGE PUNCTURES. 

This is the only fluid that can be legally used in pneumatic 
tires. Suits now pending. 

BUFFALO SPECIALTY MFC. CO., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




Through Train and Car Service in 
effect June 15, 1902. 

TWO FAST TRAINS 



"Chicago" "North Shore" 

Special Special 

Via Lake Shore. Via Mich. Cen. 



Lv. Boston 


10.45 A.M. 


2.00 P.M. 


Due Albany 
" Syracuse 


4.10 P.M. 


7.3S " 


7.55 " 


11.25 " 


" Rochester 


9.45 " 


1.15 " 


" Buffalo 


11.40 " 




" Toledo 


5.55 A.M. 




" Detroit 




8.25 " 


" Chicago 


11. SO " 


3.15 P.M. 



"Chicago Special" has through Buffet Library Smoking Car 
and Dining Car to Syracuse and from Toledo to Chicago. 

"North Shore Special" has Dining Car to Albany, and from 
St. Thomas to Chicago. Both trains run daily and are made 
up of the most modern and luxurious vestibuled Sleeping Cars 
running through to Chicago. 

For other service west, time tables, restrvation, etc., address 

A. 5. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Ag*., Boston. 



If you ride or sell, 

or intend to ride »r sell 

motor bicycles 

" Motocycles and How to Manage 
Them " 

is the very book you need. 
Every page teaches a lesson. Every illustration 

" speaks a piece." 
And there are 126 pages and 41 pictures, too 



Price, $1.00. 



The Goodman Co., 1 24 Tribune Bldg., New York. 




CENTRAL 



.MISSISSIPPI. 



VALLEY 



ROUTE 



fX%HC# 



*<ti 



**n 



% 






Via Rockford, Freeport, Dubuque, independence, 
Waterloo, Webster City, Fort Dodge, Rockwell 
City, Denison and Council Bluffs. 

DOUBLE DULY SERVICE 

TO OMAHA 

Buffet -library -smoking cars, sleeping cars, 
tree reclining chair cars, dining cars. 

Tickets of agents of I. C. R. R. and connecting 
Itoes. A. H. HANSON. G. P. A., Chicago- 

BOSTON & MAINE R.R. 

LOWEST RATES 
FAST TRAIN SERVICE 

BETWEEN 

Boston and Chicago, 

St. Louis, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis 

and all points West, Northwest, Southwest 

Pullman Parlor or Sleeping Cars on all 
Through trains. 

For tickets and information apply at any 
principal ticket office of the company. 



D. J. FLANDERS, Geo'l Pass. & Ticket Agt. 

BOSTON. 

The Best Advertising Medium 
for the Irish Trade is 

THE 
IRISH CYCLIST 

Specimen copy and advertising rates no 
application to 

R. J. MECREDY & SON, Ltd., Proprietors, 
49 riiddle Abbey St., DUBLIN. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, October 16, 1902. 



No. 3 



JOBBERS IN SESSION 



Convene to Consider Responses to Their 
Proposals— May now Place Contracts. 



Members of the New York State Associa- 
tion of Jobbers of Bicycle Supplies who, at 
the meeting in Albany on Sept. 16 and 17, 
agreed to refrain from placing contracts 
until the association's proposal to manufac- 
turers had been heard from, will shortly be 
free to make purchases. 

The executive committee of the association 
met at the Astor House, this city, yesterday, 
and will remain in session during the greater 
part of to-day. The principal object of their 
meeting was the consideration of the replies 
received from manufacturers. Of these fully 
seven-eighths are favorable to the figures 
laid down by the jobbers; the other eighth 
are either non-committal or desire additional 
information before giving acceptances. With- 
out awaiting the action of the latter class. 
the executive committee yesterday decided 
to forward to the members of the association 
the names of those who have consented to 
become tneir allies, stating that contracts 
may now be placed with them without vio- 
lating the terms of the Albany agreement. 

The matter of establishing a credit bureau 
was also considered and a written plan sub- 
mitted. Action, however, was deferred until 
advice regarding its legality can lie obtained. 

The subject of national organization, 
which was broached at Albany and referred 
to a committee, was deferred for the mo- 
ment. A number of Western jobbers had 
given assurances of their support, and, ac- 
cording to the Bicycling World's informant, 
there is every likelihood that the enlarged 
organization will come to pass. 

Excepting Vice-President . Kelsey the 
entire executive committee was in attend- 
ance, viz: President Leug, Secretary-treas- 
urer Spalding, and Committeemen H. L. 
Hall, Harris Parker, E. .T. Willis and .T. Tur- 
ner. 

Receiver for Grant. 

On the application of Mrs. John McKeown, 
of Washington, Pa., the Franklin Trust Co. 
has been appointed receiver for the Grant 
Tool Co., of Franklin, that State. Mrs. Mc- 
Keown's claim amounts to $160,000; other 
liabilities aggregate $70,000. The assets are 
placed at $550,000. The Grant Tool Co. was 
formerly the Grant Ball Co.. of Cleveland, 
Ohio, and was at one time a factor in the 
cycle trade. 



Old Receivership Tangle Unknotted. 

The United States Court of Appeals has 
finally handed down a decision affirming the 
decree of the Federal District Court at 
Indianapolis in the more or less famous 
case' of McDowell and Stover, of Chicago, 
against N. D. McCormick, former Sheriff 
of Laporte County, Tor $10,000 damages, 
which grew out of the Allen receivership 
suit. 

The Allen Mfg. Co. had a bicycle plant at 
the State Prison at Michigan City, Ind. One 
of the creditors in 1807 brought suit against 
the company, asking for the appointment 
of a receiver. One was named by the judge 
of the Laporte Circuit Court. Before he 
took possession the judge of the Laporte 
Superior Court also named a receiver. N. 
D. McCormick, then Sheriff, under the order 
of the Circuit Court, seized and sold some 
goods claimed by McDowell & Co. Out of 
this came the damage suit, which was first 
decided in the federal court at Indianapolis 
against the Chicago company and then 
carried to the Court of Appeals, where it 
was affirmed. The decision also settled a 
contention as to the rights of the two courts. 



NO ANNUAL MEETING 



No One Appeared to Vote for A.B C. Officials 
"— floney in Sight. 



Tlllinghast Sues Lake Shore. 

The only discordant note in the single tube 
tire trade, at least so far as concerns the 
Tillinghast patent, will shortly be heard in 
court. 

The "note" consists of the failure, or re- 
fusal, of the Lake Shore Rubber Co., Erie, 
Ph., to secure a license under the famous 
patent. Accordingly, and though the con- 
cern in question is little known and lias 
cut a small figure in the trade, the Single 
Tube Automobile & Bicycle Tire Co. are "up 
and at 'em." They have brought proceed- 
ings against tin- Lake Shore Co., alleging 
infringement of the Tillinghast rights, and 
state that the suit will be pressed with all 
possible vigor and speed. 



Riggs Goes West. 

Frank Riggs, of the Riggs-Spencer Co., 
Rochester, N. Y., has departed for his an- 
nual tour of the Pacific Coast. As he this 
time carries not only the Cinch coaster 
brake, but Sager saddles and the new double 
flexible frame, he should be able to leave 
a deeper impression than usual. 



The annual meeting and election of the 
American Bicycle Co. was due to occur on 
Tuesday last. But it did not occur. The 
poll was held open for one hour, as re- 
quired, but, no one appearing to convene a 
meeting or to cast a vote, it was duly and 
quietly declared closed. Only Vice-Presi- 
dent George Pope, the company's attorneys 
and four reporters gave evidence of inter- 
est in the day or the deeds. 

The receivers of the company have not 
been idle, however. Receiver-President 
Coleman is now in Chicago, and develop- 
ments in that direction are expected daily. 
Meanwhile the United States Court has 
given its assent to the issuance of receivers' 
certificates to the value of $500,000. These 
will lie cashed in this city, and the funds 
used in the interests of the Federal Mfg. 
Co. and the International Motor Car Co., 
two of the A. B. C.'s units. Later it is un- 
derstood that permission will be sought to 
issue additional certificates of the sort, the 
proceeds of which will be applied to the 
American Cycle Mfg. Co. 



Orient Will Enlarge. 

The remarkable success that has attended 
the Orient interests this year has had its 
natural result! The demand for additional 
factory facilities has led to the placing of a 
contract for the erection of another _wing, 
120 by 4(1 feet, to the plant at Waltham. 
At present the offices and assembling and 
shipping rooms are located in the factory 
building. When completed they will be re- 
moved to the new addition, thus affording 
room for more men and machines in the fac- 
tory proper. 

Say They Will Make 5000. 

The Motor Cycle Mfg. Co., Brockton, 
Mass., say they mean to have 5,000 of their 
Marsh motor bicycles "completed and ready 
for delivery by February next"; the infor- 
mation is conveyed in a circular letter re- 
cently issued. 



54 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



NOT THE NOTES OF A NOVICE 



Some Experiences of one Who has Tried to 
Teach Others how to Operate. 



Those are the notes of one who lias dealt 
with the troubles of many a novice, both 
hy letter and in person, and in that dealing 
has passed through all stages of feeling, 
from commiseration to condemnation. Com- 
miseration wiili those motor bicyclists who 
had lilile mechanical quality, but an ear- 
nest desire to learn, and who carried a sug- 
gestion beyond the exact lines laid down. 
Condemnation for those who. after live or 
six letters or verbal descriptions, found that 
they had overlooked something told them, 
and either this betrayed in letter or look or 
kept silent, and gave no direct clew to what 
was the matter after all, because they hud 
been so insistent they were always rigid 
and the machine always wrong that they 
liailn'l the force to own up. There have 
been times, however, when there was the 
halm of catching them redhanded and mak- 
ing them own up because they could not 
dodge the situation. 

A case that at once comes to mind is that 
of a dealer who was some 400 miles away 
from my headquarters. He bad written 
complaints off and on covering a period of 
nearly four months. Like too many others, 
lie could not centralize his seeming troubles, 
and would jump around in his letters from 
one seeming symptom lo another until in 
the course of the correspondence 1 had writ- 
ten him a treatise on the gas engine in par- 
ticular and my make of motor bicycle in par- 
ticular. I had also sen! him a hook of in- 
structions that hail been compiled from 
many experiences, both personally and on 
the part of customers. 

All to no purpose, however. He couldn't 
make the bicycle run for any distance, and 
at the suggestion that he send it back to me 
for looking over and testing— well, he 
scorched the paper on which his reply was 
written. All through it there seemed to me 
that he was really suffering from one fault, 
but each time I would recur to it in my let- 
ters he told me. by letter, that he knew a 
thing or two in that direction himself, and 
didn't need advice on those particular lilies. 

Well, time rolled on, but not his bicycle. 
and one clay came a letter that he was com- 
ing up to visit our location on other mat- 
ters, and. incidentally, would drop in with 
his motor bicycle. Come he did. and I was 
waiting for him with seme fervor, in the 
mean time having gone over his letters lo 
refresh my mind in ids particular case. Read- 
ing them all together confirmed me in the 
opinion that the whole thing did centre 
round that "one fault." so I determined on 
a little grandstand play. 1 

Getting his machine ou1 of the crate, it 



was .lacked up in a stand which would per- 
mit the rear wheel to revolve. Without the 
belt on I showed him how to test the com- 
ptessiou by turning over the engine pulley 
by hand. This proved, by its suddenly com- 
ing to a cushioning stop, that the compres- 
sion w;is good, meaning that valves were 
seating properly and that piston ring's were 
fitting well. The spark plug was tried in a 
machine that was known to be all right,' and 
found to be in the best of condition. 

Xow came the point where il was neces- 
sary to find out if the "one fault" was the 
tiling, but lo do so without his knowing it 
until re lily to spring the trap. On some pre- 
text he was called away from the bicycle 
until time was had for a workman to con- 
nect :i fresh battery, placed some distance 
away, by means of long wires. This done 
he was brought back again and the motor 
started. Of course, in this running the 
carburetter was proved to be in first class 
order. The motor was run until the exhaust- 
bousing became red hot and the owner de- 
clared it had never run that long before. 

An adjournment was then taken to the 
office to let the motor cool off preparatory to 
his trying his hand. In time we went back 
to the machine, and he made an utter fail- 
ure of starting it, because— well, because of 
that "one fault." weak battery. The sugges- 
tion that he try his battery at first met 
with something that sounded like one of his 
replies by letter, but it was insisted upon, 
and as a result he was taught that the sub- 
ject he had boasted of as knowing a thing 
or two about bad something yet about it 
for him to learn. The result of it was that 
a new set of cells made everything all right. 

Thai night at the theatre, his treat, he con- 
fessed thai he lunl not come to town on 
"other matters." but had come to show us 
up as fleecers of the innocent and to de- 
mand his money back. He became one of 
the best agents from that time on. and when 
he got into trouble he got out again without 
a murmur to anybody. 

Another case that I call to mind as hav- 
ing some peculiar features was one where 
an agent bought a machine and immediately 
took the timing gears out because he could 
not make the bicycle run. and. of course, got 
them back with the wrong timing. He paid 
all the expenses of a man from the factory 
to go to his town, and fix things right. This 
workman rode the machine all over town 
for a day to prove that it was right, yet in 
the face of that the owner sold the machine 
for half what lie paid for it inside of a 
month. Tie- man who bought it recently 
wrote me that lie had just completed a 500 
mile vacation lour on it. What should be 
done with the first owner'.' lie shipped the 
machine direct to the second owner. 



WOULD HAVE LAW REPEALED 



New York Banker Says Bankruptcy Bill is a 
Delusion — Others say its Only Half bad. 



Aptly Expressed. 



At the meeting of the New York State 
Hankers' Association in this city last week. 
some stir was created by the introduction 
of the following resolution, favoring not 
merely the amendment but the repeal of the 
national bankruptcy law: 

Whereas, The present Bankruptcy Law 
was passed for the avowed purpose of re- 
lieving the financial embarrassments of per- 
sons engaged in worthy business enterprises 
and to enable them to again engage in such 
business pursuits; 

And. whereas. Sufficient time having 
elapsed for the accomplishment of that pur- 
pose, to continue the said law longer in force 
induces extravagant living and reckless spec- 
ulation, encourages fraud and dishonesty. 
and impairs the credit of honest men of 
small capital; 

And. whereas. In its enforcement and ad- 
ministration, the assets of the debtor are 
made comparatively worthless and the divi- 
dends of the creditors, if anything at all, 
are made so small .-is to lie scarcely worth 
consideration: 

Therefore, resolved. The present Bank- 
ruptcy Law. having outlived its usefulness, 
should no longer remain on our statute 
hooks, and that wo. the members and rep- 
resentatives of the New York State Bankers' 
Ascociation. ask our representatives in Con- 
gress to secure its repeal at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. 

The resolution was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Administration with power to act. 
The committee, however, is scarcely likely 
to take favorable action. It is understood 
that they favor amendment, not repeal of 
the law. 



"Sitting on a hammer actively employed 
by an expert riveter is mere chilli's play to 
riding a rigid frame over rough roads." is 
the way that one puts it who advocates 
cushion or spring frfl mes, 



To Check Fraud in Advertising. 

George 11. Daniels, general passenger 
agent of the New York Central, heads a 
movement to protect readers of newspapers 
and magazines from fraudulent advertisers. 
The movement was started on Thursday 
last at the annual meeting and dinner of the 
Sphinx Club, held in the Waldorf-Astoria. 
Mr. Daniels presided and was unanimously 
re-elected president of the club. 

A committee was appointed to take steps 
toward forming an organization for the in- 
vestigation and suppression of fraudulent 
advertising. This action followed a paper 
read by John Adams Thayer on "Should 
Publishers Accept Fraudulent and Other 
( tbjectionable Advertising'?" 

The speaker snowed that the publication 
of reading-notice advertising had materially 
assisted William H. Miller, of 520 per cent. 
fame, and others to defraud the public. He 
said there was a strong tide setting in the 
direction of more rigid censorship of adver- 
tising columns, and that among the pub- 
lishers there was an inclination to do away 
with extravagant phrasing and to eliminate 
any ads that savored of fraud. 

He cited instances where the ruling against 
objectionable advertising copy had cost th'-- 
publishers of daily newspapers many thou 
sands of dollars. Instances were given wher? 
the press had unwittingly been used to ad- 
vertise frauds which had netted $30,000 a 
week for I heir promoters. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



55 



MAIL-ORDER CUPIDITY 



How thV Press Is* "Worked" and "Indorse- 
ment?' .Obtained— Mythical "Factories. 



• The manlier in which mail order reputa- 
tions are made and the sale of mail order 
bicycles increased had one- unusually con- 
spicuous illustration during the season just 
closing. 

While bombast and extravagant exagger- 
ation, to say nothing of wilful falsehood, ap- 
pear handmaidens of the general run of mail 
order business, there are other tricks em- 
ployed. The one in question secured for the 
firm involved the "indorsement" of scores of 
publications, dailies, weeklies and month- 
lies, the "indorsement" being coupled with 
an adroit reflection, on the local dealers in 
whatever place it was published. Although 
country papers swallowed the bait most 
greedily, more than one journal of national 
repute did not scruple to give it space/ 

The "indorsement" took this form: 
: "For several years the advertisements' of 
the Cycle Co have appeared in the col- 
umns of the - — . Every year the 
business of this company has grown, until 
how it exceeds 50,000 bicycles sold through 
mail orders all over the world each year. 
The Cycle Co. keeps its factories run- 
ning all winter storing up wheels of the 
finest quality, and is always ready in the 
spring and summer to till orders promptly 
at prices which are lower than any manu- 
facturer selling on the old plan, through local 
dealers, can deliver a wheel of even in- 
ferior quality" The - - Cycle Co.- can" 
ship any wheel, at any price the same day 
the order is "received. Readers of. this paper 
con be assured of prompt and' honorable 
treatment:.- When • writing for: catalogues 
and prices mention the and ad- 
dress - - Cycle Co., Dept. — , Chicago." 

The country folk and other susceptible peo- 
ple unversed in the ways of press agents " 
and mail order houses could hardly fall to 
be impressed by this apparent recommenda- 
tion by their local editor, and must have ob- 
tained an. enlarged idea of the immensity of 
tie " Cycle Co., which keeps its fac- 
tories running all winter storing up wheels 
o'f the finest quality." 

As a matter of fact, the Cycle Co. 

does not and never did own or' operate a 
single factory, its "wheels of the finest qual- 
ity" being purchased wherever they can be 
Irt-mght cheapest. 'They are then further 
cheapened by the use of cheap tires, saddles 
.-Hid other equipment. 

How the falsehood was circulated and the. 
"indorsement" secured is made plain by the 
following circular letter from the agency, 
\fhich places the - - Cycle Co.'s advertis- 
ing: 

"Publisher of 

'"Dear Sir: We ask your attention to the 
small reading notice, which is handed you 
herewith,- Ja- the interest of the .— — — . Cycle 



Co. As stated in the reader, this advertiser 
has patronized you extensively for several 
seasons, :tnd this year has been, a parti eu- 
Uarly large' one from the advertiser's stand- 
- point, because we commenced uracil earlier 
than is usual to place their contracts. 

"We do not believe we are/steppiug" out of 
bounds in requesting the one time insertion 
of this reader out of compliment to the ad- 
vertiser, and we feel quite certain that you 
will very willingly comply with our request. 
"We want you to have full credit for the 
article, ami we hope, therefore, that you will 
see that it is properly keyed so that returns 
may be very easily traced; also please clip 
the article, paste' it on your letterhead and 
send to this office, and we will forward it 
the same day personally to Mr. - — , so 
that he may have full knowledge of your 
liberality and favor in this instance. Yours 
very truly. Advertising Co." 

This modest request was mailed broadcast. 
Although the Bicycling World has repeated- 
ly refused to carry a line of the concern's 
advertising, one of the letters was ad- 
dressed to this office and was promptly 
pigeonholed. It has been held long enough 
to make plain that many publications that 
seek the patronage of bona lide cycle manu- 
facturers and local .dealers have small con- 
science in gratuitously aiding and "indors- 
ing" parasites that have done so much to 
injure the legitimate interests and to dis- 
gust people with cycling. 



RIDERS WHO TINKER 



Not so Numerous as Formerly but Still a 
Source of Vexation to Dealers. 



Measuring Horsepower. 

On the last day of the automoile congress 
"at Dijon" France', Count Chasselonp-Loubet- 
read an interesting paper devoted to the 
.question of the calculation of the horsepower 
of explosion engines. 

With regard to the measurement, the count 
maintained that cylinder measurements are 
absolutely fictitious, for the following rea- 
sons: (1) More or. 'less speed can be got out 
of similar engines according to the weight 
of the valves or the springs which work the 
valves, by varying the length of the piston 
and by varying the cooling surface of the 
explosion; (2) by varying the compression; 
(31 by varying the carburation; (4) by vary- 
ing the rapidity witli which the exhaust 
gases are. "got rid of; (oi by uiore-or less ex- 
pansion; Kb by more or less rapid cooling 
of the cylinder; (7) by varying the ignition, 
and (8) by varying the -weight of the fly- 
wheel. 

Why he Never Tries Dissuasion. 

"When a purchaser asks for a particular 
article, I rarely if ever attempt to change 
his choice," said the dealer. "If anything 
goes wrong with what he selects, I am al- 
ways in position to throw tin? blame on, him. 
If, on the other hand, he is persuaded - to 
buy other than what he asked for, he always 
has cause for what he* imagines is just com- 
plaint and recourse." 



"One of the greatest bugbears of the mak- 
ers and agents' existence is the customer 
who has a penchant for tinkering," said a 
well known dealer on a recent visit to Hie 
Bicycling World. "Tinkering has been the 
ruin of many a good machine, and until a 
certain section of cyclists recognize that it is 
policy to let well alone there will always be 
trouble at the store. 

"Some riders are never happy unless they 
have a wrench in their hand, and it does not 
dawn iipmi them that the constant unscrew- 
ing and tightening of nuts and bolts, instead 
of doing good, has a most disastrous effect 
upon the threads thereof. We know one mis- 
guided individual who makes a habit of 
taking his machine to pieces once a week— 
and yet he cannot understand why the said 
machine, albeit a good one,, is always going 
wrong! 

"Once he had to walk live miles in conse- 
quence of losing a nut on (he front axle, 
and the. other day the nut on his rear axle 
slipped as he was mounting a hill; the wheel 
slewed, around, and the chain, mounting the 
cogs, twisted the frame. Of course, the 
agent who sold him the machine came in for 
a blessing. 

"Where" a customer is known to possess 
,lhc. tinkering habit it is just as well to im- 
press upon him that once a machine has 'set' 
it is only necessary to test the adjustments 
occasionally, and that the usual guarantee' 
is of no avail- to the tinkerer, and breakages, 
due to' his propensity coining under the de- 
nomination of wear and tear. 

"I don't know whether a legal precedent 
has been established in this direction, but a' 
case should certainly result in favor of the 
maker of such an ill used bicycle." 



Muskegon Will Tax All. 

The treasury of Muskegon. Mich., being 
low, the City Fathers, in their straits, are 
bent on enacting a license law that will be 
no halfway measure or permit any intima- 
tion of unjust discrimination. They purpose' 
requiring a license fee from (practically 
everything that runs on wheels— automo- 
biles, bicycles, horse drawn vehicles and 
everything else. 



"How to Drive a Motocyele," -Wee "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." $1. The" 
(,ioodman_Co., B,QX.Bi9,^Ne\v^Yprk, __^ SJ.*^ . 



Temperance Ladies' Suggestion. 

Tn the reports of superintendents at the 1 
annual convention of the Massachusetts 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, held, 
at New Bedford last week, that of Mrs. 
Lyd'ia B. Earle. chairman of the Sabbath 
Observance Department, contained this' 
statement: — 

"We. would lie glad if every church had- 
racts for bicycles or kept free automobiles; 
for .church goers, if thereby the eight hun-s 
dred thousand men who run our cars seven 
days in the week might rest." 



56 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



SATISFIED CUSTOMERS S BEST ADVERTISERS 



- 



September 25th, 1902. 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. COMPANY, 
Bay City, Mich. 

Dear Sirs : — I am still riding the National Chainless on which I made the 
present record from New York to Buffalo a year ago last month. It looks tough 
on account of constant use and little care. It is tough because it has stood the 
racket and runs as nice as when it came to me new. All my National customers 
are fully as well satisfied. 



Yours truly, 



E. A. PAYNE. 




NATIONALS ARE RIDDEN EVERYWHERE. 



It's worth something to a dealer nowadays to have an estab- 
lished line of bicycles like the NATIONAL; one of whose con- 
tinued production there is never any doubt. Wideawake dealers 
recognize this fact. Don't be too late for 1903. 

National Cycle Mfg. Company, 

BAY CITY, MICH.. U. S. A. 



FISK TIRES 

WITHOUT AN EQUAL FOR 

Bicycles, Carriages and Automobiles 

THEY ARE THE HIGHEST GRADE 



FISK RUBBER COMPANY, - Chicopee Falls, Mass. 



BOSTON. 

604 Atlantic Ave. 



SPR1NOFIELD, 

40 Dwlght St. 



SYRACUSE. 

423 So. Clinton St. 



BUFFALO 

28 W. Genesee St. 



♦ ♦■♦•» 



BRANCHES : 

NEW YORK, 

83 Chambers St. 

DETRIOT, 

252 Jefferson Ave. 



-♦ ♦♦♦ 



PHILADELPHIA, 

916 Arch St. 

CHICAOO, 

54 State St. 



WASHINGTON, 

427 10th St., N. W. 



SAN FRANCISCO, 

114 Second St. 




founded! 

»n d AVWOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
" The Wheel " and the " American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The g©©dm»n eoMPaNY, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... io Cents 
Foreign Subscription ....... $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscriptions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents: The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

Ggg^ Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

GST" Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

-To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, October 16, 1902. 

Hail-Order ITalodor. 

If the movement for the suppression of 
fraud in advertising inaugurated by the 
Sphinx Club attains force and is carried to 
'its legitimate conclusion, the business in 
mail order bicycles will be among the first 
to suffer. 

Of the. fanciful lies and-extravagant claims 
and misrepresentations necessary to sell 
goods of doubtful quality or character the 
mail order people, generally speaking, are 
possessed of more than their share. Very 
many of their assertions would put a brass 
monkey to blush. 

As an example of the cupidity employed 
by this class of merchants to obtain un- 
truthful publicity and indorsement the in- 
stance cited in another column is character- 
istic. For years this "highly honorable" firm 
has circulated the lie regarding "its fac- 
tories," which do not and never did exist. 
It differs from its chief rival in that it builds 
its bicycles of "the finest quality" during 
the winter, while the rival keeps its "fac- 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

„to.ries" jgoing.. "all summer, when labor and 
- material are cheaper.". As.a matter of fact 
none of these mail order houses ever man- 
ufactured a bicycle. .They buy stripped bi- 
cycles wherever the lowest prices are ob- 
tainable, and then purchase equipment of 
corresponding price and quality; they change 
from one maker to another as quotations 
change; they thus have and can have no 
particular model or models, and were it not 
that they are permitted to unquestionedly 
masquerade as gigantic manufacturers, with 
unlimited facilities and outputs, half their 
glory would be gone. It is by constantly 
harping on this string that they impress the 
credulous and induce them to believe that 
$40 bicycles can be purchased for $17.89. 

Dealers rail at them, but rarely make a 
move to beat back the wave of "gush" 
which the mail order people bring to their 
doors. Although these dealers may be pay- 
ing their local papers far more money than 
the fake -manufacturers, no protest is made 
when the latter's fulsome and fraudulent ad- 
vertisements and self-indited "puffs" appear 
under their very noses, and thus draw away 
trade that belongs at home. It is this sort 
of tiling that has helped mail-odorousness 
make headway; indeed, so prodigious is the 
aggressiveness, energy and ingenuity of mer- 
chants who do business on the borderland 
of fraud or short profits that the efforts of 
the reputable and really honorable men of 
business seem puny by comparison. The 
former are forever creating opportunities 
.and striking hard and fast and taking ad- 
vantages of openings wherever they present 
themselves; the latter too often appear to 
consider it unbecoming or undignified to 
strike hard, fast or suddenly, or to expose 
or counteract fraud and misrepresentation, 
even though it injures their own interests 
and pockets. It is this apathy, or excess of 
dignity, we fear, that has enabled the mail 
order people and other cutthroats to not only 
thrive, but, to attain proportions. 



Making the League Ridiculous. 

Although the New York Division, L. A. W., 
is in debt to the extent of some $2,200, the 
officials, on the eve of an election, in which 
their return to office is opposed, have ex- 
pended a portion of its slender income in a 
manner so wilful as to merit rebuke. The 
expenditure takes the form of printed pe- 
titions urging the passage of the local ordi- 
nance, proposed by the officials themselves, 
requiring that automobilists be examined 
and licensed before being permitted to use 



57 



the public highways — the very system thai 
cyclists themselves successfully opposed 
some twenty years ago. 

The circular letter, accompanying the pe- 
tition is full of tears, fears and misstate- 
ments. It says that the spirit exhibited in 
introducing, the ordinance is not contrary to 
the traditions of the L. A. TV".; that the 
daily list of automobile accidents is "ap- 
palling"; that wheelmen are openly advocat- 
ing the construction of sidepatlis as their 
only means of safety. The precious docu- 
ment concludes that "opposition to the meas- 
ure rests on grounds of insincerity and ab- 
surdity." 

But without regard to the nferits" of the 
ordinance, and as much of the offpositioh 
rests on the fact that the proposed measure 
is explicitly prohibited by a State law, the 
absurd position in which the league, itself 
is being placed and the waste of league 
funds is evident to any man whose brain is 
not' thompsonized. 

The law in question states distinctly that 
"any person owning or operating an automo- 
bile or motor vehicle, except such as are 
used for hire, shall not be required to ob r 
tain any license or permit pursSant to the 
provisions of- any local or municipal ' ordi- 
nance or resolution." 

It is thus made so clear that even did the 
aldermen enact the ordinance it would be 
illegal and incapable of enforcement. The 
L. A. W. officials are making iiot-jaily them- 
selves, but the organization which they rep- 
resent, ridiculous. The members who fol- 
low their urging in respect to the petition 
will be simply wasting so much time, just 
as the officials are wasting league funds. 

I . 

Coming on the eve of the election, it ap- 
pears like a means of creating capital for 
themselves at the expense of the division, 
which only serves to make their, action the 
more reprehensible. 

The wheelman who cannot recall -the time 
when the bicycle was the newspaper "man 
killer" and "demon of the highway," and 
when it was the object of exactly similar 
tirades as are now being launched against 
motor vehicles, has a short memory. 



Coaster=Brake's Enlarged Future. 

It is one of the peculiarities of mechanics 
that a device intended for one condition of 
things frequently finds its greatest use under 
altered conditions, or else finds a use not 
specifically thought of when it is first tried. 
The coaster brake furnishes an example. 

It was designed, primarily for the bicycle 



58 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



as it stands to-day, a machine driven 1 >y 
man as the motor. The device possesses 
much merit in this application, and is rapid- 
ly coining into general use as its possibilities 
- are becoming better known to bicycle riders. 

Its greater utility, however, will come 
when the motor bicycle runs up and. down 
the land, a condition that will make.it a 
sine qua non. Part of the condition making 
for its success will be the needs for alter- 
ing the work from assistance to full work, 
and this alteration will be possible in the 
coaster brakes now being marketed for use 
on motorless bicycles. 

With the motoless bicycle the value of 
this device is not so forcibly apparent as 
the periods of rest between necessary im- 
pulses are briefer than the} are in the motor 
driven bicycle, there being nothing to aug- 
ment or take the place of the leg thrust. 

The statement that in riding 20 miles only 
IS have been pedalled smacks so much to' 
the unthinking mind of the something for 
nothing—the perpetual motion theory— that 
the judgment is clouded and the statement 
is accepted, if at all. with mental reserva- 
tion. The fact remains, however, that the 
coaster brake does save pedaling, as will lie 
remembered by those who rode the Star bi- 
cycle of 15 years ago, and therefore of 
muscular power. 

This saving will only come into complete 
understanding when the motor is there to 
carry us along between strokes. 

As has been indicated, these strokes of 
the leg— as the piston— must come with a 
certain frequency in the motorless bicycle 
to overcome various resistances. These are 
made up of such factors as road grade, sur- 
lace and condition, the weight of the bi- 
cycle and its load, and the physical condi- 
tion of the rider. With the coming of the 
auxiliary power furnished by the motor will 
come the freest use of the coaster brake. 
The motor driven bicycle and the coaster 
brake are linked together by the strongest 
ties. Willi one the other is essential, with 
the other the one gives constant proof of its 
value and the needs for il. 



The Hatter of Price. 

The matter of price will largely determine 
the futurity of many manufacturing con- 
cerns, who cannot give this subject too care- 
ful and earnest consideration. The margin 
of profit is already too small to lie even 
Slightly reduced, and the prices of material 
have considerably increased. 

Time was when an increased demand jus- 



. tided the old rule, of large, quick sales .and 
small profits; but that time has gone by. 
Tlie. American market to-day produces a 
comparatively limited .demand. Every bi- 
cycle made this winter should be sold, and 
that at: a pspflt. If not, the reaction . of 
forced . sales will be, disastrous, not only to 
the individual, but to ,the wdiole trade. 

Never before has there existed a .necessity 
similar to the present one _,of exhausting 

■ every selling resource. There is no bicycle 
made to-day. which sells itself. In the ful- 
ness of offered goods, the public won't do 
any . running after unoffered makes. . Pur- 
chasers next season will require. not only 
to be shown, but to be fully convinced. 
Where the best values lie there will the pa- 
trons congregate, provided they. are aware 
of the exact location. 

It is the maker's business to make them 
aware and keep them fully posted. This 
cannot be done by cheap circulars. It takes 
dignified, businesslike advertising, and solid, 
hard, personal work to effect. Men do not 
look for figs on thistles, neither do they 
wade through trashy announcements to find 
out what they want to know about bicycles. 



That Continuous Road Question. 

One of the propositions of the future that 
will refuse to be downed by any amount of 
scoffing, and which will have to be consid- 
ered seriously, will be the making of trunk 
thoroughfares connecting large cities in well 
settled sections of this country. 

Not the least important is that advocated 
in which the proposition is advanced that a 
road be laid between the two cities of New 
York and Chicago. It is estimated that such 
a continuous strip would cost $10,000,000, 
giving the mide margin of $10,000 a mile, 
which is certainly more than enough to 
cover even the most extravagant methods. 
Probably one-half this amount would more 
than do the work. 

The fear of paternalism woujd hold many 
aloof from advocating government construc- 
tion, although there are precedents which 
would warrant some serious consideration 
in this line. From this there are many 
graduations through State, county or city aid 
to that of priyate enterprise. 

Laying the course of the route over the 
line of greatest travel, it would pass through 
many cities of large size, and would meas- 
ure in length a fair 1,000 miles. Of this dis- 
tance at least one-fifth may be. counted as 
passing through the towns en route, and 
many of these are now in possession, or 



have in coiipe -of construction?* roads or 
lionleyaids that would fill the requirements. 
; Oft; the balance 'another ono-llf'th ..could be 
proper! v surfaced. bv -the'ow iters of Fhe abut- 
ting -property, whose holduiss would im- 
mediately" come "into the market as desirable 
suburban real estate, and from this condi- 
tion, would come a much greater r.eturn than 
by any other possible outlay. Whatever of the 
balance of .the distance that <'ould not he 
built under State aid laws would certainly 
■ become, a most excellent investment for- aid 
from railways and communities having, as 
it would, feeders from each side that would 
augment .it at eyery turn of whatever 
wheeled affair that called it into use. 



Concerning Winter Riding. 

Just about this time of the year, when 
autumn is creeping toward winter, one occa- 
sionally hears talk on the part of some 
cyclists regarding their iutention of keeping 
up their riding right through the winter. 

Generally it will be found that such cyclists 
are latter day converts to the pastime, who 
do not quite realize what consistent riding 
during the off season means. . Old riders 
conversant with the joys and sorrows rarely 
commit themselves to any vainglorious 
statement. They are quite content to seize 
the opportunity for a ride on the too rare oc- 
casions when a frosty day with hard roads 
makes cycling pleasurable, without making 
any boast or preliminary wager. 

On the other hand, the genus novice who 
plunges haphazard into winter riding, with- 
out regard to the conditions, usually finds 
one or two rides more than sufficient to curb 
his enthusiasm. He very soon grasps the fact 
that the winter wind is very different, both 
in depth and consistency, from the summer 
article. 

The man or woman, however, who has al- 
ready experienced the delights of a spin over 
hard, frost bound roads needs no hint to 
embrace the chance whenever it presents it- 
self. Many declare such occasions to be 
far more enjoyable than summer cycling. 
But try for yourself and see. 



Now' and then we are gravely informed — 
by the less informed— that they are perfect- 
ing a two cycle motor for the bicycle. There 
can be no question that there are certain ad- 
vantages possessed by that type, but moto- 
cycle makers would show clear wisdom in 
waiting for the stationary and marine build- 
ers to, have a more general success before 
taking up the burden. 



THE NEW YORK-CHICAGO ROAD 



Interest is Aroused and Support Enlisted 
— $10,000,000 Would Assure Success. 



Talking with one of the officials of the 
New York-Chicago Road Association on his 
' return from the recent trip between those 
■-' two cities, a representative of the Bicycling 
World was impressed not only with the fea- 
sibility of the scheme, but with the proba- 
bilities of something coming from the trip. 

All along the route mayors of towns, coun- 
ty officials, the press and others of influence 
gave active examples of keen interest, and 
assured the officials of the association of 
continued feeling aud support toward any 
end that aimed for the good of all. 

While the rain may not have been of the 
choosing of those on the trip, yet it served 
a good purpose in showing the difficulties of 
market hauling in certain sections; time and 
again were farm wagons found stuck or 
floundering in an effort to reach a market 
with farm products. These instances served 
to add to the accumulated data and evidence 
to be used in time and place. 

In the entire route about two-thirds of the 
distance was found to be mere apologies for 
roads. The other third ranged from good 
to fair, the most of it being iu New York 
- State. Ohio and Indiana were the chief of- 
fenders against decent hauling conditions 
in the grand total, although New York can- 
not escape severe criticism in sections. 

Oue thing which impressed the travellers, 
and that was found to have created a senti- 
ment in favor of improved highways, were 
the miles upon miles of cycle paths through 
New York state, and their influence on 
cycling. The result of the means they had 
provided for in going from town to town and 
to school, was that hardly a farmhouse was 
passed that did not have two or three bi- 
cycles, while around the schools they were 
to be seen in hundreds in the aggregate. In 
many chats with local residents it was found 
that the paths had opened the eyes of the 
natives to the possibilities and desirabilities 
of roads for the vehicles. 

Realizing that the one trip would only 
serve as an introductory, and that to make 
the association purposes effective it would 
be necessary to follow up the entering wedge 
by further blows, hundreds of pictures were 
taken all along the way, showing every road 
condition, as actually found, which will be 
used for stereopticon purposes in subse- 
quent education and agitation that will be 
carried on in the follow up trips to be made. 
With the force of the pictures added to 
the powers of good reasoning that will be 
presented to those who are in a position to 
advance the cause, the officers of the associ- 
ation very naturally feel that they can go 
to the various legislatures, state and na- 
tional, with a tide of sentiment supporting 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

them that will demand attention and yield 
results. 

It is understood at the present time, that 
the association is figuring on an outlay of 
$10,000,000 as being more than ample to push 
the work to a completion. That this would 
be true can be understood when it is real- 
ized that it would give $10,000 a mile for con- 
struction. The details for providing the 
amount are yet in an embryonic state, but 
once the proper sentiment is created there 
should be no trouble to secure an amount so 
relatively small in proportion to the good 
which will come to those who will be most 
affected. 

Reporter " Queered " the fleeting. 

Although such movements in this country 
are now directed against automobilists, at 
Cardiff, Wales, ;a meeting was recently 
held "to consider the advisibility of form- 
ing a defence league for pedestrians against 
the dangers caused by motorists and cy- 
clists." Including a cycling reporter nine 
assembled. Coffee and biscuits were handed 
round at the expense of the chairman, who 
regretted the small attendance; he had some 
fifty empty cups ready. The chairman dwelt 
upon the terrible dangers of the local 
streets, caused by "reckless cyclists and 
motorists." An elderly lady followed with 
her experiences of being knocked down some 
years ago and "badly injured," and as no 
one else among the remaining seven eared 
to speak, the reporter man commenced a 
lecture upon the dangers caused by pedes- 
trians and the rights of cyclists, with the 
result that the proposed league was aban- 
doned. 

Thomas's new Superintendent. 

H. .T. Hass, for many years assistant 
superintendent of the Lozier Manufacturing 
Co., Toledo, manufacturers of the Cleveland 
bicycles, general superintendent of H. A. 
Lozier & Co., and the Canada Cycle & Motor 
Co., of Toronto, for eight years, has been 
appointed general superintendent of the E. 
R. Thomas Motor Co., Buffalo. 

Few if any men have had larger experience 
in fine mechanics than Mr. Hass; to him a 
large proportion of the credit is due in bring- 
ing the Cleveland bicycles to their high 
state of perfection. 

He relieves A. B. Sehultz, the gas eugiue 
expert, of a portion of his duties, thereby 
enabling the latter to devote his constant 
and undivided attention to the feature of 
the business in which he is specially versed. 



61 



PROVED THE BEST 



Settled out of Court. 

Justice White, at Buffalo last week, 
granted an order allowing Ensign Clark 
Pfeiffer to settle a suit for damages against 
the American Bicycle Co. for $1,875. 

Mr. Pfeiffer's boy, who is a minor, eigh- 
teen years old, was injured about two years 
ago while working for the defendants in 
their factory. While attempting to adjust 
a belt on a shaft his arm became entangled 
in the macninery. and it was so badly hurt 
that it had to be amputated. His right leg- 
was also broken. 



In England's Reliability Trials th© Motor 
Bicycle Secures the Highest Scores. 

The judges report of the 650 miles reliabil- 
ity trials,- held by- the Automobile Club of 
Great Britain from August 25 to 30, has been 
published in the club's journal. Bicycles 
- were included in a class which was for 
vehicles selling at $750 or less, and were 
compelled to compete against light vehicles 
having 5 h. p. water cooled motors. 

In each class gold and silver medals were 
offered as first and second prizes and it was 
stated beforehand that medals would be 
given to motor bicycles, provided they 
proved worthy of them. By the irony of 
fate this offer comes home to roost, because 
not only did the leading motor bicycle beat 
all vehicles in its own class, but it beat every 
vehicle taking part in the trials. 

The system of scoring gave 1S00 marks for 
reliability. For hill climbing 100 marks on 
the two hills. For condition at end of trial 
500 marks. For steering 250 marks and for 
brakes 250. For horse power, weight, etc., 
another set of marks were given, bringing 
the highest possible something over 3,000 
marks. The winning bicycle, a 3 h. p. Hum- 
ber, chain driven, secured 3,243 marks, the 
next record being 3,113 on the part of a 10 
h. p. vehicle. 

The score of the bicycle was made up 
from 1795 for reliability, 418 for speed up 
one hill (21.1 miles per hour), 430 for condi- 
tion, highest marking for steering and 
brakes and 100 for horse power and weight. 
The scoring on the one hill was marvellous, 
as only two vehicles secured over 100 marks 
on this same hill. As previously reported 
in the Bicycling World, the motor bicycle 
ran away from everything in both hill 
climbs, but the second hill it were not 
given a point because of pedaling, which is 
obviously absurd. 

Besides the winner there was a 2 h. p. 
machine, which scored 2547 marks and a 
1% Kelecem motor equipped machine which 
was in some mysterious manner broken by 
one of the judges, during an examination, 
using an enormous spanner. Another point 
with this machine that is curious, is that 
in the brake trials a full score was made, 
which 70 per cent, of the vehicles failed to 
do, yet at the judges' examination, the 
brakes had 75 marks deducted. 



The Retail Record. 

Buffalo, N. Y — A L. Knight, 55 Broadway; 
partly wrecked from explosion, loss nomi- 
nal. 

Canaan, N. H. — H. H. Stevens succeeds 
Wesley A. Clark. 

Gastonia, N. C— J. P. Griffin opened store 
in Beal building. 

Great Falls, Mont.— Denton & Veen succeed 
•'- Great Falls Bicycle Co. 



62 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



ITS LATEST MODEL 



Changes in an English Two=Speed Hub- 
Methods of Fitting Indicate Complexity. 



While in earlier models the Hub two-speed 
gear gave a free wheel at. will, and fixed 
pedals on both normal and low gear, the 
new pattern of the hub embodies an auto- 
matic free wheel in the normal gear, but 
has fixed pedaling on the lower gear. This 
combination only gives coasting on the 
normal gear, the earlier patterns, of course, 
having constant pedaling on either. The new 
pattern, however, yet leaves something to be 
desired, as it only coasts under high gear 
conditions. 

In appearance the Hub hub presents but 
little difference to the usual large barrel hub 
of the coaster brake type. The free wheel 
runs on ball bearings, and is enclosed en- 
tirely within the body of the hub. The 
change from the high to the low gear is 28.8 
per cent. In making this change a small 
lever on the frame top tube is pulled back 
toward the rider. To bring the hub back to 
the high gear and free wheel, the lever is re- 
leased, and tiic hull will immediately re- 
spond. 

When changing from the high to the low 
gear, pedaling should always be started lie- 
fore attempting to pull back the lever. The 
lever should never be pulled over with the 
feet at rest or in the free wheeling position. 
All movements in changing the gear should 
be quickly done, but not violently, when the 
bicycle is moving. 

The makers give the following directions 
for fitting: The hub is built into the wheel in 
the ordinary way. and in adjusting it place 
the wheel in the forks and screw the right 
hand or sprocket end cone up to shoulder on 
spindle. Screw up the left hand cone until 
it is adjusted on the balls; then tighten left 
hand nut. to prevent the spindle from turn- 
ing; afterward unscrew the right hand cone 
a quarter turn, to put the thrust on screw 
and not on shoulder of spindle. This is im- 
portant. 

Tighten right hand end in frame, slack off 
left hand nut, and adjust the cone at that 
end so that the hub revolves quite freely 
without shake. Care should be taken not to 
have less thread than five-sixteenths of an 
inch outside of washers for nuts, and not 
more than three-eighths. See that the forks 
of the machine are square and true, to pre- 
vent the spindle from being bent when the 
huh is screwed up. 

The connection between the hub and the 
change lever is made by a twisted steel wire 
running over a pulley fixed, in the case of a 
man's machine, to the seat pillar bolt. For 
women's machines the wire passes under the 
bottom bracket, and special pulleys are sup- 
plied for that purpose. The change lever is 
fixed on the top tube. In adjusting the lever, 



place it in the front notch or high gear posi- 
tion, slide it along the top tube until the wire 
is just tight, then screw up the clips securely. 
The hub should be oiled occasionally with 
a good quality of light cycle oil, by leaning 
the machine over to the right, so that the oil 
may run into the gear box. 



SEEKING OPENINGS 



Wherein Hany Young Men Make Mistakes 
—The Right and the Wrong Tracks. 



Two Speeds for Motor Bicycles. 

While in a number of cases foreign makers 
of motor bicycles are provided two speeds 
and an idle, others are meeting the subject 
of constant drive by the half way measure 
of providing a clutch mechanism at the mo- 
tor shaft, that the drive may be disengaged 
at will. Of this type which offers half a 
loaf, at least, is the Princeps chain drive 
motor bicycle. 

Secured to the motor axle is a sleeve hav- 
ing a large flange at its outer end. Attached 




to this flange by small screws is the female 
member of the clutch, CI. The outer pe- 
riphery of this latter member is in the form 
of a groved drum. This can be used to start 
the motor by a turn or two of a cord or strap 
being given a sharp, quick pull. 

The male member, C, revolves on the sleeve 
fixed to the motor shaft, and locked to this 
is the drive sprocket. W. Between the two 
members is a' helical spring. S. having a ball 
thrust against the outer flange, which serves 
to hold the two members in engagement. 

On the top frame tube of the bicycle is an 
operating lever with a rod extending down 
to the clutch. The movement of the lever in- 
fluences the full or partial engagement of the 
clutch, and a slip drive or a rigid drive is 
under the control of the rider. As the motor 
can be thrown out of engagement, no exhaust 
lift is used, simply a compression tap for 
starting. 



In times of great political excitement a 
motion to "suspend rules" is in order. 

In times of stress when a young man is 
seeking opportunity to earn a livelihood we 
suggest, says the Business World, that he 
"suspend" the rule of looking about for a 
position and see what he can do to fill a 
need unknown or unrecognized. 

Where a definite routine of labor is in- 
volved it is easy to secure help, and those 
"positions" are usually rilled, with a waiting- 
list behind each. But there are labors to 
lie performed,, work to be done, skill of 
hands or alertness of mind or grasp of some 
"how" that requires a person of peculiar 
fitness, but which that person must himself 
discover and to which he must fit himself. 

There is room in every factory for more 
"help" than is there. Every office could find 
employment for the extra-ordinary help 
which is wanted (unconsciously, no doubt i. 
additional to what is there. 

The young man who is hunting for a posi- 
tion would better give up his quest and see 
if he can't make place for himself where 
his peculiar' manner of doing things or fit- 
ness for certain operations or talents for 
creating may find useful application. To 
such we would say: 

Go to a merchant or manufacturer or man- 
ager and show him where you fit into his af- 
fairs; wherein you can serve him to his 
profit, and you won't get anything lint an in- 
terested hearing. 

If you go to those same men asking if 
there is a vacant place involving known fac- 
tors of detail or routine you will be quite 
sure to meet the ready, "No." 

To-day's business genius makes his place 
and fills it. By the very force of his ca- 
pacity to do something better or differently 
from others (which not infrequently is all 
that is required to make it "better") and to 
point out just where he could step in and 
fit — he will secure a speedy recognition and 
success will follow as surely as day follows 
night. 

Every man knows what he wants; but 
every man doesn't know what others want. 
Learn that and meet the demand. 



Recent Incorporation. 

Providence. R. I.— Ooodson Electric Igni- 
tion Co.. with $10,000 capital, to manufacture 
magnets, spark plugs and electrical appli- 
ances of all kinds, gas engines, launches, 
automobiles, motorcycles and vehicles self- 
propelling. Incorporators, John M. Walton. 
Otto Carlborg and Royal H. Gladding. 



"The Motor: What It Is and How It 
Works." See "Motocycles and How to Man- 
age Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 649, 
New York. ' *** 



DEALING WITH DEBTORS 



"My Honey or Your Life" was the Old 
System — Laws That now Apply. 



In the beginning there was no trust or 
credit. Han lived in scattered and isolated 
families, supplying his few wants by his 
own labor. But as his condition improved 
his wants increased, and he soon had to ex- 
change commodities with his neighbor, and, 
in course of time, he not only had enough to 
exchange, but to sell others— for cash. Hence 
trade arose, and with it credit, and as debt- 
ors often default in payment, our great an- 
cestors were already confronted with the 
same problems that puzzle our merchants — 
namely, how to collect their debts, says 
Louis Laude, LL. D. 

Being of a more refined disposition, we 
content ourselves with ceasing to give credit 
or gel a .judgment against the debtor. But 
our predecessors were made of "coarser 
stuff," and were not satisfied with money 
judgments only. If the man cannot pay, then 
"we will have his body," they said. 

In Egypt they even went so far as to 
oblige the debtor to pledge the embalmed 
body of his father with the creditor till the 
debt was discharged. He who died without 
redeeming this sacred pledge was deprived 
himself of funeral obsequies. 

The third of the twelve famous Tables in 
Rome provided that a creditor may on his 
own authority seize his debtor and carry 
him before the praetor, and if the debtor re- 
sisted the creditor might seize and drag him 
by force. 

The debtor had thirty days after judgment 
to pay his debt, and if he did not then pay 
or give security or sell himself by entering 
into the rexuin, the creditor had a right to 
seize him, load him with chains of a certain 
weight and treat him as a slave on a pre- 
scribed scanty allowance; and if he failed 
to pay after being sixty days in prison he 
was brought before the people on three mar- 
ket days and the debt proclaimed. If no 
friend appeared he was either put to death 
or sold as a slave into Ethuria; and if there 
were several creditors he might at their 
election be sold beyond the Tiber, or his 
body cut into pieces. And, unlike the law 
of Venice, as propounded by Fortia in "The 
Merchant of Venice," the Roman law was 
not so careful as to the partition of the 
debtor's body, for by the third Table it was 
specifically provided "that if the creditors 
, cut more or less than their portion they shall 
incur no penalty." 

It was only in the year 350 B. C. that a 
law was passed prohibiting personal slavery 
for debt, and confined the creditor's remedy 
to the property of the debtor only; the in- 
solvent debtor.- nevertheless, forfeited all his 
. political rights. 

: The same penalty was incurred by insol- 
vent debtors in Greece, Solon prohibiting all 
imprisonment for debt; but he deprived the 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

debtor of all voice in the public assembly or 
share in Hie government of the common- 
wealth.' If a debtor died insolvent his heirs 
suffered disfranchisement till the debt was 
paid. 

The Mosaic laws, too, permitted debtors to 
be sold into slavery in default of payment, 
for we find the Prophet Isaiah exclaiming, 
"Thus saith the Lord, which of my creditors 
is it to whom 1 sold you?" The Jewish law, 
however, had a merciful provision by which 
the slaves were liberated and allowed to re- 
turn to their families in the year of the 
jubilee. 

The English laws were just as severe and 
gave the creditors almost unlimited power 
over persons who owed them money. We 
find a curious case, naively told, of one Regi- 
nald ricard, of Stramford. who, in the year 
.1:275, came and confessed by his own mouth 
•that he sold to Peter Redhood, of London, 
a ring of brass for five and one-half pence, 



Morgan xWrightTires 
are good tires 



see that Morgan ft Wright 

IS BRANDED ON EVERT TIRE AND TUBE 
NO OTHER IS GENUINE. 



Morgan & Wright 



CHICAGO o 



New York Branch: 214-216 West 4Tth Street. 



saying that the said ring was of curious 
gold, and that he and a one eyed man found 
it on the last Sunday in the churchyard of 
St. Ives, near the cross"; therefore it was 
derided by the court "that the said Reginald 
do make' satisfaction to the said Peter for 
five and one-half pence, and be in mercy 
for the trespass; and. as he is poor, pledges 
his body." 

As this is a case of fraud, however, such 
a debtor may be imprisoned for three months 
to the jail limits at the present time even 
in New York. 

History gives many instances of promi- 
nent men in England, writers especially, 
who found themselves in prison for being 
unable to meet their obligations. 

In the Debtors' Prison at Sheffield, John 
Howard, the famous philanthropist, found a 
cutler who was in jail for 30 cents. The fees 
of the court which had consigned him to 
prison amounted to £5, and this sum he had 
been trying to earn for several years in 
prison. 

In another jail there was a man, with his 
wife and six children, confined for court and 



63 

jailer's fees amounting Op about 20 shillings. 
As these were civil prisoners the govern- 
ment did not concern itself with providing 
them with food, clothing or sanitary prisons, 
and they lived amid wretchedness, filth and 
poverty so well described by Dickens in his 
"Little Dorrit," or by Goldsmith in "The 
Vicar of Wakefield." 

Another obstacle to their release was the 
fact that the sheriff and jailers, not being- 
salaried officials, were dependent for their 
livelihood on the fees, which they rigorously 
exacted from the prisoners. It was only in 
1774 that an act was passed abolishing fees 
and requiring the justices of the peace to 
see that the walls and ceilings of all 
prisons were whitewashed at least once a 
year. 

Samuel Wesley, the father of John Wes- 
ley, of Methodist renown, died in prison for 
debt. 

The colony of Georgia was founded by 
General Oglethorpe as a refuge for the many 
thousand poor debtors who were confined 
in English prisons. 

The spirit of the English law of that age is 
tersely illustrated by a passage from an old 
case (Mary vs. Scott), where Justice Hyde 
says: "If a person be taken on execution 
and lie iu prison for debt, he is not to be 
provided with meat, drink or clothes, but 
he must live on his own or the charity of 
others; and if no man wiil relieve him let 
him die, in the name of God, says the law, 
and so say I." 

Such were the laws of England in regard 
to her unfortunate debtors. It was only dur- 
ing the first years of Victoria's reign that im- 
prisonment for debt in England was abol- 
ished, except where the debt was incurred 
by fraud. 

Our own State of New York did not do bet- 
ter for its poor debtors than England; until 
tne year 1831 the body of an ordinary debtor 
could be taken on execution and imprisoned 
"until he agreed with his adversary" or 
"paid the uttermost farthing." 

It was only on April 26, 1831, that the 
bill known as the "Stillwell act" became a 
law, abolishing imprisonment for debt, and 
at the time the law went into effect there 
were 3,002 persons in prison, more than 
1,000 of whom were confined for sums less 
than $1011 and mo for sums less than $50. 

Except in the instances hereinafter named 
our code expressly provides "that a person 
shall not be arrested or imprisoned for dis- 
obedience to a judgment or order requiring 
the payment of money due upon a contract, 
or as damages for non-performance of a con- 
tract." 

A person may be arrested where he is sued 
in an action for injury to person or property, 
fraud or deceit; or for the recovery of a 
chattel which he concealed or put out of the 
reach of his creditors; or to recover money 
received or property or damages for the con- 
version or misapplication of property by an 
agent of a corporation, or banking associa- 
tion, or by a factor, agent or broker or other 
person in a fiduciary capacity. 

Where, therefore, an order of arrest is 



64 

granted the law requires.that the aforemen- 
tioned: facts, should be proven in .addition to 
the cause .of action;, otherwise suit, will be 
dismissed and th.e^creditpr T will be left to his 
money . judgment only. 

These provisions apply to men only. A 
woman can be arrested only when she is 
sued for wilful injury to person, character or 
property. 

A very effective though highly technical 
means to collect debts contracted by fraud 
is given by our laws by means of attach 
ment, which can be invoked in cases where 
the debtor is either a corporation organized 
under the laws of another State or is a 
resident of another State, or where a resi- 
dent of New York keeps himself concealed 
with intent to avoid creditors or the ser- 
vice of summons; or where the debtor has 
removed or secreted his property; or (and 
this is a very important provision passed 
in 1S99) where for the purpose of procuring 
credit the debtor has made a false state- 
ment in writing, signed by himself or his 
agent, as to his financial responsibility or 
standing. 

But the right to attach the property or ar- 
rest the person of a debtor, although given 
by our law, has been strictly construed by 
the courts and made highly technical, as 
many a lawyer had found to his sorrow 
when he did it only to please his clients, and 
unless the facts stated are such that the 
judge is satisfied as to the fraud the order 
Of arrest or the warrant of attachment will 
be dismissed, with costs. 

When a judgment has been obtained 
against the debtor, either by his default or 
after trial, it is collected by means of an 
execution issued to the sheriff of the county 
in which the. debtor's property is located, 
with directions to satisfy the judgment out 
of the personal and real property of the 
debtor, in the order named. 

The following articles are exempt from 
seizure by the sheriff: 

All household articles and wearing ap- 
parel. 

A seat or pew in a church. 

Working tools and team, including profes- 
sional instruments; furniture and library. 

Military pay of a non-commissioned officer 
in the United States, or New York, army or 
navy. 

Pension, sword or other medals presented 
for services rendered in the United States, 
or New York, army or navy. 

Burial ground when it is actually used as 
such and does not exceed one-fourth acre. 
..Or-alpt of land not exceeding the value 
of $1,000 when it is designated as a home- 
stead. 

Except where^the judgment is for the 
value of the very article which would other- 
wise be exempt, or where the action is for 
wages of a domestic. 

■After a* judgment has been obtained and 
returned by the sheriff as unsatisfied re- 
course .may be had to supplementary pro- 
ceedings, by which a debtor is compelled to 
submit to a searching examination as to 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

the disposal of his property, which, as often 
happens, is transferred to some near rela- 
tive for no consideration. 

The debtor is bound under penalty of con- 
tempt of court to answer all questions con- 
cerning his income and expenses. And if 
any property is disclosed a receiver is ap- 
pointed by the court, who takes charge of 
the property, satisfies the judgment from its 
proceeds, and, after deducting his fees, pays 
the balance, if any, to the judgment debtor. 

The debtor may also be examined in sup- 
plementary proceedings after execution has 
been issued, and before its return, to aid 
the sheriff in satisfying it. 

Where a third party owes the judgment 
debtor $10 or more he, too, may be examined 
and compelled to pay the whole of his debt 
to the judgment creditor. Such payment is, 
of course, in complete satisfaction of his 
own debt to that extent. 



Still Racing at Vailsburg. 

After three weeks of postponements caused 
by bad weather, a card of races that pro- 
vided snappy contests for 3,000 spectators 
was put on at Vailsburg on Sunday last. 
The annual handicap day was celebrated 
yesterday, all the events excepting the 
novice being of the kind indicated. It was 
an off day for the champions and for the 
stars also, excepting Iver Lawson, who cap- 
tured both professional events, the quarter 
in 29 2-5 from 10 yards and the ten miles in 
22:24 from scratch. In the quarter-mile 
handicap Kramer was shut out in the trial 
heat by Krebs and Dolbear, the champion 
finishing third. In the ten-mile race Kra- 
mer's tire punctured when about half the 
distance had been covered. 

All the races were hard ridden and every 
finish was a close one. Hurley did not start, 
and Root, his rival, captured the half-mile 
amateur handily by half a length from Hike 
Coffey in" 1:07 2-5. Root made a good ride 
in the five-mile event and was leading the 
string home in the stretch. It looked so easy 
for him that he slowed down and Charley 
Sehlee (50 yards); came from the last posi- 
tion in the line and beat Root by an open 
length. Time, 11:43. Lawson, Kimble and 
Krebs made a blanket finish in the quarter 
mile race. Lawson won by a few feet and 
it was hard to pick the second man. 

There were twenty-four starters in the 
chief race, the ten-mile professional, and the 
sprinting at the finish of every lap by the 
men who had not made any money for four 
weeks and wanted even the one-dollar prizes 
was a sight to see. Lawson was in splendid 
form all day and he made a hard ride of it 
to the finish. He made the pace all the way 
for the last lap and a half and then won by 
half a length, Bedell having been dragged 
up by his brother and making a jump into 
second place right at the tape, shooting past 
MeFarland. who had been fighting It out 
with Lawson. 

The five-mile motor bicycle handicap run 
in connection with the St. Louis (Mo.), Fair 
on October 9, was won by Harry R. Geer, 
scratch, on an Indian, in 8:45; G. V. Rogers 
(Mitchell), 100 yards, was second, and J. C. 
Higdon (Orient), 50 yards, third. 



The Hatter of Lamp Wicks. 

> Writing on the subject of oil lamps, one- 
who has been experimenting along this line 
says as follows: 

"I have found it a good plan, whatever 
the width of the wick tube may be, to use a 
wick %in. narrower. It may be interesting 
to say here that I have found the advan- 
tages of a wide wick not so niuch in greater 
light as in the increase of steadiness. 'A 
wide wick is far less affected than a nar- 
row one by passage over bad ground, as the 
larger volume of flame is but little disturbed 
by the shocks coincident with rough roads. 
It is also much superior to a narrow wick in 
strong gusty winds, and except under very 
severe conditions indeed it burns without a 
flicker, and when the light from a wick 
half the width would be so fitful as to be 
almost useless. 

"It is much better to have a steady light 
when riding on a really dark night than one 
which, although it may be very powerful 
at times, varies somewhat, as when it is 
really dark one has to ride by the light of 
the lamp, and any change in the intensity 
of the illumination is very baffling. For 
this reason, all other things being equal, a 
lamp with lin. wick is better than one with 
%in., though, as I have said, so far as the 
actual light given is concerned the difference 
is very small indeed. 

"I have always used good lamps, and have 
never had bother with them, and I am quite 
at a loss to understand how it is that so 
many riders complain of their lamps, espe- 
cially as many of them assure us they take 
all precautions. In fact, I am almost forced 
to the conclusion that they use bad oil, tight 
or damp wick, or else they allow the air 
holes of the lamp to become clogged. 

"I will add that I have never had' any 
trouble with any good lamp for some years, 
and that the satisfactory experience I have 
had should not be an isolated instance. Be- 
fore the niceties of cycle lamp design were 
fully understood I occasionally had bother 
through too little or too much ventilation, 
but this was at least six years ago, when 
lamps were not so well made or so excellent- 
ly designed as are those of to-day." 



The Host Neglected Vehicle. 

Bicycles to-day are perhaps the most 
neglected machines in the world. Time was 
when it was the pride of a wheelman to look 
carefully to the adjustment and lubrication 
of his bicycle, but times have changed, and 
the present excellence of manufacture by its 
very excellence has provoked neglect. 

It is no uncommon thing to hear a man 
assert that he never oils or adjusts his ma- 
chine and to appear proud of the fact withal. 
Luckily, neglect of this kind does not result 
in bodily harm to the rider, although the ma- 
chine is by no means improved. 



"The A. B. C. of Electricity" will aid you 
in understanding many things about motor 
bicycles that may now seem hard of under- 
standing. Price 50 cents. The Goodman Co., 
154 Nassau street, New York. *** 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



65 



TIRE LEAKAGE THEORY 



How a French Scientist Proved That Slow- 
Leaks are Natural. 



For the cyclist a slow leaking tire is more 
than a nuisance, and an examination was 
once made by a French scientist, who did 
not feel satisfied with the usual explanation 
that a leak is always caused by a small 
puncture at some point of the tire. He did 
not find this supposition in accordance with 
facts, and proceeded to investigate the con- 
ditions under which atmospheric air and 
other gases may pass through rubber. 

Commencing with earoonic acid gas, which 
has been used in Paris to some extent to in- 
flate tires, as it was easily obtained from 
tanks, he proceeded to immerse pieces ,of 
rubber tube in carbonic acid gas under sev- 
eral atmospheric pressures, and found that 
the rubber swelled up to sometimes ten times 
its original size. It also came to resemble 
gelatine in consistency and lost parts of its 
elasticity. 

When taken out and left to the action of 
the atmosphere the carbonic acid gas ab- 
sorbed in the rubber gradually disengaged 
itself in small bubbles that made a slight 
crackling noise when they parted from the 
rubber. Within one hour the rubber resumed 
its usual size and appearance. 

When the carbonic acid was simply in- 
closed in a rubber bag, under ordinary at- 
mospheric pressure, it passed through the 
rubber by degrees. When a 3% inch tire 
was charged with the gas under SO pounds 
pressure the deflation took place more rapid- 

iy./ 

He next proceeded to analyze the air con- 
tained in a tire that had been inflated with 
ordinary atmospheric air for some time, and 
found that it was no longer atmospheric 
air. Its components, which are about 21 
parts of oxygen, 79 parts nitrogen and a 
small quantity of carbonic acid gas, had 
escaped through the rubber at an uneven 
ra.te. He found that the oxygen had escaped 
more rapidly, and that the gas in the tire 
contained more than its due share of nitro- 
gen. 

With a tire which was inflated a number 
of times to make up for loss by leakage the 
contents were found to be nearly pure nitro- 
gen, all the oxygen having gradually es- 
caped, while the nitrogen, introduced by 
each inflation witli atmospheric air, re- 
mained. 

The scientist drew the following infer- 
ences from his experiments: First, carbonic 
acid gas is not adapted for tire inflation; 
second, with ordinary atmospheric air one 
must expect the oxygen to leak out again, 
leaving only four-fifths of the original infla- 
tion, the rapidity of this action depending 
upon the quality and nature of the rubber 
used in the composition of the tire; third, an 
air tire should never be entirely deflated 
if it can be i voided, because the new air 
will be partly oxygen, which will escape, 



while the old air is nearly all nitrogen, 
which does not escape through rubber. 

According to these experiments it would 
be preferable to inflate tires with nitrogen 
from a tank, but as the gas is not at present 
available in this form the next best thing 
to do is to inflate hard with ordinary at- 
mospheric air and repeat the inflation as 
often as the tire shows a decrease of hard- 
ness, indicating tl>e escape of oxygen. 



GRAPHITE'S BEGINNING 



Seventy-Five Years Ago the Competition 
Began With German flake™. 



Two Troubles and Their Remedy. 

Two recent experiences of a Bicycling- 
World man teaches that constant repetition 
of advice and instruction on any one point 
in motor bicycle management seems to be 
necessary. This because in one of the fol- 
lowing cases the man involved had been 
given the same advice no less than three 
times in the last 15 months, and in the other 
twice in six months. 

The last times occurred within a week. 
In both instanaces intermittent running was 
complained of, and it was positively as- 
serted that the previous troubles were not 
the present annoyances, as care had been 
taken to test for proof. 

In one case lots of sparking in testing 
with a screw driver at the spark cam, but 
a thin streak at the end of the secondary 
wire when detached from the plug. Simply 
a case of leakage through the insulated cov- 
ering of the secondard wire at a point be- 
tween the coil and the plug, where the wire 
was attached to the bicycle frame. Remedied 
by slipping a piece of rubber tubing over 
the secondary wire, using soapstone to make 
the tubing slide easily. Tire tape was not 
used, as it can be wound around the spot 
ten thicknesses and then not hold the short 
circuit. 

In the other some cneap metal had been 
used for the contact point of the screw, and 
in the blade of the make and break of the 
spark cam. Result, constant pitting from the 
arcing of the current and the pits filled with 
greasy dirt. Cleaning off the surface only 
helped matters temporarily, as the pockets 
in the contacting surfaces never got thor- 
oughly cleaned out. Remedied by filing off 
to smooth surfaces with a nail rile. 



Wicks That Flare Up. 

Ordinary lamp wicks do not take too kind- 
ly to flame on such wet and windy nights 
as we have had recently, says a writer in 
Cycler's News. After wasting two or three 
matches you get one to burn inside the lamp, 
and then begins the coaxing, cozening and 
warming up of the wick before it will come 
to business. You get one corner lighted, and 
wait patiently for it to burn up, or impa- 
tiently jump on your bicycle and jolt it out. 

All this trouble and annoyance may be pre- 
vented by a little forethought and a drop of 
kerosene, the forethought to trim the wick 
and turn it just below the level of the slot 
before starting, and the application of the 
drop of kerosene, which will soak in and 
change the nature of the troublesome wick 
until it will flare up at the sight of a lighted 
match. 



There is no question that the difficulties of 
properly lubricating small motors has led 
many an experimenter to wish that some- 
thing else than oil could be used. The ten- 
dency is to turn to graphite, because it 
will do away with some of the evils of leak- 
age and because it does not char or carbon- 
ize. Its difficulties have been in preventing 
it frond short circuiting the spark plug, and 
if that tendency can be overcome by design- 
ing there would be everything in its favor. 
That this may be finally accomplished can 
find some believers; therefore its beginning 
in this country is of interest. 

Graphite, or plumbago, was originally 
brought to this country in small quantities 
as a curiosity, there having never been found 
any but very small deposits of the most 
useful varieties on this continent except at 
Ottawa, Canada, and Ticonderoga, Lake 
Champlain. 

It being, one of the difficult and refrac- 
tory substances to manipulate, but few per- 
sons in the world were able to bring it into 
shape that would render it useful to the arts 
or manufactures, and what did not enter into 
legitimate commerce was manufactured in 
Germany. But 'the crucibles of foreign 
make proved not only expensive, but, unre- 
liable, which was a serious drawback to the 
growing industries of this country. 

In the year 1S27 a new and successful 
rivalry to the German trade sprang up in 
Salem. Mass. One Joseph Dixon, a worker 
in metals, had turned his attention to the 
subject of a reliable crucible, which he 
thought of vital importance to the success- 
ful manufacture in- metals, and some sam- 
ples of Ceylon plumbago, brought by ship 
carpenters as a curiosity on account of its 
great beauty and purity, coining into liis 
hands, he set himself to work to test its 
qualities ill the manufacture of crucibles. 
Though the quality was superior to the Ger- 
man graphite, the difficulties of grinding 
and bringing it into controllable shape of> 
I'eri'd unexpected obstacles to his success. 
But this was subsequently overcome by the 
invention of new machinery, which resulted 
in the present style of crucible extensively 
used by all metal workers iii this country 
and Europe. 

From this beginning graphite has been so 
perfected that it enters into niany indus- 
tries and has many uses not thought of 
when crucibles were the consideration that 
first led to the extensive present day output. 



A cycle versus cavalry competition has 
been arranged to take place shortly over 
chosen ground near London, England. The 
contest lias arisen out of a controversy as 
lo whether mounted men or cyclists would 
have proved the more efficient as pursuers 
of war balloons. 



66 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



PISTON HEAD FITS 



How the Size at This End Should Vary 
From That of the Open. 



Only those who have had the experience 
in fitting pistons to cylinders know the diffi- 
culties undergone in trying to find the clear- 
ance to be allowed in order to prevent seiz- 
ing when heated. One maker lias adopted 
the rule of grinding both cylinders and pis- 
tons, tapering the latter about eight-thou- 
sandths in the length, with the big diameter 
at the open end, allowing one-sixty-fourth 
clearance at the closed end. On this sub- 
ject the following, by a writer in the Ameri- 
can Machinist, is of interest: 

"As often happens in shop practice, no 
hard and fast rule can be given for titling 
piston heads of gas engines, but a little con- 
sideration of the conditions to be met will 
indicate what is needed. From this it can 
be determined what is necessary and the 
amount of allowance determined. 

"To those giving the construction and op- 
erations of a gas engine consideration, it is 
of course very evident that the piston head 
gets much warmer than the cylinder, and 
that this difference is greatest when the en- 
gine is developing most power. 

"This difference is also influenced by the 
thickness of cylinder walls, temperature of 
cooling water in the jacket, speed of engine, 
kind of cylinder oil used, quantity of cylin- 
der oil used, etc., and also by whether the 
engine is two or four cycle, single or double 
acting, with or without cross-head, etc., and 
in large engines as to whether the piston 
head is cooled internally by water passing 
through it, or not. 

"I think a very brief consideration of these 
conditions will show that this is a problem 
impossible of solution by the draughtsman 
or designer, owing to the numerous uncer- 
tainties involved. He may make a very good 
guess at it. basing his guess partly on calcu- 
lations and partly on previous experience, 
but is w'ise if he understands it is a guess, 
and acts accordingly. 

"Submitted to the Analytical Calculus of 
'cut and try' of the shops, this question be- 
comes one that can be more nearly solved. 

"By fitting a head so it will be a working 
fit, and putting it in and running it under 
working conditions, and noting if it has any 
tendency to stick, it will be seen whether 
that is loose enough or not. It will generally 
be found too tight for hard work. It will 
also, if of the trunk type long head that 
takes its explosion at one end only, be found 
to be bearing hardest at the inner end. By 
easing off and trying a few times, the shape 
of the head and also the size may be found. 
This, then, may be taken as a. standard for 
that make of engine and that size, of the 
make. 

"When a head lias been tilted in this way 
it will be found to be largest at the open 



end and smallest at the closed end, but it 
will, not be a straight taper, but will be a 
curve, getting smaller, more rapidly as the 
closed end is approached. 

"The amount of taper necessary in prac- 
tice is very slight, except for the last part, 
where it is better to lie liberal with the re- 
duction, as the head has a way of getting 
larger just at the em\ if the work is hard and 
continuous. 

"Having found- the allowance suited to the 
engine and size of cylinder, trie inside mi- 
crometer and. any suitable gauge for outside 
measurements will duplicate it. 

"The matter of a suitable quantity and 
quality of cylinder oil is one that is of great 
importance, both to the maker and user. 
The heat due to friction will" often cause a 
piston head to become red hot, and stick and 
cut the cylinder, where, under the same con-, 
ditions of load and speed and with a good 
oil in reasonable quantity, the engine will 
not even smoke. I believe the subject of oil 
almost a. vital one to both the makers and 
users of gas engines, and one that should re- 
ceive very careful attention, as very often 
trouble is blamed on the engine that is en- 
tirely due to the oil used. 

"Starting with a small size cylinder and 
finding the proper allowance, aiid then doing 
the same with a large one, will give data 
enough for determining intermediate sizes 
very closely. 

"While it is desirable to make the fits as 
close as is safe, yet it is. well to keep in mind 
that a tight head will do more harm than 
a loose one, and when a head begins to 
stick even good oil will get crowded out, and 
both cylinder and head are likely to soon be 
in bad condition. 

"Should your reader who wishes informa- 
tion on this subject be repairing engines of 
various makes, I would suggest that he give 
about double the allowance he would for 
ordinary working, fits of the same size. 
"Where the cylinders and heads are both very 
true and smooth, this allowance should be 
slightly greater than where they are left 
rough." 

Easy Steering Makes Easy Ridiusj. 

Free steering has much to da witli the 
ease with which hills may be negotiated; a 
stiff head makes hard work of a very mod- 
erate hill. This was impressed upon a rider 
the other day, when his bicycle required an 
extra push to mount a hill which he usually 
takes with ease. On reaching home he put 
the machine through its facings. 

The wheels ran freely when there was no 
load on, pedals and chain seemed all right, 
but the ball head was— well, it could hardly 
be called stiff, and yet it was not so free as 
usual. , The mud had splashed up and 
clogged the bottom ball race slightly, and 
it was evidently this slight stiffness in the 
steering which had spoiled the hill climbing 
qualities of the machine for the time being. 
A. drop of gasolene washed out the grit, and 
care was taken to smear all around the 
bottom ball race with vaseline, to prevent 
dirt working in again. 



PROTECTION 




How Makers flay Protect Tnemselves Froni 
Foreign Imitations of Their Goods. 



General Spaulding, Acting Secretary of the 
United States Treasury, has issued a ruling 
in which he has pointed out a method where- 
by manufacturers of patented articles may, 
in a measure, protect themselves against the 
importations of infringements of such arti- 
cles, and yet not take such matters into 
court. This ruling was the result of a num- 
ber of applications that have reached the 
Treasury Department, asking that customs 
officers at various ports be instructed to re- 
fuse admittance to such articles. There is a 
law making such an action possible, but at- 
tention is called to the fact that under Sec- 
tion 2 of the tariff act is provided a partial 
remedy. The act reads as follows: 

"No article of imported merchandise which 
shall copy or simulate the name or trade- 
mark of any domestic manufacture or manu- 
facturer, or which shall bear a name or mark 
which is calculated to lead the public to be- 
lieve that the article is manufactured in the 
United States, shall be admitted to entry at 
any custom house of the United States. And 
in order to aid the officers of the customs in' 
enforcing this prohibition, any domestic man- 
ufacturer who has adopted trade-marks may 
require his name and residence and a de- 
scription of his trade-marks to be recorded 
in books which shall be kept for that purpose 
in the Department of the Treasury, under 
such regulations as the Secretary of the 
Treasury may prescribe, and may furnish to 
the department, fac similes of such trade- 
marks; and thereupon the Secretary of the 
Treasury shall cause one or more copies of 
the same to be transmitted to each collector 
or other officer of the customs." 

General Spaulding suggests that owners of 
patented articles shall adopt a trade-mark, 
which may be registered as provided in the 
section quoted above, and while it must be 
conceded that a trade-mark will not protect 
every infringement, which must . be prose- 
cuted in the courts, still it is believed that the 
publicity which will thus be gained will be 
such a protection that infringers will not 
find it profitable to attempt to import goods 
which may be otherwise identical, but which 
cannot be imported under the registered 
name or trade-mark. 

It, must be borne in mind, however, that 
this registration of a trade-mark or a pro- 
prietary name will not prevent the importa- 
tion of goods under the same trade-mark, if 
the manufacturer of such goods has the right 
to use it, the department taking the position 
that the law is intended to protect the con- 
sumer from fraudulent importations, and not 
to prevent the exclusion of genuine articles 
manufactured abroad by parties wlio have a 
right, by purchase, license or otherwise, to 
use the trade-mark. 

The best way to obtain the benefit of the 
act above quoted is to send to the Secretary 
of the Treasury for a dozen printed copies 
of the registration papers published by the' 
Patent Office. These copies can be had lor 5 
cents each. These copies, being official docu- 
ments, carry with them considerable prestige, 
and, besides, give just the information the 
collectors of customs want. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



67 



Acetylene Gases. 

The recent publication in a New York 
daily journal of an advertisement calling 

for an expert on acetylene gas to roinpleie 
a motor usjng tins gas as tie explosive re- 
calls some experimenTs made aliout . three 
years ago 'mi the ; explosive jiroperties of 
aeelvlene alone and when mixed vgltli other 
gases. 

Acetylene derives 'its main value from its 
extraordinarily high illuminating power per 
unit of volume; il derives this great lumi- 
nosity from its high flame temperature, and 
its high temperature of combustion from 
its endotherinic nature. But, being endother- 
mie, it is liable under suitable conditions to 
explode in the total absence of air. Hence 



its value depends on its comparative danger- 
ousness. This liability to explosive decom- 
position by shock, etc., can be reduced by 
dilution; but to the increased stability thus 
.obtained naturally follows decreased flame 
temperature, anil ill a far higher ratio de- 
creased luminosity. 

It is now well known that up to a pres- 
sure of two atiiibsplieres dissociation of acety- 
lene produced" by a shock or detonator is 
purely local, and so unimportant; above that 
pressure risk grows rapidly. An explosion 
of compressed gas may occur when water 
drops upon an excess of carbide in such a 
manner that part of the mass becomes in- 
candescent. 

A solution of acetylene in acetone is much 
safer than a liquefied gas. for the solvent. 



is exothermic and so absorbs part of the 
beat evolved should an explosion take place" 
in the solution. On the other hand, the gas 
above the liquid is essentially pure acety- 
lene under severe pressure anil exhibits its:.' 
usual properties. When diluted ,with others; 
gases the amount of. pressure an acetylene 
mixture will bear without {exploding* 
fhroughout its mass if a -spark is^iipplied at? 
one spot varies according to the nature of 
the diluent. 

' Hydrogen giws'-a lower margin of safety 
than coal gas. and ordinary coal gas than', 
a product specially rich in methane. Bui 
all these materials are far less luminous- 
than ac.'tylene itself, whence it becomes a 
mere quest ion of expediency how to balance, 
the slight extra danger lint high light giving 
power of neat acetylene, with the loss of; 
luminosity but great stability of its various 
dilutions. 



"FAVORITE" BICYCLES, 

— FULL ■ I"" 

ADULT AND JUVENILE. 

Our 1903 PROPOSITION is one that will 
interest you. 

WRITE US AND WE WILL CONVINCE YOU. 



The Toledo Metal Wheel Co., 

TOLEDO, OHIO. 




it's Time 

to think of the goods that will 
sell next year. 

THE SMITH 

Two-Roller 
Spring Post 

is one of them. It was one of the 
sellers this season; it will be an 
even better one during 1903. 

fff-NO JOBBER'S CATALOG CAN AFFORD 
NOT TO LIST IT. 

J.N. SMITH & CO.. Detroit, Michigan. 



Frame Parts ^ Tubes in Sets— 



RE>iVI>Y TO BXJILvl} 



OR 

BRAZED READY 
TO ENAMEL 

OR 

ENAMELED 
COMPLETELY 

FOR 

Hen, 

Women, 
\ Boys, 

Girls. 




SET 
COMPRISES: 

All Frame Tubes seam- 
less and carefully cut, 
trimmed and reamed— 
Upper and Lower Rear 
Stays — Fork Stems — 
Fork Sides— Variety of 
Styles in Fork Crowns - 
Seat Post Clusters— Rear 
Fork Ends— Head Sets- 
Seat Posts— Hangers— 
Hubs — Pedals — Chain 
Adjusters. 



■WRITE TO- 



JOHN R. KEIM. = Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. 



68 THE BICYCLING WORLD 



THE TRADE IS WARNED 



to buy single tube tires from 

OUR LICENSEES ONLY 

as we shall insist upon our rights under 
the Tillinghast patent being respected, 
that patent having been sustained by 
the United States Court of Appeals. 



We now have a suit pending against 

THE LAKE SHORE RUBBER CO., OF ERIE, PA., 

and we are prepared to enforce our 
rights in all instances in which they are 
not voluntarily respected. 

Single Tube Automobiles, Bicycle Tire Co. 



The Week's Patents. 

710,241. Hub. John W. Blodgett, Chicago, 
111. Filed May 24, 1900. Serial N#. 17,836. 
(No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a device of the class de- 
scribed, the combination with the hub hav- 
ing the cups in the ends thereof and the 
balls in the cups, of the tubular axle, the 
cones on said axle, one of which is movable 
longitudinally to regulate the distance be- 
tween said cones to adjust the bearings 
formed by the cups, balls and cones, and 
means co-operating with said cones to se- 
cure them in the desired position of adjust- 
ment, the tubular axle being of such a 
length relative to the length of the hub that 
the outer end of one of said cones is beyond 
the end of the tubular axle in all positions 
of adjustment; substantially as described. 

710.556. Coaster Brake. George F. Bar- 
ton, Blmira, N. Y., assignor of one-half to 
Frank F Weston, New York, N. Y. Filed 
Aug. 6, 1901. Serial No. 71,022. (No model.) 
Claim -1 In s releasable driving device 
for wheels, the combination with a hollow 
wheel hub a driving member entering the 
wheel hub and adapted to be turned about 
the wheel axis and a toothed ring secured to 
the wheel, of a plurality of dogs each having 
a slot adapted to embrace said ring and a 
snacin°- ring to which said dogs are con- 
nected the driving member having relatively 
projecting parts adapted to engage the dogs 
to rock them into engagement with the 
toothed ring. 

710,576. Bicycle Lock. Joe G. Harm, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. Filed Oct. 15, 1901. 
Serial No. 78,751. (No model.) 

Claim —The combination with a locking- 
case of' the tumblers C and D pivoted with- 
in the ease and having springs connected 
thereto, a locking bolt arranged within the 
case and having a locking member, a post 
or lug adapted to engage the tumblers and 
a member adapted for engagement with the 
bit of the key, a casing open at one side, and 
an inverted U shaped plate sliding in the 
casing, a spring contained withm the case 
and plate, the locking case having an open- 
ing communicating with the case and a lock- 
ing bar having a notched angular end, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose described. 
710 646 Carburetter. Ora W. Williams, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Filed Sept. 30, 1901. Serial 
No 77,052. (No model.) 

Claim -1 A carburetter for explosive 
engines comprising a liquid fuel tank, a mix- 
in! chamber communicating therewith, a 
valve casing; and independently adjustable 
non-communicating valves arranged with n 
said casing and having independent commu- 
nications with the mixing chamber one of 
said valves governing the supply of an to 
the chamber and the other the outflow ot 
admixed air and vapor from the chamber to 
the engine, substantially as described. 

710,726. Bicycle Canopy Support. George 
Valiant. Toronto, Canada, assignor to Mar- 
garet Valiant, Toronto, Canada, and William 
Mitchenor Pentelow, London, Canada. Filed 
Aug. 7, 1899. Serial No. 726,452. (No model.) 
Claim.-l. In a bicycle umbrella, the com- 
bination with the standard having ; a toothed 
quadrant at the lower end, of the double 
clip embracing the top reach and designed to 
receive between the upper members the 
quadrantal end of the standard means for 
holding the clip rigidly on the bicycle and 
the toothed block extending through one side 
of the clip normally engaging with the quad- 
rant and provided with a stem extending 
through the opposite side and a knob and 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

spring on such stem as and for the purpose 

"" 710,793. Pneumatic Tire. Frank Mitchell, 
London, Eng. Filed July 8, 1902. Serial No. 
114,752. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. A pneumatic tire containing a 
number of closed air chambers made of India 
rubber arranged inside a canvas bag, the 
requisite air pressure in the chambers being 
produced by external pressure prior to clos- 
ing the bag. 

710,831. Bicycle Motor. Robert S. Ander- 
son, Toronto, Canada. Filed Apr. 4, 1901. 
Serial No. 54,339. (No model.) 

Claim— 1. The combination with the hol- 
low engine shaft suitably journaled in the 
casing and provided with annular flanges 
and the cylinder and piston, of the eccentric 
having an opening therein and pins extend- 
ing therethrough for securing it to the annu- 
lar flanges and the piston rod having a ring- 
shaped end fitting over the eccentric and 
the opposite end suitably connected to the 
piston as and for the purpose specified. 

2. The combination with the frame and 
suitable bearings at the interior of the lower 
portion thereof, of the hollow engine shaft 
suitably journaled in such bearings and the 
pedal axle extending through the engine 
shaft and provided with suitable end bear- 
ings and suitable connecting driving means 
between the pedal axle and the engine shaft 
as specified. 

710.S44. Drive and Brake Mechanism for 
Velocipedes. James S. Copeland, Hartford, 
Conn., assignor to American Bicycle Co., 
Jersey City, N. J., and New York, N. Y., a 
corporation of New Jersey. Filed Feb. 4, 
1901. Serial No. 45,991. (No model.) 

Claim— 1. In a drive and brake mechan- 
ism in combination with a driving element 
and means for operating it, a drive clutch, 
a brake clutch, a brake, operative connec- 
tions between the brake and brake clutch, 
a flexible clutch ring common to both 
elutchss, and a clutch lever in operative con- 
nection with the opposite ends of the clutch 
ring, and with the driving element. 

TRADE MARKS. 
39,008. Bicycles and Self Propelled Road 
Vehicles. George M. Hendee, "Springfield. 
Mass. Filed July 17, 1902. 
The word "Indian." Used since January 

1, 1898. . 

" Petrol " a Coined Term. - 

It will undoubtedly be a matter of news 
to those who read English motoring papers 
to learn that the word ■'petrol," which they 
invariably use as we do the word gasolene, 
properly describes a proprietary article, and, 
strictly speaking, should only be applied to 
a spirit vended by the proprietors of the 
article. The word used abroad as a noun 
signifies a light, colorless liquid, obtained 
by the distillation of petroleum, and forms 
one of the series of hydrocarbons. 

As a proprietary article it is manufactured 
solely by the firm of Carles, Capel & Leon- 
ard Hackney Wick, London. This firm was 
requested in the early days of motoring by 
the Daimler Co., of Coventry, England, to 
distil a spirit suitable for their motors, and 
having done so, they christened the spirit 
"Petrol " up to then an unknown word. lhe. 
distillation was so successful and the name 
so appropriate that it has since come into 
"eneral use in the land of its origin. At 
6S Fah. the specific gravity of fresh petrol 
is .676. 



69 

The Week's Exports. 

Australia was the only heavy buyer of 
American cycle stuff last week, small pur- 
chases being the rule. The record follows: 
Antwerp.— 1 case bicycle material, $125. 
Arviea.— 1 case bicycle material, $20. 
British Possessions in Africa— 5 cases bi- 
cycles and material, $660. 

British West Indies— 19 cases bicycles and 
material, $408. 

British Australia.— 280 cases bicycles and 
material,. $5,058. 
Brazil.— 3 cases bicycle material, $132. 
British Guiana— 3 cases bicycles and ma- 
terial, $42. 

British East Indies— 14 cases bicycles, 
$208. 

Central America— 1 case bicycles and ma- 
terial, $50. 
Cuba.— 5 cases bicycles and material, $14S. 
Copenhagen— 4 cases bicycles, $75; 49 cases 
bicycle material, $1,449. 

Dutch West Indies— 6 cases bicycle ma- 
terial, $38. 
Ecuador.— 1 case bicycles, $33. 
Egypt.— 25 cases bicycle material, $225. 
Florence.— 1 case bicycles, $66. 
Genoa.— 9 cases bicycle material, $260. 
Hamburg— 6 cases bicycles, $305; 20 cases 
bicycle material, $477. 

Havre.— 2 cases bicycles, $20; 21 cases bi- 
cycle material, $860. • 

Liverpool.— 27 cases bicycles, $400; 10 cases 
bicycle material, $298. 
London.— 24 cases bicycle material, $1,640. 
Malta— 3 cases bicycle material, $85. 
New--Zealand.— 9 cases bicycles and ma- 
terial, $5S0. 

Rotterdam.— 4 cases bicycles, $96; 16 cases 
bicycle material, $506. 
Southampton— 1 case bicycle material, $20. ; 
Stockholm.— 1 ease bicycle material, $30. 
Turkey in Asia.— 1 case bicycles and ma- 
terial, $75. 
Tunis.— 24 cases bicycles, $360. 
United States of Colombia— 2 cases bicy-. 

cles, $30. 

Watch lhe Fires. 
The treatment of fine steel is to-day as:- 
much a matter of interest to steel-users as 
it ever was, says Sparks. 

How to get as much out of such steel as: 
it is capable of yielding is one of the ques- 
tions of the hour. 

The principal difficulty lies in heat treat-' 
nient. Heat is, in fact, the element that 
Axes in steel its good qualities if properly 
employed, while imparting bad qualities' 
when improperly applied. 
Therefore be watchful of the fires. 



In Favor of ftetric System. 

The Western Society of Engineers sent to| 
its members a paper containing the written 
opinions of members for and against the j 
adoption of the metric system; 153 members 
voted and of these 130 voted to have the 
society indorse the bill now pending before, ; 
Con-ress for the adoption of the system by 
the various departments of the government. 
Twenty-three voted against it. 



70 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 




WANTS AND FOR SALE. 

15 cents per line of seven words, cash with order. 

\\f ANTED — Everyone interested in motor bi- 
cycles to purchase "Motocycles and How to 
Manage Them." Contains 126 pages bristling 
with information. $1.00 per copy. For sale by 
The Goodman Co , 154 Nassau St., New York City. 



"D.andJ. 9 ' 

Hangers 

Absolutely tbe BEST. 
WHY? 
T?hey are Mechanically Correct, Accar. 
ately Ground, Lightest, Nearest Duet 
and Water Proof, Neatest in Appearance, 
and they are used by the best Manufac 
tureru and ridden by the best Profes. 
Biouals and Amateurs of America. 
PARK CITY MFO. CO., Inc.. CHICAGO. 



The 1902 BRECKENRIDGE GAS LAMP 

AND 

The 1902 Light Weight Oil Lantern. 

STANDARD BICYCLE LAMPS OF THE WORLD. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE NATIONAL CEMENT & RUBBER MFG COMPANY, 

Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Send for our complete 1002 Catalogue. 



ALL ROADS ARE EASY WHEN THE 





STAR 

BALL 
RETAINER 

IS LJSEID. 



W,th millions in daily use, it has stood the test for 
m »re than five years, and is adaptable to ball bearings of 
any kind. 

If you are users of ball bearings we would be pleased to hear 
from you and mail you our catalog with the latest information 
which we know would be profitable and interesting to you. 

THE STAR BALL RETAINER CO., Lancaster, Pa„ U. S. A. 



WA IM T E D. 

TO BUY JOB LOTS OF 

Bicycles, Tires, Sundries and Fittings, 

WRITE US WHAT YOU HAVE TO SELL. 

E. P. BLAKE CO., 57 Sudbury St, Boston, Mass. 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦ 

^ You all know what the diamond stands for among ^ 

i precious stones. You can't well afford _ 

not to know that * 

D»l»A*M*0>N*D*TH*R»E*s! 
occupy the same plane among res 2 

♦ DIAMOND RUBBER CO., Akron, O. ♦ 



ER 



URBANA, OHIO, 
Largest Independent Makers of 

WOOD RIMS «»° GUARDS. 



The Crosby Company, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., 

Sheet Metal Stamping. 



SPLITDORF SPARK COILS. 

HIGH GRADE 




C. F. SPLIT00FF, 17-27 Vandewater St.. New Yo.k 



Wolff- A merican Bicycles. 

STEARNS BICYCLE AGENCY, 

General Distributors, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



♦ 

♦ 



THE GOODMAN COMPANY, 



TO THE LIVE DEALER 

who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that 
concerns his business this blank will be hint enough: 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦*♦«>*♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦*♦♦ 

♦ 
♦ 
♦ 

124 Tribune Building, New York. * 

♦ 

Enclosed find $2.00 for which enter my subscription ♦ 

to the BICYCLING WORLD for one year, commencing ♦ 

with the issue of ♦ 

Name ♦ 



Address 



>♦»»»♦♦♦♦»■*"■♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 



Tourist Cars on the Nickel Plate Road. 

Semi-weekly transcontinental tourist cars 
between tbe Atlantic and the Pacific coasts 
are operated by the Nickel Plato and its con- 
nections. Tourist ears referred to afford the 
same sleeping accommodations, svith same 
class of mattress and other bedclothing, that 
are provided in the regular Pullman sleep- 
ing car service. These tourist cars leave 
Boston on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 
leave San Francisco on Tuesdays and Fri- 
days. Berths in these tourist cars are sold 
at greatly reduced rates. Conveniences are 
offered without extra cost, for heating food, 
or preparing tea or coffee, affording every 
facility for comfort on a long journey, espe- 
cially for families travelling with children. 
Lowest rates may be obtained always via 
the Nickel Plate Road for all points in the 
West. For special information regarding all 
trains on the Nickel Plate Road, including 
these tourist cars, consult your nearest 
ticket agent, or write A. W. Ecclestone, D. 
n. Agt.. 3X5 Broadway. New York City. •"* 



Through Sleeping Car Line to Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

A Pullman Sleeping Car of latest construc- 
p. m., daily, running through over the Michi- 
gan Central Station, arriving at Grand Rap- 
tion is now attached to New York Central 
train leaving Grand Central Station at 4:00 
Ids at 12:55 p. ui.. next day, connecting in 
Union Station for nil points in AA 7 estern 
Micnigan. For information and sleeping car 
reservations inquire of New York Central 
Agents. *** 




OILER. 



For High Grade Bicycles. The best and neatest Oiler in the 
market DOES NOT LEAK. The "PERFECT" is the 
only Oiler that regulates the supply of oil to a drop. It is ab- 
solutely unequaled. Price, 25 cetns each. 

We make cheaper oilers, also. 



CUSHMAN & DENISON, Mfrs., 240-242 W. 23d St., NEW tORK. 

Cinch 

Coaster 
Brake 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



71 



The Lathe as a Shaper. 

There are times when even the smallest 
shop feels the needs of a shaper, but, of 
course, its ownership is out of the question 
in most instances. Given a good lathe, how- 
ever, it can he rigged up with an attachment 
that will do the work, from the following- 
directions: 

Purchase from any old machine stores a 
back poppet head from a brass finisher's 
lathe. This will have, instead of the usual 
screw and hand wheel, a solid spindle oper- 
ated by a long lever at its end. The spindle 
should be replaced by one made of a steel 
forging and having at its end a square boss 
about two inches square and the same 
length. 

Through this boss is a half inch square 
hole, and on its front face it is provided with 
two hardened set screws screwing through 
into the square hole. The square hole passes 
right through it vertically, and is to take 
the tool which is a miniature planer tool, 
made from half inch square tool steel. 

The poppet head is bolted firmly in po- 
sition and the saddle drawn up close to it 
A small planer vice is bolted on the top 
slide in place of the tool post, and the top 
slide is turned completely around, so that its 
draw screw handle is on the left instead of 
on the right. 

This gives a combination of a tool box 
held on- the end of a moving ram, which is 
operated by hand by means of a long lever, 
a piece of iron barrel being driven on to 
the end of the existing lever to increase the 
leverage and hence the power of the stroke. 

With this a work table is provided which 
will hold the work rigidly, and yet allow of 
its being moved laterally in either direction, 
giving all the movements of the shaper ex- 
cept the vertical feed for the work. 

For small work— and this rig is not in- 
tended for heavy work— the vertical move- 
ment can be dispensed with, the feed down- 
ward of the tool being accomplished by 
slacking off the set screws and gently tap- 
ing the tool down with a hammer. The 
poppet head should be higher by about two 
inches than the original centre of the lathe, 
so as to allow of the work being got in be- 
tween it and the top of the slide rest. 

For extra thick work the head can be 



packed up on an iron casting with a tennon 
underneath to correspond with the space be- 
tween ways of the lathe bed and a groove 
on its top side to correspond with the tennon 
on the bottom of the head. Most lathe users 
will be familiar with these packing pieces. 

It must be understood that only small 
work can be accomplished by this device, 
and a great deal of its efficiency depends 
greatly on the stiffness and fit of the ram in 
the headstock. This should fit very nicely 
and without shake, otherwise the tool will 
chatter and a bad surface result. It is a 
simple attachment, and does not interfere 
with the use of the lathe in the ordinary 
way, while for many small repairing jobs it 
will come in very handy. 



His Home- Made Feature. 

Recently reading the experience of a for- 
eign motocyclist calls to mind a similar af- 
fair that occurred to the owner of a home 
made motor bicycle which drove with a 
chain direct to the rear wheel. 

Taking his cue from the manner in which 
the pedaling chain sprocket is always at- 
tached to the rear hub, that is, with the 
sprocket screwed on with a right thread and 
secured with a left hand outside lock nut, 
he attached his motor shafts by the same 
method. Trouble came when it became 
necessary to adjust the connecting rod 
bushing on the flywheel wrist pin. 

No power on earth was forcible enough to 
unscrew the flywheel, which, owing to the 
constant heat of the motor, had become so 
tightly wedged that the axle had to be 
drilled out and a new one fitted. 



Shop Talk. 

"I lead a hard life," said the emery wheel. 

"So do I." said the file. "I am up against 
it all the time." 

"Poverty oppresses me," said the bellows. 
"I never can blow myself." 

"Quit your growling," said the saw. "You 
put my teeth on edge.' 

"I may be the village cut up," said the 
kitchen knife, "but I haven't the snap the 
steel trap has." 

"What a bore." said the gimlet. 

And the seance closed with a spirit level. 
It was mi the square.— (Toledo Blade. 



In the 

PLANNING 

FOR 
NEXT YEAR 

that is now going 
on, it is safe to say 
that the 

Cushion 
Frame 

is cutting a bigger 
figure than ever 
before. 

YOU ALL 
KNOW WHY. 

If you do not, we 
can inform you. 



HYCIENIC WHEEL COMPANY, 

OWNERS OF 
CUSHION FRAME PATENTS 

220 Broadway, NEW YORK. 

Home Office, Philadelphia. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. 



have: A 



PROPOSITION OF UNUSUAL INTEREST TO JOBBERS 



FOR 1903, 



Write for Particulars* 



ERIE, PA. 



72 



If You are Interested in Automobiles, 



THE MOTOR WORLD 



Will Interest You. 



It's readable, 
and you can understand what you read. 



Published Every Thursday 
at 123-5 Tribune Building, New York. 

5a per Year JSpecimen Copies Gratis 



Fast Trains 

Chicago & North-Western Ry. 



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WO change of cars. The best of every- 
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Dr address 



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301 Main St., - • Buffalo 
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234 Superior St., Cleueland 
77 Campus Martius, Detroit 
2 King St .EastJoronto.Ont. 




RELIABLE NEWS 

ON ALL. OYCLINO EVENTS 

Interesting & Comprehensive. 
ADVICE TO RIDERS 



WEDNESDAYS, ONE PENNY. 



ILIFFE & SONS Limited. 

3, St Brldo Stroot. Condon. EC. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

NEVER LEAK 

STOPS LARGE PUNCTURES. 

This is the only fluid that can be legally used in pneumatic 
tires. Suits now pending. 

BUFFALO SPECIALTY MFC. CO., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




Through Train and Car Service in 
effect June 15, 1902. 

TWO FAST TRAINS 



"Chicago" "North Shore" 

Special Special 

Via Lake Shore. Via Mich. Cen. 



Lv. Boston 


• 0.45 A.M. 


2.00 P.M. 


Due Albany 
" Syracuse 


4.10 P.M. 


7.35 " 


7.SS " 


11.25 " 


" Rochester 


9.45 " 


1.15 " 


" Buffalo 


11.40 " 




" Toledo 


S.SS A M 




" Detroit 




8.25 " 


" Chicago 


u. so •• 


3.15 P.M. 



"Chicago Special" has through Buffet Library Smoking Car 
and Dining Car to Syracuse and from Toledo to Chicago. 

"North Shore Special" has Dining Car to Albany, and from 
St. Thomas to Chicago. Both trains run daily and are made 
up of the moat modern and luxurious vestibuled Sleeping Cars 
running through to Chicago. 

For other service west, time tables, reservation, etc., address 

A. S. HANSON, Gen. Pass. Agt., Boston. 



If you ride or seli, 

or intend to ride or sell 

motor bicycles 

" Motocycles and How to Manage 
Them " 

is the very book you need. 
Every page teaches a lesson. Every illustration 

" speaks a piece." 
And there are 126 pages and 41 pictures, too 



Price, $1.00. 



The Goodman Co., 124 Tribune Bide;., New York. 




^S^^^^^x 



Via Eockford, Freeport, Dubuque, Independence, 

Waterloo, Webster City, Fort Dodge, Rockwell 
City, Denison and Council Bluffs., 

DOUBLE DAILY SERVICE 

TO OMAHA 

Buffet- library- smoking cars, sleeping cam 
trse reclining chair cars, dining cars. 
Tickets of agents of I. C. K. R. and connecting 
A. H. HANSON. G. P. A., Chicago 



BOSTON & MAINE R.R. 

LOWEST RATES 
FAST TRAIN SERVICE 



BETWEEN 



Boston and Chicago, 

St. Louis, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis 

and all points West, Northwest, Southwest 

Pullman Parlor or Sleeping Cars on a! 
Through trains. 

For tickets and information apply at an) 
principal ticket office of the company. 



D. J. FLANDERS, Gen'l Pass. & Ticket Agt. 



BOSTON. 



The Best Advertising Medium 
for the Irish Trade is 

THE 
IRISH CYCLIST 

Specimen copy and advertising rates nn 
application to 

R. J. MECREDY & SON, Ltd., Proprietors, 

49 middle Abbey St., DUBLIN. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, October 23, 1902. 



No. 4 



UNRAVELING THE KNOTS 



Conflicting Receivers Ousted and Officials 
say A. C. H. Co. Will be O. K. in 90 Days 



Unless the present plans of the receivers 
of the American Cycle Manufacturing Com- 
pany go awry, it is not unlikely that they 
will obtain their discharge within the next 
ninety days. Together with the reorganiza- 
tion committee they are working to that 
end, and believe that the limit set will see 
the company again on a sound financial 
basis. 

one of the steps in that direction was 
taken late last week when Judge Kohlsaat 
of the United States Court in Chicago re- 
voked his appointment of Messrs. Whitney 
and Rhode as receivers of the property in 
Illinois, thus permitting the other set of re- 
ceivers, Messrs. Coleman, Pope and Miller, 
to obtain possession. Whitney and Rhode, 
it will be recalled, slipped in before the 
others had had time to file the qualifying- 
bonds. 

Judge Kohlsaat took action after the affi- 
davits of R. L. Coleman, George Pope and 
L. Sneffler had been presented to him 
attesting that the company was perfectly 
solvent. The affidavits, which were sub- 
mitted by Attorney W. A. Redding, disclosed 
assets of more than $5,000,000, two millions 
of which are quick assets in the shape of 
finished bicycles, material on hand and bills 
receivable. The liabilities were shown to be 
about '$1,137,000, of which $637,205.65 are 
due on open account; the balance is due the 
American Bicycle Company and tiie Federal 
Manufacturing Company. 

The other twist in the concern's affairs, 
the petition of the Badger Brass Manufac- 
turing Company et al., to have the Ameri- 
can Manufacturing Company adjudged a 
bankrupt, was due for a hearing in Chicago 
on Monday next, but it has since deferred. 
Meanwhile these creditors have filed an 
amended petition making addition accusa- 
tions. 

The general charge is made that the bi- 
cycle concern has admitted its insolvency. 
As a particular act of bankruptcy it is as- 
serted that the officers of the concern, about 
September 10, paid to the Unioi Drawn 



Steel Company $8,500, which constituted a 
preference over other creditors. Other pre- 
ferential payments of this kind are said to 
have been made to the extent of $200,000. 
It is charged also that Messrs. Coleman, 
Pope and Miller were appointed receivers for 
the concern in the United States Circuit 
Court, "solely for the purpose of enabling 
them to manipulate the property of the com- 
pany and to delay creditors." 

The only other development of the week 
was the issuance of the usual notice to cred- 
itors ordering that all claims be filed within 
thirty days from October 17. 



Silverston's "Deal" Lands him in Jail. 

Locked in the Tombs prison in this city 
is one Dr. Anthony B. Silverston, who was 
apprehended at the Grand Central Station 
on Thursday last and who is said to be a 
man much sought after by note brokers, 
bank cashiers and business men. The im- 
mediate cause of his arrest was an alleged 
deal involving the importation of some 
10,000 English bicycles— a circumstance so 
rare as to be in itself cause for suspicion. 

The prisoner, who is a distinguished look- 
ing man of middle age, had in his pockets 
four notes, undated, but drawn tor sums 
running over $3,000. Two of the notes were 
signed by "A. Etonian," who is said to have 
an office in the Chesebrough building, and 
who, the police state, has disappeared, hav- 
ing been interested in a $51,000 deal. 

The prisoner was arraigned in the Tombs 
Police Court and then remanded. The notes 
were for $1,250, $740, $95S' and $157, re- 
spectively. The two signed Ehrinan were 
payable to Silverston. The other two were 
blank in that respect. 

Joseph D. Hart called at Police Head- 
quarters and said he was Silverston's coun- 
sel. He understood his client had received 
the $0,000 note in the course of business 
from one Wheeler, and that it was payable 
to the order of the Empire Cycle Company, 
of London, a concern doing business with 
the Siegel-Cooper Company, who, it is al- 
leged, had given them an order for 10,000 
bicycles. 

The note purported to be signed by the 
treasurer of the Siegel-Cooper Company and 
indorsed by the Empire Cycle Company. 
Mr. Hart said his client had given the note 
to Charles W. White of 11 Broadway, and 
had received $500 on it.' 



TUCKER PLANT DESTROYED 



But all Orders Will be Cared for— Fire At- 
tended by Tragic Loss of Life. 



Fire on Friday night last totally destroyed 
the plant of the Tucker Bicycle Woodwork 
Company, at Urbana, O., entailing a loss of 
$50,000 and involving a particularly distress- 
ing tragedy. 

The four sons of the night watchman were 
visiting him at the time the fire broke out 
and in seeking to escape, one was killed, 
perishing in the flames, and the father and 
his three other sons were badly burned 
after jumping from a second-story window. 

The origin of the fire is unknown and was 
beyond control when discovered, the in- 
flammable material made the plant. a quick 
and easy prey to the flames. The insurance 
amounted to $35,000. 

Coming at this time it was first thought 
that the Tucker people would be seriously 
crippled, but their control of the Rastetter 
wood rim factory at Fort Wayne, Ind., has 
enabled them to prove equal to the emerg- 
ency. The Rastetter factory, they wire the 
Bicycling AYorld, will take care of all orders 
for the present and without the slightest 
delay or confusion. 



The Bottom Bracket Litigation. 

The embarrassment of the American Bi- 
cycle Company has caused some speculation 
as to the status of the bottom bracket liti- 
gation. From an authoritative source it is 
learned that the many rumors of its aban- 
donment are without a shred of foundation. 
Testimony is still being taken and it is 
thought will be concluded within six weeks, 
when the attorney for the defense will take 
the stand and throw light on the statements 
• made by the rascal Gould. 



Funke Now on Broadway. 

"A. H. Funke, the well-known New York 
jobber and importer of Kelecom bicycle mo- 
tors, has removed from 9S Duane street to 
125 Broadway; at the latter address he 
will have much larger and better facilities 
than heretofore. 



78 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



THE FUED OF THE C. R. C A.'S 



Two Year's Fight of the "Yellow Sweaters" 
may Lead to Court or Consolidation. 



For four consecutive Sundays now the rival 
leaders of the Century Road Club of Amer- 
ica and the Century Road Club Association 
in this part of the country have sounded the 
call of "Sweaters and Knickers" for the "an- 
nual individual record century" over the 
Long Island roads, and each time its event 
has been postponed by each faction because 
of rain. The officers and the members of 
their staffs have each Sunday foregathered 
at Bedford Rest, Brooklyn, and sat about in 
separate groups at different tables, each side 
plotting how to get the better of the other 
by securing more entries and pulling off a 
bigger run— which incidentally means race in 
this instance — than the other. 

From these different groups glowering 
glances of antipathy and menace would oc- 
casionally shoot across the room and then 
there would be more whispered consultation. 
The unitiated, seeing the men similarly uni- 
formed, noting the similarity of the names 
of two organizations holding two runs of the 
same sort over the same course, have won- 
dered what it was all about. It has puzzled 
the general cycling public more than a little 
to tell who was which in this comical yet 
serious mess of century clubs, for the organi- 
zations are the most active ones now identi- 
fied with road riding, and the newspapers 
have repeatedly confused their names and 
affairs. Ever since the split in the Century 
Road Club, a couple of years ago, the new 
set and the old have been holding duplicate 
runs, taking the same day and the same title 
for the century and trying each to injure the 
affair of the other by claiming each to be 
the "real thing" and offering all manner of 
inducements. The feeling between the two 
organizations is itese ad on more than one 
occasion fisticuffs have threatened. 

Just how the trouble began is shrouded in 
some doubt; the average member of either 
party probably could not give a clear reason 
for it did his life depend on it. He simply 
knows that he is opposed to the "other 
crowd" on "general principles" and his oppo- 
sition is both apparent and bitter; the feeling 
is so deep that it almost amounts to the pro- 
portions of a fued. 

From the best obtainable information the 
trouble originated over one man, who at one 
time was treasurer of the Century Road 
Club, and who still occupies a titled position 
in the organization. He originally came from 
the South, having left there rather suddenly 
after signing a paper and deeding over his 
property to his employer. After locating in 
Chicago he held several positions in the 
cycle trade and in nearly every instance left 
them because of peculiarities in his accounts. 
He was an uncommonly expert bookkeeper, 
so expert that one of his employers once told 



a Bicycling World man that while he knew 
that peculiarities existed they were so art- 
fully covered that their extent was never dis- 
coverable. 

These peculiarities also made themselves 
manifest in the Century Road Club's ac- 
counts, and led to a conference at Cleveland 
in which the arrest of the individual in ques- 
tion was seriously considered and would 
have come to pass but for the intervention of 
a peacemaker. When the conference ended 
one faction in the club repudiated the man; 
the other took him to its bosom and found 
another office for him. The former faction 
rebelled and formed the Century Road Club 
Association. The fued dates from that time 
and the end is not . even shadowed on the 
horizon, in fact, there is even promise that 
it will be carried into court. 

While there is an element on each side 
working in a quiet way to bring about peace 
among the rival yellok backs of the road, on 
the other hand there is bitter talk about lar - - 
ceny, arrests and law suits. 

It is climed by officials of the Century 
Road Club of America, the loyal ones who 
still lead it, that when the seceders of the 
Century Road Club Association set up in op- 
position to the parent body that certain 
trophies, including silver cups and banners, 
remained in the clubhouse of the association 
at No. 310 West Fifty-third street, which 
were the property of the parent body, and 
were in the clubhouse simply as a loan ex- 
hibit. These trophies, it is claimed, never have 
been returned, although repeated demands 
for them have been made. In fact it is said 
by the officers of the Americas, as the loyal 
flock of the original body is known, that their 
demands for the inscribed plate and silk em- 
blems of prowess have been met with saucy 
replies to the effect that there was no prop- 
erty of the Americas in the house of the 
Association. 

The matter has been placed in the hands 
of a lawyer, and the prospect of legal music 
arises therefrom. The trouble is due to come 
to a head this week or next, the claimants 
having placed a time limit on their waiting 
patience. 

The greatest rancor between the two cen- 
tury sets is naturally fostered by the leading- 
spirits in each, for at the same time that all 
this terrible talk is going on there are a few 
members who are counselling conservatism 
and proposing a consolidation. It has been 
suggested by certain prominent members on 
each side, acting unofficially and somewhat 
surreptitiously that an arbitration committee 
should be chosen and the difficulty settled in 
the improved modern manner used for coal 
strikers. The circumstance that gives this 
proposal just a ghost of a chance to be ac- 
cepted is that there is soon to be an election 
held by both organizations and that in the 
camp of the seceders the head rebel is to 
resign his leadership and in all probability be 
succeeded by a man who is known to be of 
decidedly conservative character. It is be- 
lieved by some of his associates that this 
man, if selected for the presidency, would 



regard favorably any overtures toward a rec- 
onciliation. 

It seems to be a fact that although the As- 
sociation left the original C. R. C. A. wound- 
ed and bleeding by the roadside, and appar- 
ently in death throes, that it has persisted in 
living and under the lead of a certain deter- 
mined few has even had the temerity to in- 
crease in membership so much that it is now 
in fair health. There are in fact quite a few 
men so undecided in their minds that they 
hold membership in both bodies. Each side 
declares positively that it is taking members 
from the rival faction and deprecates the 
claims of the other as boasts. This attitude 
makes it difficult to get at the facts, but there 
seems to be no doubht that as yet the asso- 
ciation has much the better of it so far as 
membership strength goes, and it also has 
an advantage in the possession of a club- 
house in this city. 



Disadvantage of High Peaks. 

"I never so thoroughly realized the real dis- 
advantage of the high-peaked saddle as I did 
on a recent ride against a head wind," re- 
cently remarked a cyclist who keeps pretty 
steady at it. "I was using an old saddle of 
mine which is built very much that way, and, 
as long as I am content to ride fairly upright, 
is the very acme of comfort. But to get 
along against gales you don't want to ride 
in such a position, but get below the handle- 
bar if you can. 

"With the seat of the saddle horizontal, the 
peak effectually prevented me from getting 
down to my work, and saving the windage, 
as I wanted.- It suits me, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, and I have used it so long that 
I have adapted myself to it, but all the same, 
I am confident from my recent experience 
with a saddle, the whole top of which is 
horizontal, that had this old time make I 
used been built on similar lines it would 
have been more popular. 

"There is no one who decries the double-up 
position more than myself, but there are 
times, on that ride for instance, when it 
gives you a much-needed help. A motor bicy- 
cle friend of mine in discussing head winds 
told me the other day that the difference in 
the pace on a fast motor cycle, when the 
rider is sitting up, and when getting down as 
low as possible, is at least a couple of miles 
an hour." 



Japan Selects a Qood node!. 

Japan now has a cycling journal of its 
own, the Cycling World, a monthly pub- 
lished at Osaka, the second city in the em- 
pire. In a letter stating that the title and 
heading design were inspired by and repro- 
duced from the Bicycling World, one of the 
publishers adds that they are also '■obtain- 
ing much useful and interesting informa- 
tion" from it. 

Veteran Dealer in Trouble. 

With a record of twenty-one years in tht 
bicycle business, the announcement of the 
assignment of R. H. Robson, of Salem, 
Mass., came as something of a surprise to 
those who knew him. Poor collections are 
given as the cause of the embarrassment, 
but it is believed that matters will be ad- 
justed and the business continued. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



79 



DECIDING ITS FUTURE 



Election now in Progress That Will Practi- 
cally Settle Fate of the L. A. W. 



The mail vote which probably will decide 
the fate of the League of American Wheel- 
men is now in progress. The fight, as is 
known, is being made in the New York Divis- 
ion, where, for the first time in many years, 
two tickets are in the field. The ballots were 
mailed on Monday and to he counted, must 
be returned on or before November 1. As 
New York State, with less than 2,000 mem- 
bers, comprises one-third of the total mem- 
bership of the League, the momenuousuess 
of the election is apparent. 

The regular ticket is headed by the present 
chief consul, C. J. Obermayer, of Brooklyn. 
The independents are led by Alderman 
Joseph Oatman, of this city, and base their 
opposition on the do-nothing policy that has 
marked the Obermayer administration; they 
aim at the reinvigoration and restoration of 
the organization. 

The administration makes practically no 
effort to refute the charge against it; its cam- 
paign matter, mailed simultaneously with 
the ballots, is almost wholly a mendacious 
attack on the two chief independent can- 
didates. Oatman, a reputable real estate 
merchant, is bitterly assailed as a "politi- 
cian" and in a fashion that will cause other 
legislators to bear the League no good will. 
At the independents' candidate for vice- 
counsel a great mass of misstatement is 
thrown. He is attacked on "everything in 
general," and mainly because he opposed the 
"grafters" and salary grabbers who sapped 
the vitality of the organization several years 
ago. 

The independents, on the other hand, have 
stated their case without heat or personality 
and have placed the issue squarely before 
the membership for final decision in this 
wise: 

"Regardless of partisanship, and despite 
anything that we may say. or that those 
whose re-election we oppose may say. you 
know how much, or rather how little, you 
have seen, heard or felt the name, work or 
influence of the L. A. W. during recent years. 
Is it your desire that such conditions shall 
continue? Shall the League be awakened or 
shall its slumber and loss of membership 
and vitality deepen? Shall it go backward 
or forward? This is really the chief question 
in issue. Your vote will help decide it. and 
doubtless for all time, as a return of the 
present administration will indicate plainly 
that its policy of 'rest and quiet,' and plenty 
of it, is approved and that a live organiza- 
tion directed by aggressive workers is not 
wanted. 

"We earnestly trust that you will not fail 
to cast your ballot— for us, we hope, against 
us, if you will. It is a case of 'now or never' 



with the League, and the question at issue 
should be therefore settled by a full vote." 

A peculiarity of the situation is that while 
the administration originally nominated 
seven candidates for representatives of the 
New York district, and authorized the inde- 
pendents to do likewise, the ballot instructs 
that but five be voted for. 



WINDFALL OF $900,000 

Under Pressure That Sum is Returned to 
Rubber Qoods's Treasury and Why. 



The MaiUOrder Bicycle Unmasked. 

The Chicago mail-order house which oper- 
ates under a cycling title and to whose 
brazen methods reference was made in last 
week's Bicycling World is now engaged in 
contracting for its goods for next year. 

It will be recalled that this - Cycle 

Company "worked" the press with self-con- 
cocted items indorsing their "honorable 
treatment" of customers and narrating how 
they "kept their factories running all win- 
ter storing up wheels of the finest quality," 
this in face of the fact that the concern 
does not and never did own or operate a 
factory of any sort. 

Their letters asking quotations, however, 
lay bare their ideas of what constitutes 
"honorable treatment" and "wheels of the 
finest quality." 

One of these communications, bearing date 
bearing date of October IS, 1902, has come 
into the possession of the Bicycling World. 
This is one of the "wheels of finest quality" 
on which prices are asked: 

"A bicycle with either flush or outside 
.ioiuts. one or two piece hanger, MADE UP 
FROM ANYTHING IN THE WAY OF 
JOB LOTS WHICH YOU MIGHT HAVE 
OR WHICH YOU MIGHT BE ABLE TO 
GET. * * * We desire to buy all of these 
bicycles stripped." 

This : s a verbatim extract from the orig- 
inal communication. While it says nothing 
about the equipment, the fact that the bi- 
cycles are desired stripped conveys its own 
suggestion. Job lots of tires, saddles, pedals. 
ii... are purchased wherever they are to be 
had and fitted with them these bicycles "of 
the finest quality" are thereby made the 

"finer." 

Who are These Swiss Visitors ? 
Fress dispatches from Washington say 
that 150 bicyclists from Switzerland are now 
in Canada, and have applied to this gov- 
ernment for permission to bring in their 
wheels live ,,(' duty. This lias been allowed 
on an assurance being received that the 
Swiss government would extend the same 
courtesy to American cyclists. Who they 
arc that constitute the Swiss party is not 
made plain and nothing is known of their 

plans. . 

Changes In Hartford Staff. 
T B Kavanangh has been appointed man- 
ager of the Hartford Rubber Works Com- 
pany's branch in Cleveland. O. He suc- 
ceeds F. W. Hood, who resigned. The Flart- 
ford people have also added to their travel- 
ing staff Teddy Edwards and D. W. Shad- 
dock; the former will cover Connecticut, the 
latter Indiana. Iowa and Missouri 



It has come out, and the news has been 
amply confirmed by the Bicycling World, 
that former directors of the Rubber Goods 
Manufacturing Company and some of its 
constituent concerns have paid some $900,- 
000 in cash into the treasury of the com- 
pany and taken up some unmarketable se- 
curities which had been loaded on the com- 
pany. 

This was done under threat of a suit, but 
it was recognized as such a fair demand 
that the $900,000 was paid over without a 
murmur. The security taken up was a block 
of second mortgage bonds of the Park Row 
Syndicate Building, which was paid to the 
company in exchange for the equity of the 
Mechanical Rubber Company in the prop- 
erty at Nos. 11 and 13 Park row. Some 
of the members of this syndicate were in- 
terested in the Rubber Goods Company— 
which controlled the Mechanical— and voted 
to give the company second mortgage bonds 
for its real estate holdings instead of first 
mortgage, to which it was entitled. Life 
insurance companies took the first mort- 
gage. 

Interest has been paid upon these bonds 
since they were given to the company, but 
there was no market in which they could 
be sold for their par' value. In the shakeup 
in control of the Rubber Goods Company. 
James R. Keene, J. P. Morgan. F. A. Smith- 
ers. Brown Bros. & Co., and Baring, Magoun 
& Co. were found to be the owners. In look- 
ing up the assets of the company, these 
bonds were discovered, and as the invest- 
ment was not one which should properly be 
made by a manufacturing concern, restitu- 
tion was demanded, and after several pro- 
longed conferences an agreement has been 
reached by which .$900,000 in cash will lie 
paid, and the threatened suit abandoned. 

The Rubber Goods Manufacturing Com- 
pany, notwithstanding the vicissitudes 
through which it passed during the Flint 
regime, has paid its preferred dividend reg- 
ularly, and last year reported a net surplus 
of about $1,000,000. The only bonded in- 
debtedness is $1,300,000, representing an un- 
derlying mortgage. The $900,000 received 
will retire most of this. During the first six 
months of the present year the net earnings 
were $1,200,000, and it is estimated that for 
the full year they will aggregate at least 
$2,200,000. The 7 per ceut. on the preferred 
cals for $560,000, and a per cent, on the 
common would be $6SO,000, above which 
there will be a surplus of about $1,000,000 
from this year's operations. 



Recent Incorporation. 

New York, N. Y.— Hydra Battery Com- 
pany; capital, $100,000. Directors— A. S. Ap- 
gar," S. G. Whiton, and L. H. Bigelow, of 
New York City. 



80 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



SATISFIED CUSTOMERS S BEST ADVERTISERS 



September 25th, 1902. 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. COMPANY, 
Bay City, Mich. 

Dear Sirs : — I am still riding the National Chainless on which I made the 
present record from New York to Buffalo a year ago last month. It looks tough 
on account of constant use and little care. It is tough because it has stood the 
racket and runs as nice as when it came to me new. All my National customers 
are fully as well satisfied. 



Yours truly, 



E. A. PAYNE. 



H»- : ' 






nSiT^M Wn t1 'it 




_— 


IF 


MB 






INGUSn 


> C ,- ,« MAT10NM. BICYCLE. 


■ 









NATIONALS ARE RIDDEN EVERYWHERE. 



It's worth something to a dealer nowadays to have an estab- 
lished line of bicycles like the NATIONAL; one of whose con- 
tinued production there is never any doubt. Wideawake dealers 
recognize this fact. Don't be too late for 1903. 

National Cycle Mfg. Company, 

BAY CITY, MICH.. U. S. A. 



THE PURCHASE OF 



FISK TIRES 



FOR YOUR BICYCLE 



Security, Comfort and Satisfaction Guaranteed 



FISK RUBBER COHPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Hass. 



BRANCHES : 

BOSTON, SPRINGFIELD, NEW YORK, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Dwight St. 83 Chambers St. 

SYRACUSE, BUFFALO, DETROIT, 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Genesee St. 252 Jefferson St. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

916 Arch St. 
CHICAGO, 

54 State St. 



WASHINGTON, 

427 10th St., N.W. 
SAN FRANCISCO, 

114 Second St. 



»♦♦♦♦»» »»»♦»» + ♦ » ♦ 



THE 





FOUNDED| 

and^v%QCYCLE REVIEW*®- 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 



Published Every Thursday 
By 

THE G©ODMHN eOMPHNY, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW Y0RK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... io Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscriptions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents: The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

fl!3P* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

§§T* Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, October 23, 1902. 

Why not a Show ? 

Why not hold a bicycle show, in the 
spring? To mention it means to see the 
hands go up and to hear a sarcastic chuckle. 
But let us take a square-eyed look at the 
situation and see if the idea is absurd. Let 
us admit that cycling as a fad is non est. 
Admit that a show like those of old is im- 
possible. Admit that the changes are so 
few and differences between wheels so much 
less that the public could not be attracted 
in great crowds. Yet why not rise 'to the 
fact that there are tens of thousands of 
riders who are alert to everything that is 
new in bicycles and that if they would not 
attend in great armies, that they would in 
regiments. If Madison Square Garden 
could not be filled a smaller place could. 
Why not meet the conditions and do the 
thing in proportion. No false pride should 
interfere. No false economy should deter. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

As one dealer of aggressive spirit re- 
marked only yesterday: 

"The earth should not be allowed to think 
that the bicycle has been abandoned even 
by the manufacturers." 

Why not hold a modest, suitable show, 
one backed by manufacturers, but really de- 
signed for the benefit of the retail trade V 
Let it be held at about the beginning of the 
retail selling season. It would be in a hall 
of moderate size. There need be no electric 
signs, no velvet carpets, no souvenirs. Yet 
it need not be cold or forbidding. It would 
be an industrial exhibit, conducted for prac- 
tical purposes with a nominal admission 
price. Enough would attend to pay the run- 
ning expenses, and the profit would be in 
the awakening effect it would have. Let ex- 
hibits be made east and west in several of 
the biggest cities and let there be enough 
new features to furnish even a little data 
and the press will do the rest. 

If such a move could be looked forward 
to even now there would be enough changes 
in models to carry the point. Last spring a 
live newspaper man went around in New 
York City and discovered enough new things 
in 1902 models to furnish material for a col- 
umn in the Sun. The fact that the article 
was copied, shows that the interest is not 
dead. Let us have new things and let us 
show them. If not, why not? 



81 

If every man in the trade, or even every 
other one, would constitute himself a Garcia 
to carry to the country folk the mail-order 
doctrine of bicycles "made up from any- 
thing in the way of job lots which are ob- 
tainable anywhere," and burn it into their 
brains, the mail-order bicycle would soon 
shrivel to its proper proportions and more 
bicycles of quality be sold and more pleas- 
ure and satisfaction be derived from cycling 
by thousands of deluded riders. 

The material is at the disposal of all who 
care to use it; it is for them to turn it to 
advantage. 



Mail-Order Bicycles Convicted. 

If anything is needed to prove the nefari- 
ous practices of the mail order houses and 
the nefarious quality of the bicycles which 
they foist on an unsuspecting public, the 
letter from the Chicago concern referred to 
in another column, the original of which 
is in our possession, supplies the required 
evidence. 

It is about as shameless a communication 
as ever left a commercial institution claim- 
ing the remotest title to the characterization 
"honorable"— a characterization which the 
concern in question, though bogusly posing 
as a manufacturer of the "finest wheels," 
applies to itself. 

That any man or set of men should openly 
declare themselves ready to place an order 
for thousands of bicycles built, they care 
not of what material or where obtained, is 
little short of astounding. 



The Crisis in the L. A. W. 

The League of American Wheelmen has 
been so rarely heard of during recent years 
and has cut such a small figure in public 
affairs that even cyclists have ceased to 
exhibit concern or interest in matters af- 
fecting the organization. For that reason 
the import of the election which is now in 
progress in the New York Division is not 
generally realized. But to our mind it is 
really a life or death struggle. 

From a powerful membership of more 
than 100,000 it has gone down, down, down, 
until it now numbers but a pathetic 6,000; 
it is deeply in debt; it has lacked vigor, pur- 
pose and accomplishment; it has been de- 
rided by many who were once its members; 
it has been sneered at by the press which 
once was its ally. 

It was facing these conditions that the 
little band of New Yorkers with some love 
for the League in their hearts created the 
independent ticket that has momentarily 
given the organization an appearance of 
action and who would replace the ideal- 
less and do-nothing regime by an adminis- 
tration willing to work for its restoration. 
It is now "up to" the members of the organ- 
ization to decide its fate. As the inde- 
pendents have truly stated, it is a case of 
"now or never," the issue being plainly 
whether the League shall really live or suf- 
fer a merely sentimental existence. 

Realizing doubtless that no defense is pos- 
sible, the administration which seeks re- 
election does not attempt to defend itself. 
It merely hurls mendacious invectice and 
points to its eminent respectability. Having 
been tried and found wanting its fight for 
re-election is prompted not by desire to 
serve the League, but mainly that it may 
not be said that it was ousted. The apa- 
thetic chief consul has some small promin- 
ence in financial circles and apparently 
fears that defeat will injure his standing in 



82 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



tbe community. ■ Accordingly much money 
is being spent and many personal letters are 
being written to members to emphasize his 
great respectability, which is no less or no 
more than that of any other candidate. In 
its desperation the administration has also 
placed in cold type statements that will re- 
turn to vex t, did it. in the event of re- 
election, surprise itself by attempting to do 
something. Like the coal magnates, the 
League administration has unnecessarily 
gone out of its way to insult and sneer at 
city officials as "politicians" and to speak 
broadly of their purchaseability. As it is to 
these same officials that the League must 
apply for support in many undertakings, to 
believe that they will not resent the nasty 
imputations when opportunity offers is to 
believe them more than human. 

The New York election has forced the 
long-expected crisis in the League; we have 
supported the independents because, in our 
opinion, they constitute its only hope. Hav- 
ing conclusively proven its lack of ideas, in- 
terest and activity and its inability to check 
the downward career of the organization, a 
return of the present officers holds not the 
faintest prospect of betterment. 

The L. A. W. is a very sick patient. Its 
present physicians have shown no aptitude 
in improving its condition. Every ballot 
cast for their continuance is a stitch in the 
winding sheet which, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, they have prepared for it. If the 
League is not to become a mummified mem- 
ory, a change of doctors is absolutely im- 
perative. 



The Over-Magnified Decline. 

The trouble with too many writers on the 
daily papers, who have taken advantage of 
recent happenings to fill space in writing of 
the decline of the bicycle, has been that 
their point of vision was limited to their own 
city surroundings. 

Had these same writers gona into the 
country districts they would have found 
that while city riding has declined most 
perceptibly, the use of the bicycle in strictly 
farming and country districts has had a 
constant and gradual growth, of course 
small as compared with the time when city 
buyers kept their dealers busy in trying to 
hold anywhere near the point of filling 
orders. 

Go where you will, in thinly settled com- 
munities, and there will he found the bicycle 
used as a most positive factor in the daily 
life. This was most forcibly brought home 



to a Bicycling World man the past summer 
when visiting a section of the "country" 
that he had not been in for six or seven 
j ears. 

At the last time of spending a vacation in 
that place there were two bicycles in the 
entire township. This year they were to 
be seen at nearly every house or gliding over 
such roads as the place boasted. Where be- 
fore men went to their work in the nearest 
town by horse, either separately or by club- 
Ing together, and women went shopping in 
the same manner, where children trudged 
in many instances a mile and a half to 
school, now they use the bicycle. 

While the above has no immediate bear- 
ing in the matter, the thoughts engendered 
recalls many things, in riding, that have 
more or less disappeared with the thinning 
out of bicycle riders in cities. 

In those days were not only to be seen 
the youngsters, who are always with us, but 
the 60-year-old merchant, who pedalled se- 
dately to and from his business. There were 
the many scorchers bent double over their 
handle-bars which curved like the ram's 
horn, and the directly opposite type of rider 
who used inverted bars and sat so stiffly 
upright in his saddle that every depression 
in the paving gave his spine a serious jolt. 

There was also the man who could never 
leam to be a good rider no matter how 
many years he might- be at it. He rested 
the entire flat of his foot on the pedals and 
rode with one knee mimicking the bow- 
legged and the other patterning after the 
knock-kneed. 

There may be all these to-day, but they 
have to be sought for, where a few years ago 
they stood forth so prominently that the 
most uninterested could not dodge the 
knowledge of them. There were all these 
and many more. The man with the baby 
strapped to the bandle-bar and the girl with 
divided skirts and golf hose. They were all 
out in force in those days. 



Wrong Profit Figuring. 

The time is now approaching when bicycle 
dealers will have a few hours which they 
can devote to study, and these hours should 
have at least a portion of them given up to 
what profits really mean and represent. 

If the year which is about to close has not 
yielded profits to the amount desired— the 
use of the word desire is only in the 
comparative sense^then there must be rea- 
sons for the condition, and no amount of re- 
search is too great if it leads to a solution. 
There is no doubt that in many instances 



a small dealer does not properly understand 
how to estimate profit when he starts in for 
the season. 

Too many work on the basis that when 
they buy for a dollar and sell for a dollar 
and one-half, they are making 50 per cent, 
profit. They arrive at this conclusion on the 
very simple reason of the ratio of the two 
figures. Calculated in this manner a pretty 
good income can be looked for, in advance, 
on anything like a selling record. But it is 
the wrong way and the way that has lead 
to many a ruin, in private as well as in busi- 
ness. 

This is the secret of why some store- 
keepers find, in course of time, that their ex- 
penses are bigger than their profits. They 
cannot understand where the money has 
gone when they close up their financial sea- 
son. They are sure, from the above method 
of figuring that they have been making so 
much profit and they have always thought 
that the expenditures were kept well within 
the bounds. They have not taken off the 
percentage anything for such small items 
as express charges both ways on goods sent 
for replacement, and an occasional small 
part or job for which no charge is made to a 
good customer. 



Qualities of Salesmanship. 

A good salesman is an absolute necessity 
in a retail bicycle store. He must possess 
urbanity, tact and perseverance, and at the 
same time bow down to the many idiosyn- 
crasies of a probable buyer. He must be 
fully conversant with all the mechanical im- 
provements of the day, be able to argue dis- 
creetly but successfully on any question that 
may arise in regard to the stability, speed, 
finish, etc., of a bicycle that he is trying to 
dispose of, and at the same time he should 
carefully refrain from uttering any dispar- 
aging comments on the goods offered by a 
rival tradesman. 

Some men imagine that a buyer must be 
talked out, and not allowed to have an opin- 
ion of his own. Others lose business by say- 
ing too little, whilst many drive a probable 
customer away by pressing him to buy a 
certain make, when his inclinations point to 
another. It is quite impossible to give any 
general rules on the subject, as the circum- 
stances are different in each locality, and a 
successful salesman in the West may prove 
almost a failure when dealing with East- 
erners; but, as stated above, the two great 
acquirements are urbanity and tact, and 
these, properly cultivated, will generally 
prove all-sufficient. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



85 



NOT THE NOTES OF A NOVICE 



Some Further Experiences of the flan 
Versed In Troubles of Motor Bicycles. 



Continuing my experiences in trying to 
teach the young idea how to mote. I recall 
a case that represents one of many others as 
showing how some dealers imperil their 
chances of success in the motor bicycle 
branch of the trade by allowing those some- 
what loose methods, which have long been a 
by-word in connection with some bicycle re- 



been engendered, because of a seeming fault, 
with motor bicycles as a whole. In this way 
I frequently revived a drooping interest and 
prevented the continuance of the bad taste 
that had been left by some such experience 
as this. 

To bgin with, two of the crank case bolts 
were used on our machine to hold the motor 
in place. These were of different lengths. 
In putting them back the repair man had 
shifted them so that the nuts on one ran 
over two or three threads on each end. On 
the other they were the same amount short 
of being home. The result was that with the 
last nuts enough jamb could not be put on 



that a distinct leak was found which took in 
so much outside air that it prevented but a 
minute portion of the gas mixture reaching 
the combustion chamber. 

It will be seen that there wasn't an item in 
all this that needed technical knowledge, or 
knowledge of any kind, bearing directly on 
motors. Each instance was one where any 
man who was more than a mechanic in name 
only, ought to have fixed correctly. They all 
had to do only with threads and the proper 
handling of the threaded parts that even the 
most elementary knowledge shornd have been 
sufficient to take care of. " 

This subject of screwing things properly 



THE TRAILER flAKES ITS APPEARANCE IN AflERICA. 



While abroad they appear to be in fairly 
common use, the trailer is in this country 



Willis, the well-known jobber and president 
of the New York Motor Cycle Club, who is 



man, who won the first bicycle race in this 
country ever run on a circular track with a 




as yet a rarity. So far as known there are 
but two of them here, one of which is here 
illustrated. It was brought over by E. J. 



shown seated in the trailer. The "horse" 
is A. H. Eunice's imported Kelecom motor 
bicycle ridden by the veteran Will R. Pit- 



dirt surface and a wood rail, and who, 
despite the 24 years that have intervened, is 
still as young as he used to be. 



pairers, to have a place in the motor end of 
their business. 

The case in point was where a bicycle 
agent had a motor brought in for some re- 
pairs on the frame itself which necessitated 
the taking off the motor. The repair itself 
was made, how well made could only be 
determined by time, but the motor was put 
back in place in a most slovenly manner. 
The machine was delivered to the owner, 
who, after two weeks spent in trying to 
make it run and in complaint of its oil leak- 
inf propensities, sent it to us at the factory. 

As was usually the case where we had but 
one machine in a town. I superintended the 
overlooking of the machine in order that I 
could intelligently write the owner to eradi- 
cate any bad impression that might have 



them to tighten the crank case at that point; 
hence the leakage of lubricating oil. 

The next thing to require attention were 
the wires terminating at the spark plug and 
at the two primary terminals at the spark 
cam. These had been put on backwards so 
that in screwing up the binding nuts the 
latter had spread out the ends of the wires 
so that only a partial contact was had. 

Of course, the oil leakage did not prevent 
the motor from running and even the poorly 
made contacts may have had just enough 
contact to keep things going, but remedying 
the latter did not stop the fitful spells of 
stoppings. Looking for the cause for this it 
was found that the union connecting the 
pipe from the mixer to the intake had been 
crossed in the threads in putting it on so 



in place reminds me of a particularly aggra- 
vating case, because the owner claimed to be 
a foreman in the machine shop- of a large 
and well-known corporation. 

After using his motor bicycle for some 
months, he returned it with a claim for re- 
placement of a defective part. On the frame 
of the bicycle there was a lug that had no 
strain on it, but which had been put there as 
a distance piece, pure and simple. Through 
this passed an extension of a cylinder bolt. 
This lug had been so placed, for construc- 
tional reasons, that a washer was necessar- 
ily placed between one face of it and the 
riotor head to make up the gap. Against the 
other face was screwed a nut. 

For some reason he had taken off his motor 
and when replacing it had neglected to put 



86 

the washer back in place. When he screwed 
up the outside nut he noticed the gap and 
kept on jambing the nut to close it up. The 
strain naturally broke the lug oft the frame 
and he wanted "damages." He didn't get 
them, and paid for a new frame section, to- 
gether with several dollars express charges. 

Not always, however, was it ray experi- 
■ ence to wonder why a man who knew 
enough to clean out a furnace when a new 
fire was to be started could not be made to 
understand that a motor reeded lubricating 
oil and some other attentions once in a 
while. 

I remember an instance where a machine 
was sent to a man who didn't pretend to a 
whole lot of gas engine wisdom, yet who 
made things right when the fault was really 
ours. In some way, however, it never could 
be found out from even the most careful 
research into the record cards of the work- 
men and the inspectors, how the motor was 
put together so that it tried to run the bicycle 
backwards. He of course had all kinds of 
trouble and looked for it mostly in the 
spark and in the mixture. Finally, he 
wrote me in the matter, but I was either 
stupid or he did not help me much in his 
letters, because I remember that about the 
time of my sending a second lettr to him I 
received one in which he said he had found 
the trouble and corrected the fault. To 
have him correct matters himself and not 
send the motor back to the factory was 
considerable, but when he added to the let- 
ter that he knew that things like that could 
occur in the best regulated factories, I felt 
he more than deserved the box of cigars 
which I sent him. 

About this time another good friend 
helped me solve a matter that was giving 
me some trouble. He was a physician, liv- 
ing about the center of the State of New 
York, and had built one or two motor bicy- 
cles previous to buying one of mine, for 
amusement. Shortly after receiving his ma- 
chine he sent in word that noticing it did 
not climb the hills as well as my own ma- 
chine, which he had previously ridden, from 
his past experiencs he traced it direct to the 
muffler. 

Taking this off the machine he found that 
some of the holes had been stopped up by 
spelter in brazing together two parts of the 
muffler. This information was doubly valu- 
able as it not only settled the complaints 
of about six buyers that were on my desk, 
but it enabled me to get rid of an outdoor 
tester that was not doing the work he was 
paid to take care of. 



Rubber Tires Made Over. 

It may not be generally known, but the 
India rubber dolls, animals and other toys 
used by children in many cases began their 
commercial existence in the form of bicycle 
tires. Many of these toys come from Ger- 
many and at one time England was ship- 
ping tons of old rubber every year to Ger- 
many and taking it back again in elaborate 
and gaudy, squaking dolls, elephants and 
other toys. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 
RACING 

Excellent racing, with decisions that did 
not suit the crowd, was the order of the 
afternoon at Vailsburg, October 19. The 
event of the day was a one-mile three- 
cornered professional team match race, best 
two in three heats. Kramer was paired 
with Owen Kimble, Iver Lawson with Mc- 
Farland and Fenn with George Collett. 
Lawson won the first heat by a length from 
Kramer in 2.19 3-5. In the second Collett 
made a grand jump in the first lap and was 
not caught. He won by almost the length 
of the straight in 2.16. It was at this stage 
of the race that the trouble began between 
the spectators and the officials. The judges 
gave second place to Kramer. Many in the 
stand thought Lawson had beaten Kramer 
for the place by at least half a wheel. Fenn 
and Collett led the others at the half mile 
in the third heat. Fenn dropped away in 
the back stretch of the last lap and Collett 
tried to fight it out. alone. In the last few 
yards Kramer came from the rear with a 
rush. McFarland passed Collett and the 
fight was then between McFarland and 
Kramer. McFarland won by a few feet 
from Kramer and Collett was only half a 
wheel behind. Time, 2.20. 

Another bad decision was given in the 
five-mile amateur open. Root led all the 
last lap, and Billington and Glasson, who 
were looked upon as the contenders, ap- 
peared to be beaten at the stretch turn. 
Root, however, tired badly from his efforts, 
and Billington, coming like a flash, crossed 
the tape first by five inches. Root was sec- 
ond and Sulkins third. The judges could 
not see it that way, and placed Root first 
and Billington second. Time, 11.55. 



won the first in 5m. 21s., and Lawson won 
the second and third in 5m. 2s. and 4m. 56s. 



Both Harry Elkes and Eddie Bald, ac- 
cording to foreign advices, have been suc- 
cessful recently in Paris. At the Pare des 
Princes track, October 5, Elkes won a paced 
raced in which Bonhours and Michael were 
his opponents. Bonhours finished second 
and Michael was last, owing to trouble with 
his pace. Elkes rode in excellent form, lead- 
ing from start to finish of the fifty kilo- 
metres. Time, 41.48. Despite his intention 
not to compete in a race, Zimmerman was 
induced to participate in a three-cornered 
match with Bald and Jacquelin. Bald won 
all three heats. The first by a length from 
Jacquelin. In the second Jacquelin fell, 
Bald winning. In the third Bald was first 
by a wheel, Jacquelin second and Zimmer- 
man bringing up the rear. 



At Savannah on October 20, Joe Nelson 
defeated Nat Butler in two five-mile motor- 
paced heats on the Coliseum track. The first 
heat was exciting, Nelson coming in only 
three length ahead, in Tm. 2 2-5s. In the 
second heat Butler's tire punctured in the 
third mile. Nelson's time was 6m. 57s flat- 
within two and a half seconds of the 
world's record. 

Charles Turville and Gus Lawson met in 
three heats of three miles each. The former 



The first open century run for motocycles 
exclusively is slated for Election day, No- 
vember 4 next, under the auspices of the 
New York Motor Cycle Club. It will be run 
on a Long Island course in two divisions, 
fast and slow; the former is scheduled to 
complete the 100 miles in six hours, the 
latter in ten hours. F. E. Moskovics, 136 
Liberty street, New York, is chairman of 
the promoting committee. 



Long Islanders in Session. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the 
Associated Cycling Clubs of Long Island, 
held last Monday night, the Alpha Motor 
Cycle Club was elected to membership. This 
was the first meeting of the association 
since the plan of gathering at different club 
houses was adopted and the idea plainly has 
"caught on." The Waverly Bicycle Club 
was the host. 
-The question of indorsing the ordinance 
to license automobiles was brought up and 
after some discussion was tabled. For 
some unaccountable reason the motion that 
would make the A. C. C. a member of the 
Associated Road Users was also again laid 
over. 

A. R. Button, George W. Shannon and 
W. T. Hatten were appointed as a Commit- , 
tee on Public Action. 

The blacklist which was tabled last June 
was put into operation again. This is a list 
made by compiling the reports from all 
clubs of members expelled for non-jayment 
of dues. 

Out of the line of regular business was the 
presentation of a diamond studded watch 
charm to George W. Shannon, the energetic 
chairman of the association's race commit- 
tee, who for four years and almost unaided 
has made the annual Cycle Path Handicap 
such a splendid success. The watch charm 
was an appreciation of his efforts. 



Going West? 

If you purchase your tickets via the Nickei 
Plate Road, the shortest route between Buf- 
falo and Chicago, you will secure the best 
iervice at the lowest rates. Three fast 
thru express trains dally, In each direc- 
tion, between Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland, Ft 
Wayne and Chicago making close connec- 
tions at the latter city with the fast trains 
of the Western roads. The trains on the 
Nickel Plate Road consist of elegant vestl- 
buled day coaches, sleeping cars of the latest 
models, and Nickel Plate dining cars serv- 
ing famous Individual club meals at rates 
from 35 cents to $1. Thru sleeping cars 
are also run from Boston, New York, Al- 
bany, Syracuse, Rochester, scranton, Blng- 
ha in ton and Elmira, and many other Eastern 
cities. 

It your ticket agent cannot give yon the 
Information desired, address F. J. Moore, 
General Agent, Nickel Plate *load, 281 Main 
St., Buffalo, N. Y. ••* 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



87 



ACTUAL ENGINE POWER 



Its Efficient Transmission yet to be Arrived 
at With Hotor Bicycles. 



"I note that the Bicycling World has 
treated the subject of driving motor bicycles 
from both sides of the question, and I would 
like to add my views, which are not partic- 
ularly new, but are in line with the subject," 
recently remarked one who has had more 
than a little experience. 

"On the subject of transmission it is cer- 
tain that in the majority of machinery the 
actual engine power already given by the 
smaller motors cannot be transmitted with 
any degree of efficiency; and if we take the 
numerous highly vaunted system one by one 
for critical examination, there is not a single 
one which altogether fulfils every desirable 
condition. The variable grip friction clutch 
with positive chain drive would seem to be 
the best solution; yet so far it has made no 
great headway, probably because of the 
necessity for building a special machine to 
suit it, and a somewhat higher initial cost. 

"My own experience has been almost en- 
tirely with the belt drive in various forms, 
and though I early came to the conclusion 
that the common type of twisted raw hide 
belt was useless for hill work, I have since 
learned that much better results may be 
obtained from this or any other type of 
leather belt by fitting an engine pulley of 
suitable formation. 

"The pulley I first used was the ordinary 
circular grooved pulley, having a milled or 
corrugated face to afford grip to the belt, but 
these corrugations very quickly wear away, 
and then, as the pulley section conforms to 
the belt section, the belt fails to drive unless 
tightened up to a degree which is injurious 
to the engine bearings, setting up further 
trouble by exuding oil finding its way to the 
belt. 

"After quickly wearing out two of this 
type of pulley I fitted a smooth faced V- 
grooved pulley, into which the same round 
twisted belt could enter only a certain dis- 
tance, so that the belt was subjected to a 
squeezing or wedging action between the 
two sides of the V groove, and this proved 
an immense improvement. This pulley, 
however, was really fitted to take a V belt 
with the bottom point cut off about one-third 
the way up: 

"This belt is a three-ply belt formed of 
flat strips of specially tanned and stretched 
leather and copper riveted together. The 
sides are shaved down to form a V section, 
the top section being %-in. in width and the 
bottom or inner" section %-in., the sides or 
gripping surface being 9-lG-in. From the 
increased driving power due to the wedging 
action on the round belt it was quite evi- 
dent that a still more powerful drive would 
result from the larger surface contact of the 
V belt specially shaped to exactly fit the 
pulley, and so it has proved, there being no 
suspicion of side-slip after the new belt 
fairly settles down to work." 



Growth of Assembling Trade. 

The growth of the "assembling" trade 
abroad is remarked by Consul General Lis- 
ten at Rotterdam in a report to the Wash- 
ington authorities: 

"The prospects for the importation of bi- 
cycles are not very bright at present," he 
says. "This is principally owing to the fact 
that the manufacture of cycles has pro- 
gressed very much in this country, and that 
a' cycle can now be built (principally from 
imported parts) as cheap and, it is claimed, 
as well as in the United States. There is 
still some demand for high-grade American 
cycles of well-known make, which are thor- 
oughly introduced here, but they are not 
asked for as much as formerly; the demand 
is for the cheaper goods, and the public, as a 
rule, is no longer willing to pay fancy prices. 
The freight charges and the duty on bicycles 
(5 per cent, of the value), amounting to- 
gether to about $2 per cycle, or with pack- 
ing charges to about $2.50, are disadvan- 
tageous to the American bicycle, as this 
margin makes the importation next to im- 
possible, the cost price of the goods at the 
factory here being about the same as it is in 
the United States. In the construction of 
bicycles here, American parts are largely 
used, and the imports are, as I have been in- 
formed by large importers, steadily increas- 
ing. No statistics exist in the Netherlands 
as to the quantity imported." 



BOERS AND BICYCLES 



How a Wheel Track Affected Some South 
Africans, as Related by a Story Teller. 



How he Would Reduce Friction. 

It hardly seems probable, and had it not 
occurred to a representative of the Bicycling 
World, it could not be vouched for. A short 
time ago a man "with an idea" was sent 
to this representative because he was sup- 
posed to have had some little experience 
with crank inventions in bicycle design and 
construction. The idea well illustrated the 
average knowledge in the matter of fric- 
tion. 

The claim of the inventor was that his 
construction would reduce friction to a min- 
imum and eliminate the chain by connect- 
ing the two sprockets with a continuous set 
of rings confined in a runway in the form of 
a one piece channel with upper and lower 
and two end sections, the end sections but- 
ting the sprockets. In order that the rings 
might have a thrust movement rather than 
a rolling movement against each other, each 
ring was to be mounted in a flanged roller 
with balls between the two. 

As the tendency of these rollers would be 
to climb or bow up in the channels, in the 
upper channel in forward pedaling and in 
the lower channel in backward pedaling, 
the sides of the channel were to be curved 
in near their upper corners to form a track 
or runway for the rollers. The construction 
would undoubtedly give a chainless bicycle, 
but the advice was given that it was not of 
the class to inspire the confidence of either 
the manufacturer or the rider. More than 
that,' there was a faint recollection of some- 
thing of this kind that had been tried or 
patented three or four years ago. 



During the exposition last year in Buffalo, 
many people gathered from many lands, 
and it was on the cards that the smallness 
of the world should be illustrated in the 
meeting of those who had not seen one an- 
other for years. One evening there was a 
gathering of many who had been identified 
with the bicycle, some of whom had drifted 
away, '.n a booth of an exhibitor, and among 
them was one who had returned from a so- 
journ of a few years in South Africa. In 
the stories that were told was the following 

in evidence of the charming innocence of 
the Boers: 

"When I first went to Africa the first 
bicycle had just made its appearance in a 
small town in the Transvaal. A cyclist 
passed through at night, and the next day 
two young Boers, early abroad in search of 
stray cattle, say the spoor, or track, of the 
bicycle in the road. With the curiosity of 
their race they followed the track for some 
miles, being anxious to see the man who 
could trundle a wheelbarrow without a rest. 
After an hour's tracking, one sagely re- 
marker: 'This fellow must be a thief; let us 
tell the magistrate.' 

"Accordingly the worthy Dutch magis- 
trate was soon on the scene accompanied by 
a score of armed Boers, and the entire 
party followed the path taken by the cyclist. 
Suddenly one farmer exclaimed: 'Look here; 
if it was a barrow, where is the track of 
the man who wheeled it?' 'My goodness,' 
said the magistrate, T never thought of that. 
Let's see — yes, here is the wheel right 
enough, but where is th footprint? It must 
be a ghost!' With that the whole party 
turned and fled in alarm, and for a long time 
that portion of the road was not traversed 
by any of the Boers." 



Would Show a Rear Light. 

The Cyclist, of England, has come out in 
the advocacy of a lamp showing a rear red 
light as a protection against motor car driv- 
ers. The matter has caused some little com- 
ment among cyclists, who don't like the 
spirit of the advocacy. On the other hand, 
the advocate claims that the thing is only 
a logical matter, as a faster class has 
come to use the road and that the rear light 
should be used for self-protection. 



Breaking His Own Law. 

The spectacle of a well-known wheelman 
infringing a law which he himself helped 
frame was presented in Brooklyn on Sun- 
day last— an ex-president of the L. A. W. 
carrying his young daughter on the handle- 
bar of his bicycle. It is only fair to say 
that at the time of the passage of the law 
forbidding that practice the ex-official was 
unmarried. 



88 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



CONCERNING TIRE COVERS 



Strains to Which They are Subjected and 
how They Affect Inner Tubes. 



"The effects produced upon the air tube by 
movement of the tire cover relatively to the 
rim are very little understood either by rid- 
ers, cycle agents, or tire manufacturers, and 
their importance is very much under-rated," 
writes A. T. Sadlei-, in a foreign journal in 
the matter of double tube tires. 

"The writer has examined some hundreds 
of air tubes, and has drawn certain conclu- 
sions which are applicable to nearly every 
case. 

"When a wheel is being driven, a consider- 
able strain is set up in the tire cover at the 
part where it meets the ground. The tend- 
ency of this strain is to pull the tire cover 
slowly round the rim, a movement with 
which, in the old days of wide rims and 
nondescript tires, every cycle agent was per- 
fectly familiar under the term 'creeping.' 

"In the narrower rims which are used to- 
day, the pressure of the base plate of the 
valve against the edges of the tire prevents 
this creeping from taking place, but the 
strain on the cover now pulls the edges more 
lightly against the shoulder of the rim on one 
side of the valve than they are on the other." 

In illustration he shows a wheel running 
forward, with the valve just back of the top 
centre. The wall resistance at the ground 
point sets up a strain in the cover in the 
back direction from the valve, down to the 
ground point. "This part of the wired edge 
will be pressed tightly against the shoulder 
of the rim, while the part forward of the 
waive to the ground will be correspondingly 
slack. The pressure of air in the tire will 
consequently lift the cover in this section 
to a slightly higher level in the rim, and this 
lifting section increases as the point of the 
valve where the valve passes through the 
rim gets nearer to the ground. 

"As the valve reaches the ground, the 
strain on the part back of it is relaxed, and 
the cover springs back to its normal posi- 
tion," he continued. 

"It is evident, therefore, that the wired 
edges of the cover are constantly moving up 
and down the sides of the rim with every 
revolution of the wheel; the amount of this 
movement differing in different parts of the 
rim, and also varying with the resistance 
offered by the road to the revolution of the 
wheel. 

"The effects of this motion on the air tube 
may be studied under three heads: 

"1. The formation of a row of blisters or 
of a ridge along one, or both sides of the air 
tube. 

"2. The formation of a row of blisters 
along the middle of the air tube. 

"3. The wearing of thin places along the 
middle of the tube. 

"1. If at any period of the revolution the 



part forward of the valve is lifted sufficient- 
ly above the shoulder of the rim, a small por- 
tion of the air tube will blow under the wired 
edge, only to be securely nipped as soon as 
the point of the valve reaches the ground. 

"Any variation in the road resistance will 
cause this nipping to take place at a different 
part of the tube, the result generally being a 
row of blisters at regular intervals in the 
tube along the line of one or both wires. 

"2. If the edges of the cover are very stiff, 
or if the shoulder of the rim is sufficiently 
slanting, there is a tendency for the tire 
edges to be pulled down into the bed of the 
rim to a greater or less extent. When this 
happens, a portion of the air tube gets nip- 
ped between the two edges of the cover, and 
a row of larger blisters along the middle of 
the tube is then the result. 

"3. Sometimes the air tube adheres tight- 
ly to the inside of the cover, in which case 
any movement of the periphery of the cover 
carries the tube with it, and the middle of 
the tube is constantly moved backwards and 
forwards (within very narrow limits) along 
the rim tape. 

"The friction thus set up frequently wears 
the w r ho!e of the middle of the tube thinner 
than the rest, and this wearing is more pro- 
nounced still in those parts where the spoke 
heads, nipples, etc., cause an unevenness in 
the surface of the rim. 

"In the case of those covers having thick- 
ened edges, the friction between the thicken- 
ed edge and the recurved portion of the rim 
prevents the effects numbered 1 and 2 from 
taking place, but with wired on covers it ap- 
pears to be impossible to guarantee that 
there shall be no difficulty of this sort with 
the air tubes." 



AS SCARCE AS COAL 



An Incident Illustrating the Disappearance 
or Obscurity of the Cycle Mounted Police. 



Saying a Good Word. 

As practical riders we take a delight in 
speaking well of the bridge which carries 
us over, and never fail, when the oppor- 
tunity arises, to say a good word for the 
goods that have given satisfaction, says an 
exchange. 

This is only fair, we think, for al friends 
should always be spoken well of, and that 
which serves one faithfully should always 
have a good character. These remarks are 
engendered through having to change a tire 
which has. been in hard and active use for 
nearly eighteen months, and which in that 
period has been ridden quite eight thousand 
miles. These are not fancy figures, and the 
distance is rather under than overestimated. 

We reckon that a high-grade tire should 
last, on an average, five thousand miles. Of 
course a lot depends on the roads one is used 
to riding on, and the average pace at which 
one travels, for a speedy man, who puts 
plenty of "work" into the machine, gives his 
tires a lot more stress than the potterer; and 
given everything else equal, the fast man's 
tires will not run nearly so many miles as 
the deliberate and lazy pusher's. 



Bicycle policemen in the Metropolitan dis- 
trict nowadays are about as scarce as coal. 
Uptown, downtown and all round in the 
parks and on the boulevards where cyclists 
are plentiful these glorious autumn days, it 
is to stare if one of these vanishing preserv- 
ers of order and protectors of life is encoun- 
tered. Yet there is plenty of work for them. 
How rare the sight of a "cop" on a wheel is 
is illustrated in a story told by K. J. Wulff, of 
Brooklyn, the other day. He was riding 
along the side of Prospect Park and looking 
for a certain bicycle "cop" whom he knew 
and wanted to talk with, when he came to 
a young fellow who was standing beside his 
wheel heading in the direction opposite to 
that in which Wulff was going. The latter 
slowed and asked the stranger if he had seen 
anything of a bicycle "cop." The stranger 
answered: 

"Bike cop? What's that? I don't know 
w T hat you mean." 

"Oh, perhaps you want me to say a bicycle 
policeman, a guardian of the peace on 
wheel," rejoined Wulff sarcastically. 

"Oh! No, I haven't seen any; besides how 
would I know a 'cop' if he was out on a 
wheel and not in uniform?" 

Wulff dismounted. He then proceeded to 
explain to the young fellow, who seemed to 
be speaking sincerely, what he meant. The 
stranger declared he never had known that 
there was such a thing as a squad of police- 
men who patrolled the paths on bicycles. 
Wulff regarded him incredulously for a mo- 
ment, and then asked: 

"New in these parts?" 

"Yes." 

"How long have you lived here?" 

"Two months." 

"Ride much?" 

"Three or four days a week." 

"And you never have seen a 'bike' cop?" 

"Never." 

"H'm!" said Wulff, and went on his way 
reflecting upon what he would say to his 
friend in uniform. 



"How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." $1. The 
Goodman Co., Box 649, New York. *** 



Testing Steel and Iron. 

Nitric acid will produce a black spot in 
steel; the darker the spot the harder the 
steel. Iron, on the contrary, remains 
bright if touched with nitric acid. Good 
steel in its soft state has a curved fracture 
and a uniform gray lustre. In its hard 
state, a dull, silvery, uniform white lustre. 
Cracks, threads or sparkling particles de- 
note bad quality. 

Good steel will not bear a white heat 
without falling to pieces and will crumble 
under the hammer at a bright red heat, 
while at middling heat it may be drawn out 
under the hammer to a fine point. 



TIPS ON TEMPERING 



Some Useful Information Regard That Im- 
portant Branch of Metal Working. 



"When a piece of tool steel, in itself of no 
great commercial value, is worked out and 
finished into an intricate die, through labor 
cost amounting to a large sum, the steel is, 
of course, very valuable; and if cracks show 
after the hardening process, or the die is 
spoiled, it means a great loss to the estab- 
lishment," says Shop Talk. 

"Now, in the first place, although we are 
usually apt to confound cracks with harden- 
ing, very often the trouble can be traced to 
the preceding operations of annealing, forg- 
ing and finishing. Of course there are a large 
number of dies spoiled through carelessness 
or inexperience in hardening, but still I be- 
lieve there is a great amount spoiled through 
imperfect preceding operations or through 
the operator not being familiar with the na- 
ture of the steel. 

"A die may be carefully heated to give the 
ps-oper temperature throughout, and may be 
quenched in the bath in the most approved 
manner, but if it is not 'slightly warmed' 
after removing it from the hardening bath, 
it is liable to crack. This reheating may be 
done in a number of ways. The best way 
is to hold the die over the fire until it is 
heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a 
few drops of water to steam when sprinkled 
in it. The heat will not be sufficient to make 
any of the temper colors appear. 

"The author has been connected with one 
establishment where thousands of dies are 
made every year, and every die was reheated 
after hardening, in the following manner: A 
large tank provided with a perforated tray, 
with means for raising and lowering it, was 
used. The tank was filled with water to 
within two inches of the top and a steam 
pipe was connected with it. Thus the water 
was kept at the boiling point, and the die, 
directly after hardening, was placed upon the 
tray, which was then lowered into the bath. 

"We have known dies to crack while in the 
forge when the blaze struck the die portion 
proper. This is brought about by sudden 
heat and then a cold blast of.air, causing the 
steel to expand and then suddenly contract 
again, at a certain point, and as the conse- 
quent expansion and contraction does not ex- 
tend over the entire surface, the change 
is local and cracks result. 

"Sometimes a piece of steel which is to be 
used for a punch or die proves hard upon 
starting to machine it, although it has been 
annealed. When this is the case, never try 
to finish it before re-annealing it; instead, 
rough it down, clean out the centres, if there 
are to be any, and anneal it over again. The 
time required to re-anneal the piece of steel 
will be more than made up in the machining 
of it. 

"A die made from a blank cut from a bar 
and machined and worked out without an- 
nealing is liable to crack when subjected to 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

the hardening process, particularly if the 
die is for a blanking die of odd shape. If 
annealed bar steel is used, the necessity of 
re-annealing is also imperative, as the first 
annealing does not eliminate the liability of 
cracking. 

"When it is not possible to anneal the die 
blank before finishing to size, the next best 
thing to do is to heat the die uniformly 
throughout to a red heat, then remove from 
the fire and allow it to cool until black. It 
may then be reheated to the proper tempera- 
ture and hardened. In a forging die the 
bulky portion has a tendency to contract 
away from the small portions, which, being 
frail, harden first and do not alter their 
shape, while the bulky portion continues to 
contract unevenly, after the thin portion be- 
comes rigid, and thin cracks are apt to ap- 
pear when the tool is removed from the 
quenching bath. By heating dies to a red 
and then allowing them to cool to a black 



Morgan *WrightTires 
are good tires 



see that Morgan ft Wright 

IS BRANDED ON EVERT TIRE AND TUBE 
NO OTHER IS GENUINE. . 



Morgan & Wright 



N:w York Branch! 214-216 West 47th Street. 

before the hardening heat, this uneven con- 
traction is to a certain extent guarded 
against. 

"In hardening a die, the quenching of it so 
that the frailest portion enters the bath first 
and hardens before the thickest portion, will 
almost invariably cause cracks to appear, as 
unequal contraction takes place and the 
heavy portion contracting the most, changes 
shape in attempting to draw with it the 
frailer portions. 

"Another cause of cracks in dies is the use 
of improper means for grinding. When a die 
is ground on a machine on which no provi- 
sion is made for water coaling, or where a 
tine wheel is used, cracks often result, com- 
ing about through the steel being unevenly 
heated during the grinding. By using a 
coarse wheel with a free water supply this 
disagreeable possibility will be eliminated. 

"Often, in die work, it is desired that the 
walls of a drawing die, for instance, or some 
other 1 part, such as inside of a hollow punch, 
should be hard, and the remaining portion 
soft. This may be accomplished by proceed- 
ing as follows: Clamp the die or punch, as 
the case may be, between flanges on the ends 



89 

of tubes, being sure to have the steel at the 
proper heat. Then allow a stream of cold 
water or brine to circulate through thetube,- 
and the metal will harden in depth as far 
as the inside edges of the flanges, while the 
remaining portions will remain soft. 

"After carefully hardened, a long punch 
will often be found to have warped during 
the process to such a degree as to make it 
useless. There is a way to avoid this alto- 
gether, or at least the warp will be so slight 
as not to affect the efficiency of the tool. To 
ensure against warping, lower the steel, 
when at the proper heat, squarely into the 
bath, lowering as far as possible into the 
centre of the liquid. When this is done the 
heat will be absorbed equally from all sides, 
and the tendency to warp excessively will 
have been eliminated. 

"When a large number of very small pierc- 
ing punches are to be hardened, they should 
be packed in closed iron boxes and the boxes 
heated. When all the parts have reached the 
proper heat, they should be entered into a 
bath of either oil or water, as the nature of 
the work may require, through a funnel. 
This will insure the entering of the parts 
vertically and prevent warping. Another 
way by whicli small punches may be heated 
is to cover them in a box with powdered 
charcoal and coke. 

"The best way to harden and temper a split 
gang punch is by the method used for the 
punch. It was first heated and hardened in 
clear oil, dipping it from the back, and thus 
preventing, as far as possible, the two legs 
from crawling in toward each other because 
of the channel between them. By dipping 
fr. in the back this was overcome, as by the 
time the cutting face was .'immersed, the 
back was hard and set. It was then polished 
and tempered by drawing from the back to 
a dark blue to within % inch of the cutting 
faces, and quenched when these portions 
were a dark straw color. 

"After the face of the punch has been 
slightly sheared, and the edges of the draw- 
ing die slightly rounded and highly polished, 
the punch is hardened and then drawn by 
laying it alternately on each of its four sides 
on a hot plate, tempering the cutting edges 
to a dark blue and leaving the inside or 
drawing die portion as hard as possible. 
When finishing the blanking portion of the 
punch, care has to be taken to do it so that 
the drawing portion will be perfectly central. 

"Most all large die shops in which any 
amount of hardening and tempering is done, 
1 ave discarded the method of tempering by 
colors, and have adopted the more reliable 
method of doing it in oil, gauging tie heat 
by thermometer. A kettle containing the 
oil is placed on the fire and heated to a right 
temperature for the degree of temper de- 
sired in the work. The hardened parts are 
then thrown in and left in the liquid until 
drawn. By this method there is no possibil- 
ity f r the parts to become hotter than the 
oil. When tempering punches in this man- 
ner it is not necessary to brighten them be- 
fore the operation, and where a lot of such 
work is done it will be accomplished much 
cheaper than if the old method was used, 
and besides, the most satisfactory results will 
be attained." 



90 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



STRIVING VS. GROANING 



Two Opposite Elements That Now Color 
the Cycle Trade— Their Effect. 



The world rolls merrily along, and we 
poor hangers on must perforce move merrily 
along too, whether we feel disposed to or 
not. There are those who urge that the 
world moves faster to-day than formerly, 
but presumably they are not in earnest. 
Probably what they wish to convey is that 
the feverish strife, which we are pleased to 
call "progress," gets keener and keener 
every day, says Bicycle News. With this 
view of things few will cavil; it is undoubt- 
edly a ease of every man for himself and 
"the de'il tak' the hindmost," and if ever 
there was a time when the "de'il" stood to 
reap a fat harvest, that time is the present. 
There is no country, no industry, no trade, 
no profession that we can call to mind that 
is not groaning, but, as with individual so 
it is with the community, each considers 
that it has the greatest reason for groaning. 
At the outset, and whilst on the matter of 
groans, it may not be altogether out of place 
to remark that if some of us Were as good 
at striving as at groaning, there might be 
less of the latter indulged in; no man can 
serve two masters, and if the one claiming 
the truest allegiance be a pessimistic spirit, 
then the other stands to get very little at- 
tention indeed, for there is nothing on this 
earth so all-absorbing as a fully-developed 
pessimistic vein. 

Nothing stimulates the growth of pessim- 
ism so consistently as the feeling that one 
is getting left in the race for bread; but on 
the other hand, nothing sends a man to the 
rear more rapidly than apathy, conservatism 
and a general disinclination to watch the 
progress of, and the' developments in, the 
world of which he is a unit. 

The cycle trade is one at which a good 
many stones and other things have been 
hurled, but, age for age, it is as important 
an industry as any the world has ever 
known, and although pessimism does prevail 
to a great extent, much of it is altogether 
uncalled for, and if the time and energy 
now devoted to general commiseration were 
organized and thrown into other channels, 
having for their object the removal of abuses 
and the bettering of trade conditions, a ray 
or two of sunny optimism would soon creep 
in. The one important fact, that the public 
wants, and will buy, cycles, is fully estab- 
lished; this being so, it should surely be pos- 
sible to so arrange the supply that the 
manufacturer and the retailer should find 
at least as good a living in their vocation as 
the manufacturer and retailer in other 
fields. If there was no demand, then pes- 
simism would be called for, although even 
then it is still possible to create, but where 
we fancy the trade has been, and is to-day, 
remiss, is in taking it for granted that every- 
body wants a bicycle, and advertising to the 
public on those lines instead of doing some 



educational work in this direction — that is 
to say, endeavoring to convince the man 
who has not yet cycled that it would be well 
for him to do so. 

Another matter which the local builder of 
cycles has got to consider is that of "build- 
ing and selling" vs. "selling only," and we 
are very much disposed to think that the 
time is rapidly approaching when the local 
cycle builder will no more be in reality a 
builder than is the local hat, boot, shirt (and 
a score of other things) maker. There is no 
reason other than "sentiment" at work in 
the present arrangement; the local maker 
cannot equip his workshop on the same 
lines as the modern factory, it is not pos- 
sible for him to turn out better cycles, 
neither is it possible for him to turn them 
out nearly as cheaply; the specializing ar- 
rangements, automatic machinery, and a 
score of other details all go to set up an 
economic trade law which sooner or later 
must, in the face of evergrowing competi- 
tion, prevail. Again, looking in at the place 
of business of the local builder, what do we 
see? A man, earnest, hardworking and de- 
serving, working first in the workshop, then 
running away to see a possible customer, 
then back to the workshop, where the two 
or three chaps have, during the employer's 
temporary absence, given things a rest. Such 
a man, however anxious, cannot do justice 
to either the selling or the manufacturing 
side of his business, and the sooner he is 
giving all his time and attention to one 
branch, either building or selling, the better 
it will be for him and the trade as a whole. 

A complete bicycle turned out by either of 
the leading manufacturing houses cannot be 
beaten, and with the retailer's own transfer 
on will stand in the public eye as locally 
built; the local man will get all the credit 
due him and with nothing to do but to sell 
he will soon develop powers of salesmanship 
and a pushful disposition that will surprise 
no one more than himself. We are prepared 
to hear that "the public know I haven't got 
a workshop," but. then, are we not giving 
the public credit for more perception than 
they possess? When the eyclemaker buys a 
hat. lie does not, we take it, concern himself 
about the fact that there is no workshop 
attached to the premises of that particular 
hatmaker. If he gets a good hat he is satis- 
fied, and after all the buyer of a cycle wants 
no more than a good cycle. There are a few 
things to be lived down — this is one of them; 
but it will not take long nor be a very 
troublesome task. 



TIRE TROUBLE AVOIDED 



How a Cyclist was Taught a Lesson Bearing 
on Vulcanization. 



The Retail Record. 

Riverside, Cal. — S. G. Drew succeeds Drew 
& Porter. 

Franklin, Tenn.— D. T. Crockett, succeeds 
John O. White. 

Salem. Mass.— R. H. Robson, Essex and 
Boston streets, assigned. 



"I learned a little thing the other day," 
says a rider of many years experience, 
"which it seems to me, from what I am 
told, should be learned by many others. I 
went to get a tire that I had left to have 
vulcanized. It was handed to me blown up 
to its fullest rotundity. In that shape it 
was an awkward proposition to carry 
through the streets and into street cars. I 
stood at the counter where it had been 
handed to me and calmly deflated it. Then 
I folded it up into as small compass as pos- 
sible and asked the attendant for a piece 
of string. I 

"The man, seeing what I had done, ex- 
claimed: 'That is the worst thing you could 
do.' I asked him why and he told me that 
I was likely to ruin the tire. He explained 
that when a tire was fresh from the vul- 
canizer that it should be kept blown up for 
a couple of days at least in order to let the 
vulcanizing set. If folded flatly the inner 
surfaces would stick together and when 
pulled apart they would damage the air 
chamber beyond repair. He added that he 
had experience with dozens of cases where 
men had ruined tires by folding and tying 
them after they had been newly vulcanized 
and then brought them back and blamed 
him for doing an imperfect job." 



"The A. B. C. of Electricity" will aid you 
in understanding many things about motor 
bicycles that may now seem hard of under- 
standing. Price 50 cents. The Goodman Co., 
154 Nassau street, New York. **• 



Proper Oil a Proper Study. 

"While winter is approaching there is yet 
enough motor bicycle riding to be indulged 
in to give some dealers a chance to reform 
in the matter of lubricating oil. The char- 
acter of the oil fed to a high speed motor is 
of the most vital importance, but in their 
ignorance of the seriousness of the matter 
some dealers have fallen a prey to the 
vicious claims of some oil dealers that they 
had just the proper article 

It is speaking by the book to say that 
too frequently is it the case with oil com- 
pounders that the old saw "there are tricks 
in all trades, and ours is all tricks," is ab- 
solutely true. AVhether or not there is some 
mysterious psychoethical conditions that 
arise with oil compounders due to the slip- 
pery nature of the substance dealt in, has 
never yet been determined, but it would at 
times seem that this is the explanation. 

If it is from lack of knowledge that dealers 
hand out poor high speed gasolene motor 
oils, then they cannot too soon take steps 
to fully educate themselves in the matter. 
If necessary they should deal at a small 
percentage of profit, rather than have their 
customers experience a large share of 
troubles with heated and gummed motors 
and pitted valves as a result of unsuitable 
oil. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



91 



CYCLING IN PARIS 



According to one Visitor "Crocks" are 
Host Numerous but Women are Natty. 



A writer in a foreign contemporary has 
been visiting France and thinks that cycling- 
is on the decline in Paris, although there 
are more riders to be seen about the streets 
through the week than in London. Continu- 
ing, he writes, in part, as follows: 

"But on Sundays the Parisians and Parisi- 
ennes turn out in fine force, and on the fun- 
niest collection of machines imaginable. 
Many of them are antiquated cycles, with ec- 
centric saddles and handles, giving very 
comical positions. Rarely does one see a 
rider so neatly mounted or so well postured 
on his cycle as the average club rider in Ire- 
land or England. 

"Sometimes the Parisian rides in a white 
blouse or a dirty sweater or a frock coat. 
His nether garments may be knickers, which, 
ending at the knees, leave some square inches 
of sallow flesh exposed down to the place 
where the short socks reach. In other cases 
the rider wears fancy trousers, and up over 
his shins he draws sugarstiek-colored stock- 
ings. 

"He adopts an ugly, crouching attitude, 
uses a big gear, and generally has no brake 
or free wheel. The most ridiculous feature 
of his equipment is the alarm apparatus. 
For the purpose of obeying the law he carries 
a small dinner bell dangling from the handle- 
bar. In dense traffic he takes one hand from 
the bar and jangles this. Some firm should 
send a pioneer into Taris and demonstrate 
how much superior the proper bicycle bell is. 

"The French rider also carries a huge mo- 
tor horn, and this he blows when there is 
nothing in the way. Give him a clear stretch 
of street in which he works up a sprint, and 
the desire seizes him to create a terrific bel- 
lowing on his horn, for no other purpose os- 
tensibly than to call attention to himself. He 
is quite childish in his love of display. 

"A big racing motor car, on the other hand, 
will whizz by at double the speed without 
sounding any alarm. Indeed, when one 
hears a motor horn of unusually fierce tone, 
and sounded as if a juggernaut was coming, 
you can conclude, without looking round, 
that some miserable specimen of a would-be 
scorcher is approaching. But when you hear 
a "Ooh! ooh!" from a hoarse voice, or a very 
sharp and short toot from a small motor 
horn, you had better beware, for it is usually 
a wild-brained jehu driving a fast pneu- 
matic-tired carriage, or else a big motor car. 

"You must not lose a second if you are in 
the road, for the cabs and motor cars drive 
at a pace in Paris which no other city in the 
world approaches, and they are not over 
particular about the rule of the road. 

"Lady cyclists in Paris are few and rather 
disappointing on the whole. Most of them 



wear divided skirts or rational dress, and 
some look charming in the latter costume. 
Others adopt such bizzare designs and cycle 
in such a scorcher-like way that their appear- 
ance is most unwomanly. 

"The better class Parisenne, clad in be- 
coming rational dress, is, however, a far 
neater figure on a bicycle than any skirted 
lady could possibly be. If the other riders 
were but mounted on neat cycles, instead of 
the crocks which they commonly adopt, their 
appearance would be much improved. 

"There should be an excellent market in 
Paris for good bicycles, for the machines 
most in vogue there at present look to be 
the very worst type of crock. Of course 
there are high grade French and American 
machines to be seen, which are irreproach- 
able in appearance and build, but the num- 
ber is small compared to the palpable crocks 
so frequently encountered." 



An Idea in Duplex Forks. 

In England where the motor bicycle busi- 
ness is one of assembling to a greater extent 
than that of making all the way through, 




component parts maiiers have gone exten- 
sively into making parts that are especially 
designed to stand the strain. An example 
is here shown in a front fork. 

,Of course, duplex front forks are not new 
in the mere making of the type, but it will be 
noticed that the details of these illustrated 
show that they were designed for the work 
and well designed at that. There is a double 
clip at the top, extended lugs from the box 
fork crown, and a lower fork-end construc- 
ts n that are all pleasing in appearance, giv- 
ing a construction to inspire faith in the 
strength of the forks. 



Through Sleeping Car Line to Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

A Pullman Sleeping Car of latest construc- 
tion is now attached to New York Centra] 
train leaving Grand Central Station at 4:0U 
p. m., daily, running through over the Michi- 
gan Central, arriving at Grand Rapids at 
12:55 p. m„ next day, connecting in Union 
station for all points in Western Michigan 
For information and sleeping car reserva- 
tions inquire of New York Central Agents. 



IT IS ESTIMATED THAT 

97% 

OF 

Motocycle Troubles 

ARE 

ELECTRICAL TROUBLES. 



It follows that, at least, an ele- 
mentary knowledge of electricity 
will go far towards making for 
the fullest measure of pleasure 
and satisfaction. 



"The A B C 



OF 



Electricity" 



will impart this very knowledge. 




108 PAGES; 36 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The book is entirely non-technical anc 1 
can be understood by the man who does 
not know "the first thing" about electricity. 



PRICE, 50 CENTS. 



FOR SALE BY 



THE GOODMAN COMPANY 

123=125 Tribune Building, 
NEW YORK. 



92 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



About the Weights of Motors. 

Both on the road and on the path it be- 
comes increasingly evident that the best in- 
terests of the pastime ot motocycling can 
only be served by severe restrictions being 
placed upon the horse-power developed by 
the engines. So long as this is not done, 
competitions with abnormal horse powers 
serve no good purpose, except to provide a 
brief spell of amusement to the sensation- 
mongering spectators. High powers enable 
victory to be achieved, but high powers prove 
nothing as to the utility of the standard 
roadster motor bicycle. 

Yet there can be no doubt that there is a 
demand for bicycles with rather more than 
the nominal 1% h. p. that has been prevalent 
the past two years. On the other hand there 
is a not inconsiderable class of the public 
eager for a lighter weight and consequently 
smaller powered engine which will drive a 
bicycle at a moderate rate of speed on the 
level and assist the rider's muscular power 
uphill and against a bad wind. 

In a recent talk on this subject there were 
those who contended that a small motor de- 
veloping such power as would be equivalent 
to the pushing power of a boy uphill would 
permit the bicycle itself to be kept down in 
weight so that the total bulk would not ex- 
ceed, say, 45 to 50 lbs. 

This would be the ideal "auxiliary motor" 
for which cyclists have been sighing for 
many years, but it is to be feared it is not 
practicable at anythiug like the weight sug- 
gested. A motor developing only %-h- P. 
would weigh but very little less than one de- 
veloping three times the power, the weight 
of the engine, fly-wheels, crank case, battery 
case, and gasolene tank being necessarily 
almost as great for the smaller as for the 
higher power.' 

There are two or three attachable outfits 
made abroad that probably represent some- 
thing very near the irreducible minimum of 
weight for a four-cycle gasolene motor, and 
even these motors entail such extra stresses 
upon the frame and wheels of the bicycle 
as to render it imperative that all the parts 
should be considerably heavier than those of 
the modern lightweight roadster capable of 
safely carrying a 175-pound rider. 



Some Shop Talk. 

It was midnight in the machine shop, and 
all was silent until the rasping voice of the 
file was heard to say: 

"I have rubbed up against lots of hard 
things in my life, but this Harveyized steel 
job has completely worn me out." 

"Well," said the lathe, sympathetically, "I 
have done many a hard turn myself." 

"Life is a great bore," supplemented the 
gimlet. 

"A continual grind," put in the emery 
wheel roughly. 

"With many a broken thread," added the 
steam pipe in hollow accents. 

"Calm yourselves," advised the damaged 
flywheel, "there may be a revolution soon." 

"Don't mind him," said the soldering fluid, 
acidly. "Every one knows he is cracked." 

And in the confusion that followed the gas 
escaped.— Judge. 



The Week's Patents. 

710,962. Pneumatic Tire. Rudolph Fleischer 
and Matthias Reithmair, Minden, Germany. 
Filed Dec. 21, 1901. Serial No. 86,798. (No 
model). 

Claim. — A pneumatic tire consisting of sep- 
arate air-tubes and distinguished from all 
other pneumatic tires by having a case in 
which flaps are cut at distances correspond- 
ing to the number of tubes, through the 
flap openings air-tubes can be introduced by 
means of laces into the space within the 
case, which is closed by a piece of material 
which is laid over the flap and the thick 
edges of which are grasped by the rims of 
the felly. 

711,001. Hub-Clutch for Bicycles. Charles 
M. Rhodes, Steubenville, Ohio. Filed Nov. 
6, 1901. Serial No. 81,337. (No model). 

Claim. — 1. In a clutch mechanism, the 
combination of a shaft, a first sleeve mount- 
ed to revolve on said shaft, a clutch-wheel 
rigidly connected to said sleeve, a pair of 
clutch-shoes located to engage the periphery 
of said clutch-wheel and bearing pins, a 
cam-wheel mounted to revolve on said shaft 
and having eccentric slots therein engaging- 
said pins on said shoes, and means for ro- 
tating said cam-wheel, substantially as de- 
scribed. 

711,057. Crank Shaft and Hanger for 
Velocipedes. Emmit G. Latta, Friendship, 
N. Y. Bailed March 24, 1896. Serial No. 
5S4.630. (No m,0del). 

Claim.— 1. The combination with a hanger- 
sleeve or bracket, of a two-pa*rt or separable 
crank-shaft mounted to rotate therein, one 
part of which has its central axis parallel 
with that of the bracket and carries the 
inner bearing member of a ball-bearing, and 
the other part of which is integral with its 
crank-arm and is arranged with its central 
axis oblique to the axis of the bracket, said 
part which carries the bearing member be- 
ing provided with a socket the central axis 
of which is inclined to that of the bracket 
and is adapted to receive the other or oblique 
section, substantially as set forth. 

711,205. Adjustable Bicycle Saddle-Post. 
Paul N. Goodrich, Boston, Mass. Filed Feb. 
5, 1901. Serial No. 46,084. (No model;. 

Claim.— In an adjustable seat-post for bi- 
cycles, the combination with a tubular stem 
having a longitudinally-split lower end, the 
interior wall thereof, at the lower end, being 
beveled or tapered, making the bore widest 
at the bottom, a longitudinal slot in the top 
end thereof, and ears or lugs disposed on 
each side of said transverse slot; of a cross- 
bar, to which the seat is attached, pivoted 
intermediate its ends, in said ears or lugs, 
one end of said bar entering through the slot 
into the interior of the stem, a rod contained 
in said hollow stem, connected to the inner 
end of the said cross-bar, and having a 
threaded end and an inverted conical plug 
arranged in the lower tapered end of said 
stem, having a central threaded bore there- 
through, and into which the threaded end of 
said rod screws, whereby upward movement 
of said plug through the rod and pivoted 
cross-bar spreads the split end of said stem 
and locks the same, substantially as de- 
scribed. 

711,443. Handle for Operating Cycle- 
Brakes. Archibal Sharp, London, England. 
Filed March 3, 1902. Serial No. 96,495. (No 
model). 

Claim.— 1. In a handle for operating cycle- 
brakes and like mechanism, the combination 
of a short lever, a winding-drum carried by 
said lever and embraced by a portion there- 
of, means for turning said drum, means for 
connecting the drum with the brake, and 
means for locking said lever and turning 
means. 



Restricting by Standardization. 

"It is a mistake to think that what is now 
known in the industrial world as standard- 
isation has arisen from the development of 
modern machinery," writes E. H. Mullin, in 
Cassier's Magazine. "Primarily, standard- 
isation is the attempt of the human race to 
save brains, which are dear and scarce, at 
the expense of hands, which are cheap and 
plenty. 

"The first set of flint arrow-head makers 
in the palaeolithic age were artists and in- 
ventors; the second set were artistic imitat- 
ors of the first set; the third set were com- 
mon laborers making the standardised article 
by rule of thumb. Modern standardisation 
of machinery was made possible by the 
manufacture, by Sir Joseph Whitworth, of 
measuring instruments of sufficient accuracy 
to make the variation between the parts 
turned out from the same machine not more 
than one-thousandth of an inch. 

"The standardisation of parts is an eco- 
omical gain so long as its practice does not 
operate to prevent designs based upon new 
inventions from being carried into effect on 
accout of the cost of their production in up- 
setting existing standards. But it must 
not be forgotten that, looking at from one 
point of view, standarication is equivalent 
so far as the standarised part is concerned. 

"Imagine, for example, a newly invented 
screw machine which would turn out screws 
at half the present cost, but only at a pitch 
different from the standard now in use. It 
would take years of effort and a lavish out- 
lay of capital to overthrow the vested inter- 
ests which have grown up around the present 
standard pitch of screws. Moreover, in the 
broadest sense, the industrial unit which 
runs to as nearly as posible complete stand- 
ardisation of its products is in great danger 
of having ultimately a set of automatons 
turning out its work, so that when improved 
processes, demanding intelligent skill, come 
up the unit is found wanting in flexibility 
and adaptability, and is therefore easily 
passed in the race by some younger rival 
which has not had the chance to make 
standardisation a fetish." 



Overloading the Window. 

It is very noticeable that many bicycle 
agents overload the windows of their stores, 
possibly to give buyers the impression that 
they hold considerable stock. In France the 
opposite is the case. There they exhibit as 
a rule one machine only, but it is mounted 
in such a tasteful manner as to elicit the ad- 
miration of the passerby, and it might be 
worth while, as a change, for retailers in 
this country to occasionally follow the ex- 
ample. 

A large amount of literature of an enter- 
taining and useful character is sent out 
regularly by manufacturers, but it is doubt- 
ful whether cycle agents make the best of it. 
Carefully distributed, instead of being cast 
on one side, it should go a long way to in- 
duce a call from probable customers, and 
printers' ink is sometimes quite as success- 
ful in securing profitable business as a per- 
sonal call. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated "The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review" and the "American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, October 30, 1902. 



No. 5 



DECIDED AGAINST FLINT 



Court Finds for the Defendants in Long 
Pending Suit— $22,503 Involved. 



The bill in equity brought by Charles R. 
Flint, of New York, against the Boston 
Woven Hose & Rubber Co. et al., to enforce 
against Theodore A. Dodge, Joseph N. Smith, 
Rhodes Lockwood, Henry C. Thacher and J. 
Edwin Davis as president and directors of 
that company, the liability imposed to pay 
an unsatisfied judgment of $22,503 held by 
the plaintiff against the corporation upon 
the ground that its debts exceeded its capi- 
tal stock, was last week dismissed by Judge 
Braley, in the Superior Court, Equity Ses- 
sion, Boston, demurrers filed by the defend- 
ants having been sustained. 

The plaintiff, it is decided, cannot main- 
tain his bill because it did not appear that 
the excess of the corporation's debts over 
its capital stock was on September 30, 1899, 
when he began his suit, in which he got 
judgment, as the statute requires. 

He alleged that on June 16, 1898, when 
the company made an assignment for the 
benefit of the creditors, its direct liabili- 
ties were $1,160,000 and its indirect liabili- 
ties were $350,000, while its capital stock 
was only $900,000. 

Subsequently, by the payment of dividends 
by the assignees to those creditors who as- 
sented to it, the company's debts, he alleged, 
had become reduced to less than the amount 
of the capital stock. 



(joes to Jeannette. 

The Pennsylvania Rubber Company will 
leave Erie and take possession of its new 
factory at Jeannette, Pa., near Pittsburg", on 
the 1st proximo.; the latter will be its ad- 
dress after that date. The new plant will 
have a capacity more than four times great- 
er than the old one. 



Bailey Burned. 

Fire in the stock room of the F. O. Bailey 
Company, jobbers at Portland, Me., on 
Thursday last caused a loss of about $25,000; 
it is fully covered by insuiance. 



Persons Goes West. 

C. A. Persons, the head of the Persons 
Mfg. Co., left yesterday for a tour of the 
West that will extend as far as San Fran- 
cisco. He left feeling particularly good 
over the business already in hand and that 
in prospect. In August, he states, orders for 
Persons saddles were nearly three times 
greater than August of last year. Septem- 
ber showed an advance of 50 per cent, while 
October will almost double its record, and 
this in face of the higher prices that rule. 
It gives an idea of the advanced selling sea- 
son that prevails. 



G & J AND DIAMOND AGREE 



Jandorf Cries Quits. 

L. C. Jandorf, once styled "the king of 
price cutters," who of late operated as the 
Jandorf Cycle & Export Co., in Barclay 
street, this city, has finally quitted the cycle 
trade and transferred his devotion to auto- 
mobiles. His stock of cycle sundries was 
sold to the Manhattan Storage Co., which, 
temporarily at least, has pushed cut price 
bicycles into the background and is using 
diamonds and jewelry as a "side line." 



Swift Earns $100,000. 

The Swift Cycle Co. was another British 
concern that enjoyed an uncommonly pros- 
perous year. In round figures its net profits, 
as disclosed by its annual report, were $100,- 
000. Of this sum, after paying interest on 
bonds and declaring a 10 per cent dividend 
on the common stock and 6% per cent on the 
preferred, $60,000 was carried into the re- 
serve fund. 

Vim Absorbs Larson. 

The Vim Co., Chicago, has purchased out- 
right the C. H. Larson Cycle Co., of the 
same place. The Larson Co. was a con- 
siderable concern and at one time was no 
small factor in the western jobbing trade. 



Tucker Incorporates. 

Urbana, O— The Tucker Bicycle Wood- 
work Company has been incorporated in In- 
diana. J. B. Tucker, Urbana, president. 
Capital stock, $40,000, 



Clifton Goes Abroad. 

Charles Clifton, treasurer of George N. 
Pierce Co., sailed for Europe on Wednesday 
of last week. He will be absent about one 
month. 



Finally Settle Their Difference out of Court 
— One of the Possible Results. 



The suit of the G. & J. Tire Co. against 
the Diamond Rubber Co. for alleged in- 
fringement of the G. & J. patents, has been 
discontinued. The matter was last week set- 
tled out of court, the Diamond people recog- 
nizing the validity of the patents involved 
and receiving in return a license on favor- 
able terms. 

While it was the Diamond detachable au- 
tomobile tire that gave rise to the litigation, 
and its license covers only that type of tire, 
the affair has interest for the cycle trade 
because of a persistent rumor that unless 
certain things come to pass in other direc- 
tions the Diamond license will be enlarged 
so as to permit the manufacture of the G. 
& J. bicycle tires as well. 



Building the Record Table. 

All claims for track records made during 
1902 are now being audited by Chairman A. 
G. Batchelder of the N. C. A. board of con- 
trol, and the new figures will be ready next 
week. The entire set of paced records will 
show improvement from the one-mile to the 
hour. "Joe" Nelson's record for the mile 
will be allowed, and the hour record of 41 
miles 250 yards will go to Harry Elkes. For 
unpaced work the best figures will be al- 
lowed to Woody Hedspeth, a negro, who rode 
26 miles 19 yards in an hour at Dayton, O., 
on July 31. 

Yarmouth Takes In Two Rivals. 

The Yarmouth Cycle Company, Yarmouth, 
N. S., have purchased the business and 
good-will of B. C. Shaw and A. H. Miller and 
thereby practically obtained control of the 
trade in that city. The Yarmouth people do 
both a wholesale and jobbing business and 
naturally expect to do more of it than ever. 



England's Exports Still Increasing. 

The upward trend of England's cycle ex- 
ports, which has continued for more than a 
year, shows no sign of weakening. During 
September they attained a value of £57,724, 
as against £45,071 in September of last year. 



102 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



FRANK A. ELWELL KILLED 



Fork Stem of his flotor Bicycle Breaks 

and he Meets Instant Death— His 

Long and Useful Career. 



Frank A. Elwell, of Portland, Me., best 
known to the present generation as the pro- 
moter of Elwell's European cycle tours, was 
Instantly killed on Sunday last near Hicks- 
ville, Long Island, by the breaking of the 
form stem of the motor bicycle which he was 
riding.- -! ;| 

Just how the accident occurred is not defi- 
nitely known. Elwell was alone at the 
time, and was first discovered lying uncon- 
scious on the ground by a passing cyclist. 
He had set out from Brooklyn with Captain 
George M. Fisher and a party from the 
Alpha Motor Cycle Club, of which he "was 
a member; when some five miles from 
Hicksville the others, at Elwell's sugges- 
tion, had forged ahead to order dinner. They 
were awaiting his arrival when word of the 
accident was brought to them. They made 
haste to the spot, but Elwell retained but 
the faintest spark of life, and when the doc- 
tor who was summoned arrived he pro- 
nounced him dead. 

While the gloves which Elwell wore gave 
small sign of contact with the road, his 
entire face was frightfully torn and bruised, 
suggesting that it had scraped the hard 
macadam for some distance. It was first 
thought that his skull had been fractured, 
but the autopsy disclosed that his neck had 
been broken by the fall and his intestines 
badly displaced. He was a short, portly 
man of some 200 pounds, and while there is 
no evidence that he was speeding, the con- 
trary appearing the case, the sudden break- 
ing of the fork stem evidently threw liim 
full on his face, his weight aiding the vio- 
lence of the impact, which forced his head 
backward and thus fractured his vertebras. 

His body was carried that afternoon to the 
boarding place in Brooklyn where, with his 
wife, he was stopping, and was the next day 
removed to Portland, where the interment 
took place. 

The breakage which caused the accident 
occurred immediately over the fork crown, 
the stem, is is said by those who examined 
it, showing a distinct flaw in the metal. 
There was talk of a suit for heavy damages, 
but when Mr. Elwell's brother arrived from 
Maine he put an end to it, and, while he did 
not say positively that proceedings would 
not be brought against the manufacturers 
of the motor bicycle, he made plain that the 
family was averse of litigation of any -kind. 
A peculiar feature of the case is that while 
the night before the accident the machine 
ran beautifully, on Sunday morning when 
Elwell took it out it developed a streak of 
crankiness that for a while made it ap- 
pear that he must forego the day's outing 
on which he had set his heart. "It seemed 
as if the machine itself had a presentiment 



of what was, to occur and wished to prevent 
it," remarked one of the Alpha men. 

Mr. Elwell leaves a wife but no children. 
His wife was herself an enthusiastic cyclist 
and came of a cycling family, being the 
daughter of C. H. Lamson, of Portland, one 
of the country's pioneer wheelmen, and the 
inventor of the famous luggage carrier that 
for more than twenty years has borne his 
name. 

Elwell was forty-five years of age and 
was one of the first in Maine to become in- 
terested in the bicycle— an i interest that 
never waned. He was a member of the 
Portland Bicycle Club, which in 1883 was 
succeeded by the Portland Wheel Club, of 
which he was made secretary-treasurer. He 
joined the L. A. W. in May, 1881, and at the 
time of his death was No. 5 on its roll. He 
later served the organization as chief consul 




of Maine and also as a member of several 
national committees. 

Elwell was undoubtedly the greatest cy- 
cling tourist and tour or£anizer this coun- 
try has produced. Touring was his hobby, 
and one that developed early in his career. 
In 1883 he promoted the "Kennebec tour," 
a participant in which wrote the Bicycling 
World of that date that Elwell deserved to 
be "eternally thanked" for his efforts in 
connection with the affair. He also organ- 
ized -the "Blue Nose," Canadian tours, and 
becoming more ambitious undertook profes- 
sionally "Elwell's European tours." He 
took several parties abroad, visiting both 
the British Isles and the Continent, and 
proved himself equally a capable and a cor- 
dial manager. 

Originally a newspaper man, Elwell was 
possessed of a versatile pen and knew how 
to use it. Less than a year ago E. H. Cor- 
son, of Boston, one of his compatriots in the 
early 'SO's, who had engaged in the sale of 
motoeyeles, wrote .the Bicycling World 



asking where were all the friends of his 
youth and suggesting to them the joys of 
motocycling. Elwell was one of those who 
responded and the renewal of acquaintance 
thus created led to his purchase of a motor 
bicycle; he and Corson became boon com- 
panions. Elwell became a most enthusiastic 
devotee and advocate of the new form of 
locomotion. Realizing its possibilities he 
undertook the promotion of a European 
tour on motoeyeles and already had some 
of the arrangements perfected. His ready 
pen made its influence felt, too; his con- 
tributions to the Bicycling World on the 
subject of motor bicycles showing how 
sanely and how thoroughly he had absorbed 
the spirit. 

It was his motocycle enthusiasm that led 
him to visit Brooklyn. He had spent several 
weeks in Boston, but, as he said to a Bi- 
cycling World man just two weeks ago to- 
day: 

"I grew tired of riding alone and so came 
to Brooklyn to enjoy the company of the 
club boys." 

His first ride with the "boys" was unfor- 
tunately his last. After his arrival the in- 
clment weather put a check on outdoor 
pastimes of all sorts and until Sunday last 
the Alpha Club had been unable to hold a 
run. Elwell had, however, become acquaint- 
ed with many of the members and the per- 
sonal magnetism of the man drew all to 
him. His distressing death caused pro- 
found sorrow. The club forwarded a 
wreath to Portland to be placed on his bier, 
and held a special meeting at which tributes 
to his worth and memory were paid and ap- 
propriate resolutions spread on the minutes. 

"God rest thy soul in the land of the liel, 
Frank Eljvell," was the sentiment they ex- 
pressed — a sentiment that will be echoed 
wherever the man was known. 



Editor The Bicycling World: 

Can it be possible that my dear old friend 
Elwell is dead, and killed while riding his 
motocycle that he loved and enjoyed so 
much! I cannot have it so! The news came 
like a thunder clap to me, and for the mo- 
ment incapacitated me from business, as I 
was standing on the same spot where he 
had only a few days before said: "Good-by, 
Corson, you will be down to New oYrk be- 
fore long to see us, won't you?" I could see 
him, in my mind's eye, wheeling his pet ma- 
chine out of my booth at Mechanics' Fair, 
where he had spent several days with me. 
Little did I think this was the last farewell 
to me from those lips which were always 
ready to say a pleasant word, or echo a 
hearty laugh. I could not keep the tears 
back, nor did I wish to. 

I had known Mr. Elwell more than nine- 
teen years, and he has had a warm place 
in my heart from the first. To think that I 
should be the one to instruct him in the use 
of the machine that he lost his life by riding, 
and that he was championing so grandly, is 
a mystery to us. I feel that if he could 
speak he would say: "It is no fault of the 
motocycle, as a machine, but simply an ac- 
cident that we cannot help, and that might 
have happened in many other ways." 

I shall always think of Elwell as one of 
few good and true men I have met. 
E. H. CORSON, 

Boston, Mass. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



103 



THREE-SPEED GEAR APPEARS 



Of Course, not In 1 his Country but Abroad 
— Seems Particularly Ingenious. 



The Three Speed Gear Syndicate, Ltd., has 
been organized in Coventry, England, and, 
having acquired several variable gear pa- 
tents, has already contracted for the produc- 
tion of a three speed hub, which will make 
its appearance at the cycle shows next 
month and of which great things are said. 

The hub is of somewhat larger diameter 
than usual; otherwise it presents no ma- 
terial difference in appearance from an ordi- 
nary single speed hub. It runs compound 
on the high and low gears, but on the mid- 
dle, which is the normal gear of the bicycle, 
it runs solid. That is to say, if a bicycle is 
geared to 70-inch, the hub mechanism is in- 
ert, but as soon as the high or low gear is 
put into operation the hub runs compound, 
and the chain ring revolves either faster or 
slower than the back wheel, as the case may 
be. A 20 per cent reduction below the nor- 
mal gear and a 25 per cent increase are the 
ratios for which the gearing is cut, so that 
with a 70-inch gear one gets 56-inch low and 
87-inch high; in other words, a 45 per cent 
range. 

The rider can have whatever gear he likes 
for the middle gear. That simply depends 
upon the number of teeth on the chain 
wheel, on the crank axle and the chain ring 
on the back hub, precisely the same as 
usual; and whatever his normal gear may 
be he will be able to obtain the 20 per cent 
drop and the 25 per cent increase. A free 
wheel is provided on all three speeds, but it 
can be locked out of action when desired. 

The gear change is effected from a small 
lever on the handle bar by mechanism spe- 
cially designed. To reduce the gear one 
pushes the lever forward with the right 
thumb, and to put it up it only requires to 
be released. A Bowden wire is used to con- 
vey the movement to the hub from the 
handle bar lever. 



Philadelphia Revises Speed and Lamp Laws. 

An ordinance now before the Philadelphia 
city councils includes bicycles in its pro- 
visions. As compared with the presnt law 
it is somewhat more liberal. The maximum 
speed is set at ten miles per hour, instead of 
the seven miles which has always been a 
dead letter, and the use of lamps, hereto- 
for mandatory, is made, in a sense, optional, 
just as it is in this State. 

"All vehicles," it says, "when driven or 
propelled on the streets or highways, ex- 
cepting those proceeding at a rate of speed 
not faster than a walk, shall carry between 
sunset and sunrise a white light or lights 
in a conspicuous position, so as to readily 
be seen from in front, with a red signal 
which caa easily be seen from the rear." 

The ordinance further provides that "all 



bicycles or similar vehicles and all vehicles 
propelled by other than animal power shall 
be provided with suitable signal that can 
be distinctly heard a distance of thirty yards 
and the drivers shall sound same whenever 
necessary to warn pedestrians or other ve- 
hicles of their approach, but such sounding 
of signals shall in no way give any special 
privileges or right of way," and that "not 
more than three bicycles may be ridden 
abreast on any street or highway." 



Corson Prepares for Long Trip. 

E. H. Corson, the enthusiastic manager of 
the Automobile and Motor Cycle Company, 
Boston, is preparing for a round trip on his 
motor bicycle from Boston to Chicago and 
Milwaukee. He will start as soon after Nov. 
10 as possible, and follow about this route: 
Boston to Pittsfield, Mass., via Worcester; 
through State of New York to Buffalo, via 
Schenectady, Utica, Syracuse, Rochester and 
Batavia. Prom Buffalo to Niagara Falls; 
thence through Canada to Detroit via Ham- 
ilton, Brentford, Woodstock, London, Rod- 
ney, Ridgetown, Buckborn, Essex Centre 
and Windsor. Through Michigan via Ann 
Arbor, Jackson, Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, 
Paw Paw and St. Joseph; thence to Chicago, 
111., by boat. From here up to Waukegan, 
111.; thence to Kenosha, Racine, Racine 
Junction and Milwaukee, Wis. 

Corson says he will be pleased to receive 
any particulars regarding his proposed route 
and to meet anyone interested in motor bi- 
cycles; all who meet him are sure of meeting 
the sort of man with whom it is a pleasure 
to talk motorcycling. 



Two Views of Gears. 

"What is your gear — about 77, I suppose?" 
said the first wheelman, as he watched his 
companion's feet going around. 

"No, only 74: and that is a little higher 
than I did use. It is plenty high enough, 
though." 

"You are right. I tried an S4 a few weeks 
ago, but came back to my 77 and like it 
better. It's funny, too, for there's no doubt 
in my mind that you can get away quicker 
on the high gear and even take a hill faster. 
But if the ride is long it gets to be awful 
hard work." 

"My experience exactly: The high gear 
takes it out of you more than the low one. 
I can take an all-day ride with the latter 
and never get tired. I may not go quite so 
fast, but there's a deal more comfort in it, 
and you don't have that 'rocky' feeling, as 
if you had been through a rolling mill. I 
can't help thinking that if more riders 
would use low gears they would get better 
results." 

Eight miles per hour within the business 
section and ten miles outside of it is the 
speed prescribed by a pending Kansas City, 
Mo., ordinance for "bicycles, tricycles and 
tandem bicycles" and other vehicles. It is 
further provided that the said bicycles, etc., 
shall carry lamps that can be seen for at 
least fifty feet 



RUDGE-WHITWORTH PROFITS 

England's Biggest Cycle Makers Have a 
Remarkable Year— Pay big Dividend. 

Despite the collapse of the boom and the 
depression which has since never been en- 
tirely dissipated, Rudge-Whitworth, Ltd., 
England's largest manufacturer of bicycles, 
for the third successive year has again de- 
clared a 10 per cent dividend on its common 
stock. The profits for the year ending Au- 
gust 31 last in round figures amounted to 
$151,000. The profit was figured and the 
dividend was declared aifter interest on 
bonds and directors' fees had been paid, and 
a reserve fund of $50,000 set aside for mad 
or doubtful debts. 

The result at this stage of the business is 
so remarkable as to make the separate items 
in the Rudge-Whitworth balance sheet of 
prime interest to the American trade. They 
follow: 

1901. 1902. 

£ s. d. £ s d 

Net profit for the year. . 10.099 14 10 30 352 7 6 

Balance brought forward 7,235 10 8 3,331 14 

Total ..". 17,335 5 6 33,684 1 ~6 

Preference dividend at 
the rate of 6 --er cent, 
per annum 4,512 9 6 4,484 12 11 

_,. .. . . ,„ 12.822 16 29,199 8 7 

Dividend of 10 per cent, 
upon ordinary shares.. 9,491 2 9.491 2 

3.331 14 19,708 6 ~7 

To reserve fund Nil. 10,000 

Carried forward 3.331 14 9,708 6 7 

1901. 1902. 

o j f s. d. £ s. d. 

bundry debtors 23.296 7 30,108 4 

Reserve fund 35,000 35.000 

Freehold property 40,468 8 2 41,068 8 3 

Leasehold, less deprecia- 

' l0n : 330 9 2 250 O 

Plant. machinery. fix- 
tures, furniture and fit- 
tings, Coventry and 

Birmingham 40.4S3 7 39.840 8 6 

Loose tools and potterns. 11,031 7 9 12 ?78 1 ji 

Depot fittings, etc 5,024 9 11 6J483 10 8 

Stock in trade 4S.302 S o 79,660 1- i 

South African account.. 16.226 11 "Nil. 

Sundry debtors 33.580 12 6 46,857 5 11 

Cash and bills in hand 

and at bank 11.444 1 1 7.069 2 10 

Investments at costs 3,694 6 8 50 

Paid up capital remains 
the same in each year, 

viz 174.426 147,426 

Debentures 16,637 10 16,637 10 

Goodwill, agreements, 

paten ls, etc . . 

'Presumably this is included in stock in trade in 

About Tire Improvement- 

The inventor who will improve the pneu- 
matic tire has to evolve a compromise which, 
while being at least as durable as the best 
tried makes, shall be more efficient, or more 
resilient as the case may be, is the opinion 
of a man who writes with a show of author- 
ity. On the other hand, if durability is the 
main aim the tire must not absorb more 
driving power, or reduce comfort. In other 
words, improvement can only be made in 
any one of the three cardinal qualities by 
insuring that the other two, even if not bet- 
tered, are at least not impaired. 

It is a most difficult set of requirements to 
meet, as driving efficiency, the most vital 
point of the three, does not necessarily ac- 
company resiliency, while by placing these 
two qualities in the background nothing is 
easier than to produce a durable tire. 



104 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Satisfied Customers Make 
the Asset "Good Will." 



We have worked steadfastly to satisfy our customers whether they buy one 
or one thousand NATIONALS. Our success has been in our satisfied customers. 
ON EVERY BICYCLE WE MAKE. They have found that the NATIONAL is what we claim for it and that 

the treatment accorded them is consistently fair and makes friends of their customers. 
Every year shows an increase in the number of NATIONALS sold. NATIONAL riders become enthusiasts 
and help the dealer make more sales. They are a standing advertisement doing; daily effective work* 

You may as well share in this " good will." It's profitable to all NATIONAL dealers as well as to ourselves and 
it grows more profitable annually for the NATIONAL factory never stops — it keeps steadily at work making bicycles 
with a "good will" in them. 

The National Agency Anywhere in J 903 will be 
Worth More Than it Ever Has Been* 




DO YOU WANT IT? 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. CO., Bay City, Mich. 



Safety, Speed and Comfort 

CAN BE OBTAINED BY HAVING YOUR 
AUTOMOBILE EQUIPPED WITH 

FISK TIRES. 



If 



FISK RUBBER COHPANY, = Chicopee Falls, flass. 



BOSTON, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 



SPRINGFIELD, 

40 Dwight St. 



BRANCHES : 

NEW YORK, 

83 Chamber* St. 



SYRACUSE, 

423 So. Clinton St. 



BUFFALO, 

28 W. Genesee St. 



DETROIT, 

252 Jefferson St. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

916 Arch St. 

CHICAGO, 

54 State St. 



WASHINGTON, 

427 10th St., N,W. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

114 Second St. 



♦ ♦♦ ♦ 






.THE 




FOUNDED^ 

an d AWOCYCLE REVIEW<*s»- 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The goodmhn e©MPaNY, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW Y0RK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... 10 Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscriptions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

GglP* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

ESP" Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York. October 30, 1902. 

Prank A. El well ; An Appreciation. 

If the proverb were true that the good 
die young, this would be a sorry old world. 
Happily, men live and men have lived, and 
so lived that we know the proverb to be a 
mere soothsaying. 

Would that it were possible to say that 
Frank A. Blwell was yet to be numbered 
with the good who live. Poor fellow! He 
loved the bicycle and had served the cycling 
cause so long, so wisely and so well that 
to have it prove the instrument of his death 
seems the irony of fate. That frightful fall 
on Long Island left the world poorer in the 
qualities that constitute human goodness 
and took from cycling one whose pen, whose 
effort, whose example— much of whose life 
work had been devoted to its advocacy and 
its upliftment. 

Frank Elwell was a genial, kindly, gentle, 
unassuming soul. The milk of human kind- 
ness flowed free and warmly in his veins. 
The glow was reflected in his features; it 
was imparted by his hand clasp. To meet 
him was to like him; to know him 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

was to become his friend. His devo- 
tion to cycling was consistent and in keep- 
ing with his nature. 'Twas the devotion 
not of a day nor of a month, but of almost 
a quarter century; nor was it passive de- 
votion. He helped fight its early battles, 
and even before victory was fairly won his 
quick eye and love of nature saw the prac- 
tical and most pleasurable side of cycling, 
i. e., touring. He took small part in the 
strife of political hullabaloos and in the rush 
of cycle racing. He made his mark as a 
tourist and as an organizer of tours, and 
earned for himself fame that was inter- 
national and that did not die with him. 

That the motor bicycle was peculiarly 
fitted for the tourist he early realized, and 
by word and pen he sought to dispel doubt 
and awaken the cycling world to its glories. 
The pages of the Bicycling World during 
the last year have borne witness to the depth 
of his foresight, the extent of his enthusiasm 
and belief, and the intelligence of his ad- 
vocacy of the newest form of bicycle. To 
take liberties with language, his facile pen, 
as weilded in the interests of the new bi- 
cycle, exhaled this spirit: 
" 'Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee; 
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, 
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears, 
Are all with thee.' " 

Elwell's was the spirit of the cycling pa- 
triot and pioneer. He died for the cause he 
loved, but his spirit lives after him. 



The Show Suggestion. 

Every local dealer and all interested in 
the trade about New York City appear to 
have read the article in the Bicycling World 
of last week in which it was frankly asked 
"Why not hold a bicycle show?" It is sur- 
prising what a unanimity of opinion there 
is in the trade that a show would do good 
and that one should be held. The answer 
to the question, as gleaned from the dealers, 
is, however, a confused one. An epitome of 
the sentiment of a great many might be ex- 
pressed by the query: "How?" 

It is curious to learn how many want to 
get the benefit which they know they will 
reap from a show, but do not want to aid in 
holding one. They are willing to be helped 
without being willing to help themselves.. 

Visiting around in the trade brings it out 
plainly that there are both optimists and 
pessimists, far seeing men and others ' to 
whom the tip of their own noses is invisible. 
The holding of a show is proposition that 
the optimists greet with glee and express a 
willingness to do their part, while the others 



105 

say they would like to see it, but would 
want some one else to do it all. 

The only practical solution seems to be in 
the leadership of a. few who are sanguine 
and sincere, and can appreciate something 
else beside an immediate cash profit. 

In these days, when the branch store is 
hardly known and most of the retailers are 
handling all makes of wheels, it is difficult 
to decide upon whom the responsibility of 
such an undertaking properly devolves. 
Naturally a bicycle exhibit is of prime im- 
portance to the manufacturer. No matter 
who is. selling his product, or how many are 
handling it, whatever advertising help it 
gets redounds to his profit. Yet it seems to 
the makers to be hardly fair for the dealers 
who are selling all the lines to have their 
business helped jointly by makers who are 
in the "combine" and those who are not. 

Always it has been essentially a dealers' 
show for the benefit of the retail trade that 
has been proposed. A few dealers have been 
found in New York City who are willing to 
go into one on the same basis and for the 
same reasons that formerly they went into 
"local" shows. With these few to lead it 
seems quite possible that there may yet be 
something of an exhibition in the spring. 

What seems to be necessary after a gen- 
eral canvass of the makers and retailers is 
this: 

The manufacturers should help their 
agents by lending stock and perhaps shar- 
ing in the expense. A rebate should be 
made to the exhibitors so that their expense 
would be slight. Some form of entertain- 
ment should be provided in order to attract 
the crowd at certain hours. It should be a 
show of bicycles by retailers of bicycles and 
for the cycling public. 

As one man who has been eighteen years 
in the trade puts it: "It is the time for a 
renaissance. There are hundreds of riders 
who know very little about the different 
makes of wheels and there is as much need 
for a show now as there was eight years 
ago; in fact, with the aid of motocycles, 
there is more reason for it. I believe, too, 
that there will be plenty to exhibit." 

In the present condition of affairs of the 
American Bicycle Company nothing very 
definite can be said as to what the Ameri- 
can Cycle Manufacturing Company might 
be able to do, but assurance has been re- 
ceived that if the reorganization plans be- 
stows power to a certain element, a show 
will be heartily supported by it. 

It is quite certain that a show of the kind, 



106 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



one for agents and dealers and not run by 
any combination of makers, would be sup- 
ported by the independent manufacturers as 
well as those in the trust. 



The Dealer's Time for Reflection. 

Now comes the dealer's "winter of dis- 
content," and he sits down to wrestle with 
a knotty problem, viz.: How not to waste 
his substance in idle living during the win- 
ter mouths. 

It is no new struggle. Since the time 
there were cycle dealers, or any other re- 
tailers having a "season" trade, it has been 
going on. The lines of battle have always 
been pretty nearly the same, and the out- 
come is rarely in doubt. "Hard sledding" 
is the expressive term that best describes 
the lot for the next few months of the dealer 
who has not safeguarded himself by ar- 
ranging to eke out his revenues in some 
manner. 

Of course, the exclusive cycle dealer no 
longer dominates the trade. The shrinkage 
in the business, and in the profits from it 
us well, has been so great that necessity has 
accomplished what policy frequently failed 
to do— compelled the majority of dealers to 
take up side lines, or, in some cases, to 
make side lines of the bicycles that were 
formerly their principal stock in trade. The 
result of such a shifting of interests has 
oeen, in the main, a beneficial one, remov- 
ing from the cycle trade a burden it is no 
longer able to stand. 

Just as good has resulted from this move- 
ment, so is its logical nature demonstrated 
and its further progress certain to take 
place. 

The time has gone when a dealer can pay 
twelve months' expenses out of the profits 
accruing from the sale of bicycles. Even 
if a good sundry and repairing business is 
done it can only help matters, not refute the 
accuracy of the foregoing statement. If the 
store is to be kept open the year around, 
even with greatly reduced force, something 
besides bicycles must be traded in and re- 
paired. 

If the dealer's cogitation results in this 
fact being borne in upon him convincingly, 
a great good will have been accomplished. 

The business has not gone to the demna- 
tion bow-wows, not by a great deal. There 
is a steady demand for bicycles during the 
season, just as there is for hats or shoes, 
and it must fall to the lot of some one to 
sell them. The better equipped the dealer 
happens to be the more successful will his 
heason turn out. The right goods and the 



right methods— these will do the trick as 
nothing else will. 

Nor should it be feared that there will be 
no competition for the better class of agents. 
Just the contrary is the case. At no time 
within recent years at least has there been 
more anxiety displayed by makers to 
strengthen themselves in their .selling agen- 
cies. They read aright the signs of the 
times, and know that next year it only 
needs to have their lines in good hands to 
make certain the disposing of their product. 



Front Fork Failures. 

The front forks and all that pertain 
thereto constitute such an important item 
in the reliability of motor bicycles— and of 
all other bicycles, for that matter — that ac- 
cidents due to their breakage should not be 
required to emphasize the absolute neces- 
sity for great strength at that particular 
point. 

The distressing death of Mr. Frank A. El- 
well, however, calls renewed attention to 
the subject, and his very prominence will, 
or should, serve to bring all makers to fuller 
realization of their duty in the premises. 

Since the first bicycle was produced there 
was never what may be termed a nastier 
form of accident than that due to the front 
fork failures. Barely do they give a sign 
of warning; the collapse is usually sudden; 
the rider has no chance to save himself; his 
fall is generally a headlong pitch forward 
and downward, and one that carries serious 
injury or worse with it. Accidents will hap- 
pen, of course, but knowledge of the sort 
should cause none to minimize the import- 
ance of undoubted strength of front forks. 



Afraid of Advice. 

Among the contributing causes for the 
failure of some bicycle dealers to properly 
understand the motor bicycle, is that of 
trade jealousy. This lack of understanding 
also leads to a lack in sales, as it cannot be 
gainsaid that if ever there was a product 
which needed to be mechanically understood, 
to advance its prestige, it is the motor bi- 
cycle. 

Not to understand it, to some extent at 
least, does not necessarily argue inability, 
but it does show that at times the causes 
are such that they ought not have room In 
any smart dealers makeup. 

A case in point, and one that showed direct 
effect, came to the notice of the Bicycling 
World during the past summer. 

Two dealers, in towns that fairly overlap 
one another, were induced by the same 



maker to take up the local agency for a 
motor bicycle. One, from his natural gifts, 
very quickly learned the operation under all 
conditions, while the other continued to be 
stuck by every changing cndition that took 
place on his machine. 

The first sold a machine or two, while the 
second, although in a larger and more pros- 
perous town, could not make a sale because 
each time he made his first trials he failed 
to keep the machine going at all times in 
the presence of his possible customers. 
After a time he became disgusted and start- 
ed to condemn in particular the make he 
handled and the motor bicycle in general. 

Hearing of this and realizing the effect the 
spread of the condemnation and the in- 
ability might have on that section owing to 
the close proximity of the territories, the 
first dealer offered to aid the second with 
his machine, both generally and specifically. 
The offer was bluntly refused in a manner 
and with words which left no doubt that 
trade jealousy was the sole cause. 

That there should be a sequel to this is not 
strange. From cause to effect is a natural 
sequence. That there were other cases like 
the following there can be no doubt. 

Among those who were led away from the 
idea of buying a motor bicycle by the acts 
of the second dealer was one man who 
eventually learned of the first dealer's suc- 
cess in operating. Going to the later the 
man's faith was renewed and his interest 
revived to the material point that he bought 
a motor bicycle, and bids fair to next year 
lead some of his fellow-townsmen across 
the borders to that first dealer. 



To think that advertising indulged in for 
part of the year will leave a reminder in the 
minds of the public for the balance of the 
year is of that variety which is too fre- 
quently a besetting business sin. The fact 
should never be overlooked that the might- 
iest of the earth pass away and that with 
the moving, spirit of the times people not 
only cease to talk of them, but soon forget 
that they have forgotten. 



Now that the fall season is here, riding on 
wet pavements makes up a fair share of the 
total week's riding. There is nothing new 
in the tip, yet there can be found many 
bicycle riders who do not seem to know 
how to pedal when their bicycle is slipping 
in toward the gutter. By pushing hardest 
with the pedal on the gutter side the bicycle 
will gradually crawl away toward the crown 
of the street. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



109 



KINGS COUNTY'S PLANS 



Veteran Brooklyn Club Alms at Ambitious 
Expansion— flany Clubs in one. 



A certain coterie of members of the Kings 
County Wheelmen are involved in one of the 
most ambitious but entirely sensible propo- 
sitions that has beea heard of in years. 

The club has an equity of about $16,000 in 
the house at 1,255 Bedford avenue, Brook- 
lyn, and it does not propose to stand still. 



those who know something of the plans, is 
to have each of the new organizations named 
get thoroughly established and later to have 
them consolidate with the Kings County 
Wheelmen. 

The basis for all of this scheme is a sub- 
stantial one. The house of the Kings 
County Wheelmen can now accommodate 
about twenty automobiles. There are half 
a dozen members of the club who own auto- 
mobiles and a half a dozen more who are 
willing to join as the new Kings County 
Automobile Club. 



tions are even now under way for a piece of 
land on which a bicycle track, a cinder path, 
gridiron and diamond can be laid out. 

As the plans have not fully matured, the 
intents of this enterprising group of cyclists 
can be mentioned only in outline. It is 
under stood that the intention is not to at- 
tempt to absorb the Alpha Motor Cycle 
Club, or the Long Island Automobile Club, 
nor any athletic body, nor to affiliate with 
any one of them, but to launch each or- 
ganization independently and let them make 
their own way. As the persons chiefly in- 



Annual Run of the St. Louis Ancients. 




While designed as a national organization 
to keep alive the memories of the past, the 
Ancient Order of the Good Old Ordinary, 
has never spread far beyond the limits of its 
place of origin, St. Louis, Mo. The fact 
does not worry the St. Louis men, however, 
for once each year they brush the dust and 
cobwebs from their historic crocks and 



startle the public by actually riding them. 
The ninth annual run of the Ancients, here 
pictured at the entrance to Forest Park, was 
taken on the 19th inst. Reading from left 
to right the participants, who formed a rare 
gathering of men and machines were: John 
Terrel, H. G. Wolzendorf, Eli Silverburg (on 
Stars), E. J. Rotty, Bert Harding, George 



T'ivy, John R. Shultz and Alex Laing (on 
Ordinaries). 

Of the eight, five managed to reach the 
destination, Clayton, in time for dinner. 
Shultz cried quits early in the day, Laing's 
wheel failed him and Terrel, distinguished 
by that linking of past and present, a Star 
with pneumatic tires, had an ignominious 
breakdown which forced him to walk home. 



George A. Needham has been the leading 
spirit in the organization for a number of 
years and he, it is understood, is in the front 
rank of those who are leading the new 
movements. 

Last week the Kings County Automobile 
Club was incorporated, with Needham and a 
few others as directors. This is but the 
first step in the big movement. 

It is understood that a Kings County Mo- 
tor Bicycle Club and a Kings County Ath- 
letic Club have been formulated and are yet 
to be incorporated. 

The idea, so far as can be gleaned by 



For the Kings County Motor Bicycle 
Club the promoters are said to be certain of 
at least ten members to start with. The 
trouble now is that the club cannot store 
motocycles without impairing its fire in- 
surance policy. 

With regard to the Kings County Athletic 
Club the idea seems to be that there is need 
in New York City for some new field where 
every sort of athletic games can be held, 
including track contests and football. Ac- 
cording to hearsay, H. B. Fullerton, of the 
Long Island Railroad, is interested in the 
scheme for an athletic field, and negotia- 



terested are men closely identified with the 
Kings County Wheelmen it was assumed 
that the whole scheme eventually will con- 
centrate in that organization. 



According to a Paris correspondent, "the 
motor bicycle has made more headway in 
France during the last sis months than ever 
before." This is partly due to the fact that 
the Frenchman clung to the motor tricycle 
longer than was the case in this country. 



"Inclosed find check for another year of 
the Bicycling World. I couldn't get along 
without it."— (P. T. Ryan, Schenectady, N. T. 



no 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



RACING 



Distinctions without much difference were 
made last Sunday between the rival road 
riders of the yellow sweater brigade. The re- 
peatedly postponed centuries of the Century 
Road Club Association and of the New York 
State Division of the Century Road Club of 
America were both held over the Long 
Island roads. 

Both organizations used the same course, 
going back and forth twice between Massa- 
pequa and Hicksville. Riders on both sides 
wore yellow sweaters, with a central band 
of blue, displaying the letters C. R. C. A. 
Both sides said they had more than one 
hundred starters, and the leaders of each 
side denied the claims made by the others. 

At any rate both affairs were great runs; 
that is, the promoters called them runs — "in- 
dividual century record runs." As a matter 
of fact they were handicap races, with a 
limit of two and a half hours, that were rid- 
den in the face of stiff northeast wind. The 
"Association" men began proceedings by 
pushing off their limit men promptly at 7 
o'clock in the morning. The 'Americas" 
started their long markers at 7:37 o'clock. 
The starting and finishing marks of the rival 
organizations were about ten yards one from 
the other. The "Association" managers said 
that they had 140 in their run, but the 
"Americas" insisted that this was a gross 
exaggeration and that there were not one 
hundred. The "Americas" declared eighty- 
six starters, and one of the "Association" 
officials said that the number was about 
right. 

Among those on the limit mark of the 

"Americas" was Mrs. R. J. Munsterman, a 

woman who weighs more than 200 pounds. 

The time made by the prize winners was 

well outside of record because of the high 

wind. The following tables show how the 

prize winners of each side finished: 

ASSOCIATION. 

Handicap. Net time. 

Names. H. M. S. H. M. S. 

G. Duester 1 55 00 5 43 00 

H. S. R. Smith 1 55 00 5 43 20 

C. A. Crawford 2 30 00 6 20 30 

P. Agren 1 55 00 5 59 00 

V. Phillips 1 35 00 5 39 20 

E. Hedlund 1 30 00 5 42 10 

O. Kronn 1 40 00 5 54 45 

E. Hotter 1 35 00 5 50 30 

H. R. Strauss 1 50 00 6 00 45 

V Kluger 1 50 00 6 13 20 

J. Eifler 1 30 00 6 14 45 

H. Anderson 1 15 00 5 56 40 

C. Wigman 1 30 00 5 52 42 

G. Watts 1 55 00 6 OS 40 

S. Mehrbach 1 35 00 6 14 30 

The winner of the first time prize of the 
"Association" was F. B. Kirchner, who fin- 
ished thirty-fourth after covering the course 
in 5 hors 28 minutes 43 seconds. A. Ander- 
son, the thirty-fifth man, won the second 
time prize, and V. Phillips, the fifth one in, 
got the third time prize. Anderson's time 
was 5 hours 32 minutes 35 seconds. 
AMERICAS. 

Handicap. Net time. 

Names. H. M. H. M. S. 

J. E. Gregoire 2 30 6 00 00 

Joseph Hickey 1 50 5 32 10 

F. E. Williams 1 50 5 32 11 

Oscar Lenz 1 50 5 32 12 

M. Van den Dries 2 30 6 28 00 

J. W. Thompson 2 00 6 05 10 

H. A. Gliesman 1 20 5 25 11 



E. T. Singer 1 20 E 25 12 

G. Weirich 1 40 5 50 00 

Mrs. R. J. Munsterman 2 30 6 49 12 

H. Van den Dries 2 15 6 22 00 

Owen Devine 2 00 6 28 00 

Harry Galbralh 2 00 6 28 00 

D. J. Mclntyre 1 40 6 09 00 

F. Gebhardt 1 00 5 30 20 

The "Americas" offered five time prizes. 

The winners" of these were: 

Handicap. Net time. 

Names. H. M. H. M. S. 

H. A. Gliesman 1 20 5 25 11 

E. T. Singer 1 20 5 25 12 

Charles Mock Scratch 5 25 15 

Gus. Ferdou Scratch 5 25 17 

Fred Gebhardt 1 00 5 30 20 



Zimmerman returned from Paris on Tues- 
day last. The sailing of the one time undis- 
puted champion of the world was unher- 
alded, and his arrival occupied but a line in 
the daily papers. While Zim's contract made 
him "safe," his trip was hardly profitable 
to the Paris promoters, for, sad to tell, Zim 
is no longer the idol he once was, and he un- 
wisely competed and was beaten in several 
races instead of confining himself to ex- 
hibition rides, as was his intention when he 
went across. 



At Paris on the 12th Bald placed another 
first to his credit— a scratch event, in which 
he beat out four competitors. On the same 
day Bonhours won an hour's race, all of the 
other riders, Elkes among the number, fall- 
ing before 15 minutes had elapsed. 



The Bay View Wheelmen of Newark, N. J., 
has carded a hare and hound chase for No- 
vember 9. Rich prizes are offered, and some 
fifty entries are already in hand. This is a 
form of event once popular with cyclists and 
still deserving of popularity. 



The motor bicycle record for a mile was 
beaten at the Buffalo track, Paris, on Octo- 
ber 17 by Darioli, w.ho covered the distance 
in 1:10 2-5. The former record was that 
made here by Champion on October 27, 1901, 
of 1:12 2-5. 



At Atlanta, Ga., on October 25 "Bobby" 
Walthour undertook to beat nine horses, 
each running a mile, he to make ten miles 
to the horses nine. The task was too tall 
for him, however, the horses winning by a 
quarter of a mile.' 



" Americas " Nominate Officers 

The Century Road Club of America has 
decided upon a little rotation of office. The 
ticket regularly nominated by the committee 
for 1903 does not reinstate President Fair- 
child. This is the ticket: 

For president, H. A. Ludlum, of New York; 
for first vice-president, Dr. C. D. Peck, of 
Sandusky, O. ; for second vice-president, John 
M. Miller, of Chicago; for secretary, C. B. 
Nylander, of New York; for treasurer, R. C. 
Williams, of Washington, D. C. 

For the New York State Division Henry 
Veit, of Brooklyn, has been named for cen- 
turian. and Fred E. Mommer for secretary- 
treasurer. 



One Man's Idea of Motocycles. 

Reading between the lines of the history 
of the bicycle, and with the imagination in- 
spired by the facts, almost any one may 
have a prophetic glimpse at the future of 
me motor bicycle. 

From its beginning as the accessory of an 
arduous sport, an athletic undertaking in 
> the days of the old high wheel, the bicycle- 
shall it be said evolved?— became a vehicle 
of pleasure and the instrument for exercise 
for those who take exercise as they do medi- 
cine, but try to select that which is partly 
pleasant. Next it came to be the fad of so- 
ciety and the mark of the boomers. After 
that was the sane and unavoidable settle- 
ment into its place and class as a vehicle, 
first, of convenience and utility; second, as 
a means of enjoyment, and, third, as an ex- 
ercising appliance highly recommended by 
physicians. 

For convenience the bicycle will always 
outclass any form of power" vehicle. Always 
ready, it can be caught up and used as 
readily as a cap. For economy also it is un- 
surpassed. As an exercising machine its 
equal is yet to be found. 

But what of the utilitarian and the pleas- 
ure giving value of the motorless bicycle as 
compared with that of the motor bicycle? 
The answer to this must forecast the future 
of the power machine, which is the missing 
link between the bicycle and the automobile. 
For pleasure purposes the motor bicycle ex- 
cels the bicycle as the automobile does the 
horse, because of the power it affords of go- 
ing further and getting back sooner. Those 
who have leisure for pleasure jaunts usual- 
ly have means enough to afford motor bi- 
cycles, and for this class one may expect to 
see it supplant the motorless two wheeler. 

For utility, also, the motor bicycle seems 
destined to rise to a higher plane than that 
of the common wheel. The sight in the 
streets of motocycle carriers for delivery 
use in towns and cities and for use by rural 
peddlers may soon expected to be a common 
one. 

Thus the future calls the motocycle into 
the two great fields of practical commercial 
service and pleasure touring, leaving the bi- 
cycle to cater to the demands for convenience 
and economy and exercise. For running a 
few blocks to the store, to the village post- 
office, to the country school, and to ride to 
daily toil, the bicycle is the thing required. 
To these purposes, and the use of those who 
"know that they have livers," and for the 
few pleasurers who cannot afford the power 
type, the motorless bicycle will be ultimate- 
ly limited, as to a great extent it now is. 

The motor machine will become a draught 
vehicle as surely as the automobile, and, like 
its bigger brother, will have for its other 
great function that of supplying the wants 
of tourists and excursionists. 



Tribune Factory for Sale.] 

The old Tribune factory at Erie, Pa., is 
on the market. It is understood that 
$72,000 is the asking price. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Hi 



TO SUE FOR TROPHIES 



Pight Between Rival Century Organizations 
Takes Sharp Turn— The Prizes at Stake. 



One champagne bottle, presented by Gus 
Egloff. 

One clock, presented by the Bay . View 
Wheelmen. 

One silver vase, presented by the Fire- 
men's Bicycle Club. 

One silver bowl, presented by the Union 
League Wheelmen. 

One silken banner, presented by the South 
Brooklyn Wheelmen. 

This is a summary of the claims made 
by P. A. Dyer, of the Century Road Club 
of America, against the Century Road Club 
Association, and for which the "Americas" 



When asked what his next move would be, 
Counsellor Redmond answered that he would 
replevin the articles. 

The comical part of the situation is that 
the goods meationed are not now in the 
clubhouse of the 'Association." Two mem- 
bers of the "Association," when asked on 
Thursday where the articles were, said that 
they had positively no knowledge of their 
whereabouts, did not even know that the 
articles mentioned had disappeared, and 
could not swear to their ever being in the 
clubhouse, though they thought that they 
had sene something of the sort. 

Lawyer Redmond was asked what he 
would do about getting out a writ of re- 
plevin in such a case, and he answered, with 



TWO WEN ; TWO WHEELS 



An Interchange of Opinion Followed That 
Proved Deceltfulness of Appearances. 



They were two old, timers, whose novice 
days were away back in the mists of time- 
almost. They met causually on a frequented 
road and chatted as they went along. One 
had a machine that was immaculate, look- 
ing as if it were just out of the factory; 
yet the company that made it, its factory 
and nearly all concerned in the venture, 
passed from view years ago. The other 
rider's wheel was just the reverse. Ill kept, 
dirty, the nickel parts covered with rust— 



A Sunday Run of the New York Motor Cycle Club. 




Front Row— E. F. Willis (President) Henry Allmen (Leutenent) Fred'k Thourot, M. E. Toepel, F. B. Widmayer, HngoBendic (Secretary.) 
Rear Row— R. G. Betts, Chas. Theile, Henry Glade (Treasure) Geo. B. Jenkins, E. L. Fergerson, D. D. Miller, F. E. Moskovics (Captain) W. F. Widmaysr, H. Jehle, Raymond Douglas. 



propose to take drastic measures to re- 
cover. 

The attorney for the "Americas" is James 
W. Redmond, of Brooklyn. He told a rep- 
resentative of the Bicycling World on Thurs- 
day that he had in his hands a receipt from 
the "Association" signed by H. A. Ludlum, 
which acknowledges the possession of the 
articles named, and states that they were 
received from P. A. Dyer and were "loaned 
for safe keeping." This receipt Mr. Red- 
mond showed to the Bicycling World repre- 
sentative. It is dated April 18, 1900. Law- 
yer Redmond said that he had written to 
the "Association" and received a reply from 
E. Lee Ferguson, corresponding secretary, 
who said that the organization had em- 
ployed counsel and that he was instructed 
to say that there were properties belonging 
to the Century Road Club of America in the 
clubhouse of the Century Road Club Asso- 
ciation at No. 310 West Fifty-third street, 
New York City. 



much surprise: "Well, I suppose we will 
have to locate the goods before we can re- 
plevin them." 



Stopping Passers-by. 

A large number of people go past your 
doors day after day and never come in, says 
H. A. Wilber. They buy the kind of goods 
you sell, but they buy them somewhere else. 
There are other people who buy of you year 
in and year out and never think of going 
anywhere else. Now, why do they do it 7 
You know just why your present customers 
find it desirable and profitable to buy of you 
rather than any competitor. These reasons, 
if thy can hold your present customers, will 
stop that throng that goes by your door and 
bring it in. 

"Inclosed is my subscription. I might as 
well be out of business as to be without the 
Bicycling World."— (A. N. Rust, Davenport, 
Iowa, 



it was enough to give one the blues merely 
to look at it. 

"Looks pretty bad, doesn't it?" remarked 
its owner, in response to the unspoken criti- 
cism of his companion, who nodded in as- 
sent. 

"Well, it got away from me a couple of 
years ago. when I became too lazy to care 
for its externals. Since then I have taken 
a sort of pride in its woebegone appearance. 
It looks all of its seven years old, and no 
ODe would suspect how well it runs or how 
excellent its internal condition is. Some 
day I shall have it refinished and then it 
will look like yours. You must spend .a lot 
of time on it." 

"Oh, not so very much! A few minutes 
after a ride and it is made bright and shin- 
ing." 

"But one would not think to look at the 
old crock that it had been pushed 25,000 
miles. That's its and my record, however. 
And it's just as good as the day I got it. 



112 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Jobbers, Dealers - d Users of Bicycles 



SHOULD INSIST ON HAVING 



" Diamond E " Spokes 

They represent the highest development of the art of spoke manufacture, and 

for years have given the best of satisfaction. All reputable manu= 

facturers of bicycles equip their wheels with them. 

NONE GENUINE UNLESS STAMPED WITH THIS TRADE-MARK: 



TRADE 




MARK 



STANDARD SPOKE & NIPPLE CO., Torrington, Conn., U.S. A. 



H. P. WELLS, 
Light Running Carriages. 

Amesbury, Mass., Oct. 10, 1902. 

THE H. A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 

Gentlemen: — I have given your cones 
rather a severe test by using them on a steel 
tire wagon, and they proved all right. Please 
send me, etc. 

Yours truly, H.P.WELLS. 



We make Cups and Cones, Connections, Head 

Sets ; in fact, most everything just 

as good as the cones. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



I 



THE R A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 

SEYMOUR, CONNECTICUT, U. S. A. 



TRUE ECONOMY 

does not consist in pinching pennies out of the saddle. It 
was long since proven that the best saddle, i. e., the 

PERSONS 




•^smr 



SADDLE 

is the cheapest in the end. It looks better, feels better, 
wears better and IS better in every way than any other 
saddle on the market and is an unfailing index to the policy 
of the cycle manufacturer and his bicycle. 

" Penny pinchers " do not use Persons Saddles nor are 
they to be found on bicycles of doubtful quality. 



PERSONS MANUFACTURING e©., 

C. a. PERSONS, Prest. 
WORCESTER, MftSSHeHUSETTS 



MAKING A REPAIR 



The First Job Provides Tools and Data for 
Subsequent Use. 



When I got my first motor bicycle, it was 
a few years back, it was about tbe only 
practical type on tbe market. Its first own- 
er, and importer, had never been able to 
make it run for any distance, but a consider- 
able experience with motor launches and 
vehicles gave me faith in my abilities to get 
it going and then keeping it in that condition. 
Many were the enjoyable rides I had on 
that bicycle, particularly after I had thrown 
out the storage battery and put in a set of 
dry cells. 

The first job of any moment that I took 
in hand was after I had run the bicycle 
about 600 miles, and that was to re-bush the 
connecting rod bearing. This had become 
worn to a considerable extent, so that a good 
deal of knocking was set up with loss of 
power. The first thing necessary was to 
take the engine to pieces. The wires were 
disconnected from the contact breaker, and 
the advance spark lever was then taken off. 
On now loosening the nuts holding the crank 
case to the bicycle the motor complete could 
be lifted off. 

The cylinder and crank case bad now to 
be taken apart, but before this could be done 
the driving pulley had to be got off the crank 
axle. It was fitted very tight and to ease it 
I cut two wedges of hard wood and drove 
these in equally on each side of the pulley, 
between it and the face of the crank cham- 
ber. A few taps with a hammer on the end 
of the axle whilst firmly holding the pulley 
effected its removal. The two long bolts 
that hold the cylinder to the crank ease were 
now removed by taking off the nuts at the 
combustion head and knocking out the bolts 
at the crank case lug. Tbe cylinder then 
came away leaving the piston, connecting 
rod, and fly wheels in place, the bolts hold- 
ing the crank case halves together were 
undone and then the case could be opened, 
exposing the fly wheels and interior gear- 
ing. 

The next step was to remove the connect- 
ing rod. This is not by any means an easy 
matter with motors built on the De Dion 
principle. Tbe discs are very tightly fixed 
on tbe crank pin, and sometimes the end of 
the pin is burred over the nut. By using a 
strong spanner tbe nut can be started, pro- 
viding the burr is first filed down flush. The 
nut off, the disc can be got off by knocking 
the pin through it with a few sharp taps 
with a hammer. This leaves the connecting 
rod and piston free. 

The best way to remove the worn bushing 
is to force it out by placing the connecting 
rod in the vice, packing one side of the rod 
out so as to allow tbe bush to pass, and then 
forcing it through by screwing a nut or 
pieces of round metal up against the other 
face. Another way is to knock the bush 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

out by placing the rod over the vice, and 
giving the other side of the bush a few 
blows with the plane of a hammer. 

To make a new bush required the use of 
the lathe. A piece of round section phosphor 
bronze was obtained just a shade larger than 
the diameter of the hole in connecting rod. 
I then cut a piece of the bar 3-16ths inch 
wider than the bush. This was then placed 
in the three-jaw chuck and bored out with 
a twist drill a shade less in diameter than 
the crank pin. It can then be lightly 
touched up with a tool till it is a fit on the 
pin— rather tight it should be at first, so as 
to allow for grinding. 

The next thing to do was to drive the bush 
on to a mandril, and turn it down to an ac- 
curate fit to the crank bore. This must be 
carefully gauged, as it is necessary that the 
bush can be tightly forced in by placing it in 
the vice between two pieces of soft metal 
and screwing up tight. When in its place 



Morgan *WRiGHfIiREs 

ARE GOOD TIRES 



. see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 
no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



New York Branch! 214-216 West 47th Street. 



the bush should be ground out to a perfect 
free fit to the pin by setting the mandril 
very true on the lathe chuck and placing on 
it some crocus powder, then running at 
high speed and lapping out the bore of tbe 
bush. Oil holes will next require to be 
drilled; the holes will already be made in 
the crank end, and it will only be necessary 
to run the drill through the bushing. 

Replacing the crank disc and trueing up 
requires careful doing because although the 
set pins should allow the parts to go to- 
gether again exactly it will be found neces- 
sary to test the axles between the lathe cen- 
ters to ensure their being perfsctly in line 
with each other, and this will mean that the 
discs may require setting slightly by gently 
tapping them with a hammer one side or the 
other till the whole system runs absolutely 
true. Otherwise it would be impossible to 
get the wheels to fit in the crank case and 
the axles would run hard in their bearings. 
Tbe nuts should be well tightened up, and a 
better plan than burring up the thread is to 
drill and tap a small hole through the edge 
of the pin and nut and put in a small set 



113 

screw. This enables the discs to be taken 
apart, if necessary at any time, without 
trouble. 

The points of vital importance when re- 
assembling the motor, is the setting of the 
exhaust and ignition gears. This is simply 
a question of getting the right teeth of the 
gear wheels into mesh. It is sometimes 
found that the corresponding teeth on the 
2 to 1 gear wheels are marked, but when 
this is not done, and it is too often neg- 
lected by motor builders, then it is that the 
repairer must know some means to get mat- 
ters right. 

The best method to pursue where there is 
an opening in the top of the cylinder, is to 
make a wire gauge as follows: Before taking- 
down the motor take a good stiff piece of 
wire, 3-16ths or so in diameter, and put it 
through the opening in the head until it 
rests on the top of the piston. Then turn 
the belt pulley, or sprocket, in the direction 
in which it runs, until the wire starts up 
with the exhaust stroke. The exhaust stroke 
can always be told by the fact that the ex- 
haust valve stem is held up only on this 
stroke and closes at nearly the top of the 
stroke. Now turn tbe pulley backwards— if 
the exhaust has been tried for— until the 
wire is down as far it will go. Continue the 
backard turning until the exhaust stem is 
clear down and the short rod that pushes it 
starts to leave it for the small clearance al- 
ways allowed. This is the point that should 
be marked on the wire, at the exact point 
where it comes through the head, witht a 
file or other means. To be sure that the 
mark is to be made in exactly the right 
place, move the pulley back and forth the 
slightest amount, to see that the short stem 
touches and leaves the valve rod stem just 
above it. 

Of course, with the wire thus marked it is 
used to adjust the gears when re-assembling, 
so that the exhaust valve stem will start up 
just as the notch commences to show at the 
edge of the hole in the head. No further 
mark is needed on the wire, but it will help 
to check the setting if a mark is also made 
just as tbe exhaust valve sets. With the 
two marks there is little chance to make an 
error, provided it is known which end of 
the wire is the down end. To insure the 
knowledge, the upper end can have a right 
angle bend made in it about one-half inch 
from tbe top. 

If the sparking cam is on the same shaft 
as the exhaust cam, then the setting of the 
latter will take care of the former. If it is 
not on the same shaft or if it is to be re- 
moved and its position is not determined by 
a pin passing through it and the shaft, then 
before taking it off another wire measurer 
should be made with one mark cut on the 
wire at the time when the spark cam is at 
its highest position. That is, when it has 
forced to the limit the blade against the 
screw if the cam is made with a projecting 
knob. If the cam is with a notch for the 
blade to drop into, then make the mark 
when the piston is at the point that brings 
the blade to the point just before dropping. 



114 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



The foregoing instructions have been 
given for use when taking down the motor. 
Should the motor be in a dismantled condi- 
tion when brought in to be put together then 
the following instructions will give the 
methods for finding how to position each 
cam. Use wires for measuring, as before 
explained. 

In meshing the teeth of the gears, place 
them so that the exhaust cam commences 
to open the valve when the piston is within 
three-eighths of an inch of its down stroke— 
the working down stroke. Have the valve 
fully open when end of stroke is reached— 
that is when the piston has gone down as 
far as it will. The valve should be fully 
closed when the piston reaches the end of 
the up stroke that is generally known as 
the exhaust stroke. There is apt to be some 
confusion on these positions, as many cannot 
understand that the exhaust should com- 
mence to take place at the end of the ex- 
plosion or working stroke. 

To find the position of the spark cam use 
the following method: Push the box mak- 
ing up the contact breaker parts, to its most 
forward, or high sparking point, and then 
the cam proper must be placed so that when 
the piston is within 3-16ths of an inch of the 
top position on its compression — up — stroke 
the contact of the two primary points is just 
breaking. 

The best way to find the various strokes 
of the piston is to note the exhaust valve 
movement. In this way there can be no 
confusion as to which of the up strokes is 
compression and which is exhaust; always 
remembering that the order of movements 
of the piston is intake, compression, explo- 
sion, exhaust. 



Improvements that are Possible. 

While out last Sunday a Bicycling World 
representative met a man who in the past 
three years has tried almost everything in 
the way of drive on a motor bicycle, and in 
looking at his machine it was noticed that 
he had a belt of exactly the make-up de- 
scribed in last week's issue. Questioned as 
to his views in the matter, he said: 

"I am satisfied that in the way of direct 
belt drive this form leaves little or nothing 
to be desired, and it is moreover easily 
fitted to most existing belt-driven machines 
without further alteration than fitting the 
special engine pulley. I have now used the 
belt over two hundred miles, by cyclometer, 
and you will notice that it has not stretched 
a particle. But I am not content to accept 
this as being a final solution of the trans- 
mission problem, for there is still the heavy 
side pull on the engine crank shaft, with 
consequent rapid wear of bearings, though I 
fail to see why this should not be remedied 
in future designs. 

"And then somehow I don't fancy the 
small size of the engine pulley, and certainly 
a small advance would be made by increas- 
ing the size of the pulleys in the same ratio, 
say to the fullest extent allowable by the 
diameter of the bicycle driving wheel. Own- 



ers of present-day machines of the type de- 
scribed will have no difficulty in compiling 
a little list of minor defects which, in many 
cases, they may by the expenditure of a 
little time and ingenuity remedy or improve 
themselves. 

"As to the future motor bicycle, it seems 
quite probable that the greater overall width 
of a more powerful motor, which will be 
necessary to ensure durability of the bear- 
ings, will result in the engine being carried 
further forward to partly clear the crank 
path on contact-breaker side, in combina- 
tion with increased width of tread and in- 
creased length of wheel base." 



A Stand of the Right Sort. 

The Corson motor bicycle stand here illus- 
trated is the creation of the rare bird of 
that name and is being marketed by his 
concern, the Automobile and Motor-Cycle 
Company, Boston, Mass. That it fills a want 
is not to be denied. The stand is of iron and 
so put together that it may be readily taken 
apart and packed in a steamer trunk. The 
lower rod is in three section, and is made 



tent on the surface. If steel of small cross- 
section is so hardened that it becomes of the 
same degree of hardness everywhere, it may 
still crack, although this cannot be consid- 
ered as due to pressure exerted on the in- 
terior by the hardened and contracted out- 
side. 

If steel of large cross-section is hardened, 
cracks may commence at the surface as well 
as within the metal. It is not possible, how- 
ever, for such cracks to form within the 
metal if they are due to pressure exerted by 
the outer hardened skin on the softer core. 

So, in accounting for such strains, Reiser 
first passed in review the present theories of 
the hardening process, and drawing atten- 
tion to the changes in texture and volume 
which take place, considered that the strains 
referred to have their origin in these causes. 

In later experiments, O. Thallner consid- 
ered the question of the strains that occur 
in hardened steel of large cross-section. 

These are due, he considered, to the 
changes in volume and in shape that take, 
place during the hardening. He took these 
up in their order and observed in experi- 




up in such a way that the stand is adjust- 
able to all lengths of wheel base. It holds 
the machine so firmly -that after one has 
mounted and started the motor he can get 
off and leave the machine running. 



Strains in Hardened Steel. 

A German technologist, Reiser by name, 
was the first to point out that the strains 
produced in steel by hardening and deduci- 
ble from the changes in volume of the metal, 
are the causes of the hardening, and 
Barnes and Strouhal proved that in 
hardened steel considerable differences both 
in volume and specific gravity existed be- 
tween the strongly hardened outer layers 
and the less firmly hardened inner layers, 
and that the strains resulting were the 
causes of cracks in hardening. 

Reiser made a number of experiments for 
the purpose of ascertaining the influence ex- 
erted by manganese and by silicon, and the 
changes in volumes during hardening. These 
led him to doubt the accuracy of the ex- 
istence of pressure strains. 

Two kinds of strains must exist; those 
which occur in steel of small cross-section 
that has been evenly hardened throughout; 
and those which occur in steel of larger 
cross-section, due to the unequal changes in 
volume of surface and the interior. 

The first of these also occur in steels of 
large cross-section, and to the greatest ex- 



ments conducted that they showed that 
steels of different chemical composition may 
be divided into two main groups as regards 
their behavior during the hardening process. 
(1) Those which become shorter, and (2) 
those which become either shorter or longer. 
These two groups are not separated from 
each other by any definite line of demarca- 
tion. 

It is dependent on the chemical composi- 
tion, and in the case of pure carbon steel, 
lies at about a percentage of 0.90 carbon. In 
the case of steels of the first group and 
those of the second, which become shorter 
when hardened, an increase in the thickness 
and width is always observed. 

The larger cooling faces always assume a 
concave form. In the case of steel belong- 
ing to the second group which becomes 
longer when hardened, an increase in the 
thickness may occasionally be observed, but 
the larger cooling faces are never concave. 
They are, indeed, usually slightly convex. 
In a series of results made in connection 
with samples of crucible steel and with 
basic open hearth steel, the former became 
shorter and the latter longer after hardening. 



The Retail Record. 

Yarmouth, N. S — Yarmouth Cycle Co. 
bought out B. C. Shaw & A. H. Miller. 

Chicago. 111.— Vim Co. bought out C. H. 
Larson Cycle Co. 

Kingston. Ont— F. B. McEwen, IS Mon- 
treal street, succeed W. J. Moore. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



115 



INSURES GOOD REPAIRS 



When Fixing ilotors Surface Plates are 
Needed to Prove Accuracy. 



While for ordinary bicycle repairing a shop 
could easily get along without a surface 
plate, when it conies to doing work on mo- 
tors it will be found to be one of the handi- 
est of tools. A surface plate may be used 
for a variety of purposes, and in making 
surfaces the work may be placed upon it or 
it may be placed upon the work. 

A good example of the use of the surface 
plate is in laying out the lines and centres 
for machining such parts as motor cylinders, 
crank oases and gear boxes. Surface plates 
may be of any size from about 16 square 
inches up to 18 square feet. The latter is, 
of course, useless except for large engineer- 
ing works, and the former is only useful 
for the surfacing of very small surfaces. 
For the bicycle shop a surface plate about 
twelve inches by eight is ample, and even 
smaller may be used with advantage on 
most of the jobs a repairer will want to do. 
It should be of great accuracy, as any faults 
it may have will be transmitted to the work 
being done and will cause trouble in subse- 
quent fitting. 

In making a surface plate the skill and 
patience of the mechanic is taxed to a 
greater extent than in almost any other fit- 
ting operation, and if a workman can turn 
out in decent time a good, true surface plate 
he may well be proud of his labor. The 
tcols required for making a surface plate are 
not many. 

In the first place a flat plate casting is 
needed. It should be about % inch thick 
and have three short legs, two at one end 
one at the opposite. It may seem a refinement 
to put only three legs on so small a plate. 
The use of three legs on surface plates is of 
course governed by the axiom of Euclid, 
which states that three points in space de- 
termines a plane, and is adopted in order to 
prevent any possibility of springing the 
plate and twisting it out of truth by laying 
it down on an uneven surface. With a small 
plate and of such a thickness as here out- 
lined, there is, of course, no such need for 
the three leg design; but it is generally 
adopted, mainly because it allows of the 
plate standing steadier than is possible with 
a four-legged construction. The legs are 
simply small extensions, about % of an 
inch in length. 

For those who would like to make the at- 
tempt the following directions will suffice: 
The casting being ready, the next opera- 
tion is to machine it. If a planer is avail- 
able it may be planed both along the top 
and along the edges. If no planer is at hand 
it may be surfaced in the lathe, being bolted 
to a face plate, and finally, if no lathe is 
available, it may be filed up by hand. 

Supposing a lathe is used, care should be 
taken to see that tne cross-slide of the lathe 



is quite square with the lathe mandril, 
otherwise the plate when surfaced will be 
either convex or concove. Only a light cut 
should be taken over the plate, just to take 
the black out. Having surfaced the top of 
the plate the next operation is to square up 
the sides and ends. This is done in the vice 
with files, using large bastard files first and 
hand smooth files afterward. 

A good square should be constantly put on 
the work to ensure that the sides are square 
with the top and the ends square with the 
sides, testing the straightness of the sides 
by means of a sraight edge. Having filed 
and planed the edges, it is necessary to fin- 
ish the top. This is the most important part 
of the job, and it is here where the skill of 
the fitter comes in. The top should first be 
carefully filed, using a large smooth file, 
having its tang cranked so that the heel of 
the file can be pushed over the work. With 
this, only just the marks of the planer or the 
tool marks of the lathe tool should be taken 
out. 

The next operation is to scrape the sur- 
face true. This can be done by reference to 
a pattern surface plate. A thin layer of red 
lead and oil — the lead being ground very 
fine— is smeared over the surface plate, and 
the plate being operated upon is placed face 
downward upon it and gently moved back- 
ward and forward and in a circular motion, 
so that the different parts of the plates come 
into contact with the finished plate. On 
taking it off the high marks will be clearly 
denoted by the absence of the red lead, and 
these high places are carefully scraped 
down with a scraper. 

The surface is carefully wiped over to 
remove shavings and filings, and again ap- 
plied to the finished plate. This is repeated, 
taking finer and finer cuts with the scraper 
until the whole of the surface comes in con- 
tact with the surface of the finished plate. 
The slower this is done the better will be 
the results. The hands should be kept off 
the plate during the process of scraping, and 
care should be taken that too much is not 
taken off. A hollow in a surface plate is as 
bad as a lump, and it means that the whole 
of the rest of the plate will have to be 
scraped down to its level. It will then be 
seen that the skill of the operator is dis- 
played in judging how much not to scrape 
off and not how much to scrape off. 
. As a final trial of the plate, some very thin 
oil and lead should be carefully smeared 
over the trial plate, so that only just a thin 
film is left when the other plate should be 
carefully laid upon it and moved round once 
or twice. The result should be that the 
whole of the surface of the new plate is 
covered in a corresponding thinner layer of 
oil and lead. Many mechanics finish the 
plate off by some kind of fancy scraping all 
over the surface and leaving it in a kind 
of regular mottled surface with a fancy pat- 
tern. This may look nice and give some 
pleasure to the eye, but it does not add to 
the value of the plate as a tool of accuracy, 
and so can be dispensed with. Finally, a 
neatneat wooden cover should be made to 
fit tightly over the plate and come down well 
over the sides. This will prevent the sur- 
face from becoming damaged by tools or 
other things lying about upon the bench. 



If it's a 

B E V I N 

it's all right— 



whether it be bell, toe clip, 
lamp bracket or anything else 




If you don't know it it's 
time to learn and we'll be 
pleased to supply the neces- 
sary information. 



BEVIN BROS. MFG. COMPANY 

EAST HAMPTON, CONN. 

FOUNDED 1832 



116 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Tempering Cups and Cones. 

In a recent talk among a number of men 
who had had considerable experience in 
small shop practices the question came up as 
to how best to temper forged steel cups or 
cones so as to be sure of their not cracking 
when cooled off, and at the same time be 
sure they are hard enough to wear well. It 
was the general opinion that the following 
were the best methods to carry out: 

If it is a cone with a very thin nose, it 
should be slowly heated, and with care, in 
the fire in such a manner that the base of 
the cone receives the greatest heat and so as 
to not overheat the nose. This is often done 
in a muffle furnace with a red-hot firebrick 
bottom upon which the cones are placed. 
With a little care the same effect may be ob- 
tained by putting the cone base downward 
in the hot part of a blacksmith's fire, leaving 
it until a clear red shows. With a blazing 
hearth the coke is hardly long enough in its 
heat retaining to effect this without the blow 
pipe in use during the heating. 

The cone is then plunged, base downward, 
into clean cold water. And in connection 
with this matter of clean water it developed 
that one of those in the discussion never had 
known that soapy water would not cool off 
heated steel. 

Taking out the cone it is brightened with 
a piece of emery cloth and tempered as fol- 
lows: A piece of flat wrought iron bar, about 
two inches wide by three-eighths of an inch 
thick, is heated to a bright red, and the hard- 
ener cone is laid upon this, base downward. 
The rise of the color is watched until a deep 
straw appears about the place where the 
balls run. To keep this color all through 
would make the cone brittle at the thin end 
of the nose, where it would be liable to 
crush, so this part should be let down in 
temper. 

To do this a piece of rod, which will just 
enter the cone, is heated to a bright red and 
its end inserted about an eighth of an inch 
into the cone. When a deep purple color ap- 
pears around the thin nose the cone is again 
quenched in water. The same procedure may 
be followed in the case of cups or other har- 
dened parts, all those portions which are 
thin and have no wear, being thus let down 
in temper.. 

Sometimes it becomes necessary to return 
a cone, and it is particularly annoying to find 
after all the work has been done that the 
thing cracks in the hardening process. This 
annoyance can be avoided by adopting the 
following procedure: Heat the part to a 
blood red, with every care to have the color 
even, and then plunge into ice cold water, the 
clearer and purer the better, with a handful 
of salt, to a pail of water, in solution. If 
cracks appear the cone should be rejected 
without further thought. If the part comes 
through this dead hardening all right it will 
invariably stand the second hardening and 
tempering after remachining. To get rid of 
the dead hardening, the piece must be slowly 
cooled in ashes after reheating; some prefer 
plaster of paris for the slow cooling. 



The Week's Patents. 

711,462. Bicycle Support. Joseph G. Beale, 
Leechburg, Pa. Filed August 1, 1900. Serial 
No. 25,526. (No model.) 

Claim— A bicycle support comprising an 
approximately U shaped frame having open- 
ings formed in its arms' free ends, a for- 
wardly extending brace rod pivotally con- 
nected to each of the arms of said frame and 
a toggle connection between the said brace 
rods and the frame, said fram adapted to 
be journalled on the rear bicycle axle where- 
by it can be thrown up vertically into en- 
gagement with the bicycle frame when not 
in use, and when in lowered position con- 
tact with the floor at a point in the rear 
of the wheel, and the lower end of said 
brace rods adapted to contact the floor at a 
point substantially in vertical alignment 
with the rear axle of the bicycle, whereby 
forward as well as rearward movement of 
the bicycle is prevented. 

711,717. Cycle Support. Robert F. Cor- 
ned, Philipsburg, Mont., assignor of one- 
fourth to John Charles McLeod, Philipsburg, 
Mont. Filed August 8, 1902. Serial No. 
118,921. (No model.) 

Claim— 1. A support for cycles, compris- 
ing pivoted arms, a supporting wheel con- 
nected therewith, a spiral connected with 
the arms, and a lever with a lever head en- 
gaging the cam to turn said cam to elevate 
or lower the arms, substantially as and for 
the purpose set forth. 

711,902. Carburetter for Explosive En- 
gines. James B. Leppo and David M. Leppo, 
Mansfield, O., assignors of one-third to 
Thomas Hall, Mansfield, O. Filed August 
13, 1901. Serial No. 71,915. (No model.) 

Claim— 1. A carburetter comprising a cas- 
ing having a reservoir, a central stand pipe 
extending into the reservoir, the upper sur- 
face of the stand pipe being inclined, a cap 
on the casing, the cap having its inner sur- 
face inclined oppositely to the upper sur- 
face of the stand pipe, a ring having its 
upper and lower surfaces inclined toward 
the centre, the cap and upper surface of the 
central pipe together with the ring forming 
a mixing chamber, substantially as de- 
scribed, 

711,922. Support for Cycles. Robert F. 
Corneil, Philipsburg, Mont., assignor of one- 
fourth to John Charles McLeod, Phillips- 
burg, Mont. Filed May 19, 1902. Serial No. 
108,099. (No model.) 

Claim— 1. A support for cycles compris- 
ing a suitable hanger, means for connecting 
the hanger with the frame of the cycle, 
means for raising the hanger and locking it 
in its raised position, racks provided with 
tubular arms, the hangers adjustably con- 
nected to the arms, supporting frames pivot- 
ally connected to the frame of the cycle, 
wheels adjustably connected to the support- 
ing frame, pinions rigidly connected to the 
supporting frames and engaging the racks, 
substantially as and for the purpose speci- 
fied. 

711,245. Railway-Velocipede. Oliver J. 
Donovan, Three Rivers, Mich. Filed Feb. 11, 
1902. Serial No. 93,523. (No model). 

Claim.— 1. In a railway-velocipede, the 
combination with the frame of a front wheel 
journaled in movable bearings, and automat- 
icall operating means for turning said wheel 
to accommodate the latter to the curves and 
irregularities in the track. 



Causes of Puncture. 

It is the driving friction, added to the 
extra weight, which makes the back tire 
more liable to puncture than the front. It 
will often happen that the tire of the front 
wheel passes over bits of glass or sharp 
flints, which seem to rise up, as it were, and 
go for the following wheel. Sometimes, in 
fact, they do actually rise, being displaced 
or tilted by the rolling motion of the front 
tire into a position which is so acute that it 
draws air from the rear one and picturesque 
language from the rider. 

Yet, after allowing for exceptional acci- 
dents of this kind, it will be found that the 
real cause of the greater liability is the 
driving friction of the rear tire, which in 
taking the necessary grip of road to supply 
the power to the machine necessarily takes 
a strong grip of anything it may find on the 
road. 

Then, too, there is a certain sawing mo- 
tion, which, though imperceptible, is always 
present. Watch, for instance, the wheels of 
an automobile, and you will see it in ex- 
aggeration, and when one comes to think of 
it, there can be pressed a tolerably sharp 
knife against a rubber tire without dam- 
aging it. But directly a sawing motion is 
imparted to the knife, why, presto! it cuts; 
and if it be wet it cuts still easier. 



Kelleher has a r\oney=Maker. 

J. J. Kelleher, the veteran cycle agent of 
Salem, Mass., has discovered what he be- 
lieves is a real money making side line for 
the winter months particularly. He believes 
it so firmly that he has become interested in 
the Ideal Mfg. Co., of Salem, and now wants 
his fellow dealers throughout the country to 
share in the profits. The side line consists of 
the Ideal Natural Gas Generator, an ingen- 
ious and time tried kerosene burner suit- 
able for stoves, ranges, hot water heaters, 
etc. It has many points of merit, so many 
that Kelleher affirms that it sells almost on 
sight. With the existing flurry in the coal 
market an article of the sort just now has 
particular claim to public attention, and 
can be made the most of. The Ideal people 
are appointing but one agent in a town, and, 
having a leaning toward cycle dealers, are 
prepared to offer terms designed to attract 
them. 

Why Chain Breakage Have Lessened. 

When fixed chain transmission was the 
only kind used it was not an infrequent 
happening that the chain would break be- 
cause of a stick, or something getting be- 
tween it and the sprocket. With the com 
ing of the coaster brake these chain break- 
ages disappeared because the choking of the 
chain by the stick allowed the rear wheel to 
overrun, immediately taking off the strain at 
the point of previous trouble. 



"How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." $1. The 
Goodman Co., Box 649, New York. **• 



No. 325 Not No. 125. 

The new address of A. H. Funke, the well- 
known jobber, is 325 Broadway; a slip of the 
pen last week placed him at No. 125 on that 
street. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated "The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review" and the "American Cyclist" 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, November 6, 1902. 



No. 6 



TO BECOME NATIONAL 



New York Jobbers to Enlarge Scope of 
Their Association — Outsiders Invited In. 



The effort to nationalize the New York 
State Association of Jobbers of Bicycle Sup- 
plies, which was first suggested at the an- 
nual meeting in September last, has already 
taken shape and is well under way. 

Since the suggestion was first made public, 
so many requests for information and so 
many desires to co-operate reached the of- 
ficers that it practically certain that the 
present effort, which takes the form of an 
invitation from President Long of the New 
York association, will result in the national 
organization aimed at. 

Mr. Leng's invitation is a lengthy com- 
munication dealing with both the objects 
and accomplishments of the New York job- 
bers. It was mailed to some 50 or 60 con- 
cerns whose standing as jobbers is unques- 
tioned and who are asked to name others in 
their vicinity whom they recognize as being 
in the same class; later the invitation will 
be extended to all those so recommended. 

Mr. Leng suggests that if deemed advis- 
able a special meeting will be held to for- 
mally organize the national association, and 
meanwhile gives assurance that all of the 
leading jobbing centers will be given repre- 
sentation on the Executive Committee of 
the New York body. 

The movement will, of course, carry with 
it a change of name and the adoption of a 
shorter one, as an officer of the N. Y. A. J. 
B. S. laughingly admitted, the undue de- 
mands of the New York association on the 
alphabet being generally recognized. 



Some of Mason's Beliefs. 

Trumpets and printer's ink. These are 
what Elliott Mason, the veteran manager of 
the Columbia branch in Warren street.thinks 
are wanted now, and right along till spring. 
He says: 

"Blow the bugle, blow it hard and spread 
plenty of printer's ink. That is what I say 
we should do right now. The situation de- 
mands it. The prospect is brighter than it 
has been for several years, and we are fools 
if we go to sleep in the face of it. By all 



means let us have a show if we can. With 
the affairs of the A. B. C. in their present 
state of disorganization, it is difficult to see 
how a show could be arranged, but it might 
be possible a little later to see the way 
clear - ." 

Willis Wins First Round 

E. J. Willis, of the Willis Park Kow Bicy- 
cle Company, has won the first round of his 
suit against the Eclipse Manufacturing Com- 
pany for $10,000 damages. The proceedings 
grew out of the circular letter issued by the 
Eclipse people notifying the trade that Wil- 
lis, having violated his agreement to respect 
the price of Morrow coaster brakes, could no 
longer obtain those articles. 

The Eclipse Company filed a demurrer to 
Willis's complaint, alleging that the offence 
cited did not constitute a cause of action. 
Justice Scott, of the New York Supreme 
Court, held otherwise, ruling that "the 
charge made against the plaintiff was calcu- 
lated to prejudice and injure him in his busi- 
ness," and ordered the case to trial by jury. 
The Eclipse Company, however, gave notice 
of an appeal from his decision which acts as 
a stay to jury proceedings. 



BIG DEVELOPMENTS DUE 



Tucker Seeks New Site. 

It is by no means certain that the plant 
of the Tucker Bicycle Wood Work Co., re- 
cently destroyed by fire, will be rebuilt at 
its old site, Urbana,, Ohio; indeed, the prob- 
abilities are against it. The Tucker people 
are understood to be casting about for a 
larger and more central location, with a 
particular leaning toward Dayton, Ohio. 



Inner Tubes Up. 

The suit of Morgan & Wright vs. the 
Pennsylvania Rubber Company, for alleged 
infringements of their patents covering the 
method of forming and joining the ends of 
inner tubes, is up for hearing in the United 
States' District Court at Chicago. There is 
a great array of legal talent on both sides. 



Wilson now Manager. 

J. C. Wilson, former secretary of the Hart- 
ford Rubber Works Company, has been 
appointed general business manager of the 
several tire plants included in the Rubber 
Goods Manufacturing Company. He will 
make his headquarters at Hartford. 



Sensational Occurences in Coaster=Brake 
Trade Afoot— Almost Ripe for Publicity. 



Unless an unexpected hitch occurs, with- 
in a fortnight, probably sooner, there will 
be developments in the coaster brake circle 
that will cause the trade to gasp. 

At this moment it is not possible to even 
hint at the nature of the developments, but, 
as stated, they have about reached a climax, 
and news of a definite character cannot be 
much longer withheld. The proceedings are 
of a magnitude and on a scale that seemed 
well nigh impossible. 



Holmes has no Complaint. 

A. J. Holmes, buyer for the big jobbing- 
house of Farwell, Ozmun & Kirk, St. Paul, 
Minn., is now in the East making pur- 
chases. He states that the cycle trade in 
his territory has been excellent, the last 
year being one of the best his firm had ever 
enjoyed. 

Will now Sell Tires. 

F. E. ("Doc") Taylor, formerly with C. J. 
Iven & Co., has been added to the traveling 
staff of the Diamond Rubber Company. He 
will cover the territory contiguous to the fac- 
tory at Akron, including, of course, Ohio and 
West Virginia. 



Chinese Duty Fixed. 

Under the provisions of the new Chinese 
tariff, as agreed to by the special commis- 
sioners of Germany, Great Britain, Japan 
and the United States, bicycles must pay a 
duty of $3 each; bicycle material is taxed 5 
per cent. 

Fire Visits Harris. 

Flames from an enamelling oven set fire 
to the shop and store of Bernard Harris at 
213 South Maine street, Elmira, N. Y., on 
October 24. The damage was $500, unin- 
sured. 

Smythe Damaged $500 Worth. 

The store of James M. Smythe at 328 
Dorchester street, Montreal, Canada, was 
damaged by fire to the extent of $500 on 
October 21. 



126 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



CANADA'S BAD YEAR 



No Dividends but riany Explanations— Re= 
organization Ahead — The Annual Report. 



Across the border, the affairs of the Cana- 
dian trust— the Canada Cycle and Motor 
Co. — are not rosier than those of the Ameri- 
can Bicycle Co. on this side of the line. 

The Canada Co. held its annual meeting 
in Toronto Oct. 31, amid gloom that could 
be sliced with a knife. Last year the direc- 
tors wiped out the reserve fund to force a 
dividend, and thereby planted the seed of 
much litigation that promptly followed. 
This year the reports and the meeting were 
conspicuous by the small reference to divi- 
dends. 

"There was plenty of excitement, but the 
tact of the chairman in answering questions 
kept it well suppressed.*' says one story of 
the meeting. 

Ajn inquisitive stockholder brought out 
that during the year 13,000 bicycles had 
been manufactured, and a business of $1,- 
300,000 transacted. Another brought out 
that the five factories constituting the trust 
had cost $1,740,000, which to-day are valued 
at but $347,000. 

General amazement was expressed at the 
enormous shrinkage of the assets. The 
chairman said even men who were prepared 
for something of the kind in commercial 
ventures were surprised, and it all went to 
show how capital was absorbed by expenses, 
when a company organized to do business 
on a very large scale had only been able to 
do business on a very small scale. 

After all had been said and done, however, 
the stockholders accepted the directors' re- 
port and re-elected them for another year. 
They are as follows: James N. Shenstone, 
.1. W. Flavelle, E. B. Ryckman, Hon. 
George A. Cox, Hon. L. M. Jones, Warren 
Y. Soper and T. A. Russell. 

The hope of the company appears to rest 
in reorganization and in the concentration 
of its entire force in the factory at Toronto 
Junction. All branch stores and foreign 
depots will be discontinued. 

The basis of reorganization is thus out- 
lined in the directors' report: 

"The net result of the season's business 
has been a disappointment to the Board of 
Directors, and shows a heavy loss. Sev- 
eral causes have contributed to this result. 
A very heavy writing down of the stock 
carried was necessary in order to provide 
for depreciation in out-of-date and obsolete 
stock. The average price received per bi- 
cycle was lower, and a smaller number were 
gold, This diminished output necessarily in- 



creased the cost of manufacture. Then, the that the policy of the company for the future 
company's sales have been reduced, its must be directed towards a reduction of its 
credit and standing at home and abroad liabilities, and that even under favorable 
prejudicially affected, and the difficulties of trade conditions, no dividends can be paid 
management increased by the litigation in the immediate future." 
which has been brought against it and the Dealing with its sales department, the re- 
directors by some of the shareholders. port thus summarizes the company's opera- 

" Although very considerable economies in tions: 
the selling organization were effected, these "The company's selling operations have 
failed to met the necessities arising from been carried on in four separate branches: 
all the above causes, and the result of the Canadian, European, Australasian, and mis- 
season's business and of the writing down cellaneous foreign. 

of stock shows a loss of $136,921. 6S, with a "1st. The Canadian business during the 

further loss of $22,138.97 on the realization past year has not been encouraging. Sales 

of accounts carried over from previous have dropped off very considerably from 

years. even the low figure reached last year, and 

"The statement of assets and liabilities prices have averaged lower. While we have 

shows that the company possesses liquid as- been unable to maintain fair prices on our 

sets in the form of cash in hand, accounts standard high grade goods, the proportion 

and bills receivable, stock on hand, and of low grade bicycles demanded by the trade 

other liquid assets to the value of $1,334,- i_as increased. The importation of a consid- 

498.96, against which a contingent account erable number of cheap wheels from the 

of $95,000 has been established to cover United States has had the effect of curtail- 

possible losses on realization of accounts, ing our sales and reducing our prices, 

and also the losses which will arise from "2d. The European business has proven a 

the closing out of branch organizations and decided disappointment, and again shows a 

the consolidation of factory plants. This loss on the season's operations. Although 

leaves the net amount of liquid assets at the number of sales shows a fair increase, 

$1,239,498.96, against which there are liabili- the extra special equipment required by the 

ties to the public of $1,092,927.42 (since re- English trade, and the low prices prevailing, 

duced to $940,000), leaving a net surplus of have prevented us from covering the cost 

$146,571.54. of the goods and the outlay necessary in 

"In addition to this, the company owns carrying on lousiness so far away from home, 

real estate, buildings, and manufacturing The intention is to put the business on an 

plant, including machinery, tools, patent, entirely different basis. 

patterns, trade marks, and designs. It is "3d. In the Australasian business sales 
quite clear that there will have to be a re- have increased satisfactorily, while prices 
organization of the company, with a sub- remain practically the same as before. The 
stantial writing down of the assets on the Australasian business is done on such long 
one side and the capital on the other. It credit that a larg portion of the company's 
was the intention of the directors to .have capital is employed there, 
recommended some action of that nature at "1th. Miscellaneous Foreign. This busi- 
this meeting of the shareholders, but they ness has not reached large proportions, corn- 
are advised that any. such action must be prising the sale of less than one thousand 
postponed until the present litigation before bicycles. Most of these go to Japan at very 
the courts is concluded. Moreover, when the close prices, with a limited number to South 
result of the current year's operations is Africa, India, etc. The business that has 
ascertained they will be in a better position been done in this way nas been safe and 
to form an accurate opinion as to a proper satisfactory." 
basis of reorganization. The financial statement as at July 31 last 

"Meanwhile the holders of $2,S50,000 of was rendered as follows: 

the common stock of the company have em- Assets 

powered the directors to state that as soon Real estate macnmery, 

as legal difficulties are removed their com- plant, tools, 'furniture, fix- 

.,, , ., , , - ,, ^. tures, patents, goodwill, 

mon stock will be available for cancellation etc $4,988,736 43 

in any reorganization of the company. L iiton n faetory an . Ce .?" .* Ia .™~ ' 1537500 

"It has also been communicated to the J $4,973,361 43 

,. ,, , . ,, , , ,, Cash on hand and in banks. $69,693 01 

directors that a number ot the largest hold- Accounts and bills 

ers of the preference stock have transferred stock on'handi'Bi-* 601 ' 81 ' 1 ° 9 

preference shares aggregating $1,000,000 to cycles, parts, raw 

. . , . , _, ,. . ,. material, sundry 

a trustee, to be held upon the reorganization supplies and un- 

of the company for the benefit of other pref- expired insuranc e 662,991 86 

erence shareholders who have least been $1,264,805 95 

... , . ,, , ,, , „ Less contingent ac- 

abie to sustain the loss they have suffered count $95,000 00 

through their investment in this company. ' $1,169,805 95 

"The directors believe, with the great Balance '380,067 03 

economies resulting from the concentration $6,592,927 42 

of all the manufacturing in one factory, and Liabilities. 

from the adoption of a much more economi- Accounts and bills payable.. $1,092,927 42 

cal sales organization, that a more satisfac- ^P^^'. ^ mjm m 

tory result may be hoped for in the future. Common 3,000,00000 

The directors, however, feel obliged to state ~ $5,5 ,000 0^^^ ^ 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



127 



" ASSOCIATION " NOMINATIONS 



New Yorker Named for Presidency and 
"War to the Knife" his Avowed Policy. 



When the Century Road Club of America 
threw overboard C. M. Fairehild by leaving 
him out entirely in making up the official 
ticket for 1903, it seemed as though the pros- 
pect for a reconciliation between the body 
named and the Century Road Club Associa- 
tion was brighter than ever. The thing 
needed next was for the association to nomi- 
nate a ticket from the conservative element, 
so that the leaders among the seceders would 
favor amalgamation. This has not been 
done. 

The cry now of the association is: "War 
to the knife!" 

On Wednesday night at a stated meeting 
of the association the nominating committee 
reported the following ticket: For presi- 
dent, R. A. Van Dyke, New York; for first 
vice-president, Dr. L. C. Le Roy, New York; 
for second vice-president, H. S. Judd, Chi- 
cago; for corresponding secretary, W. H. 
Latham, New York; for recording secretary. 
H. S. R. Smith, New York; for treasurer, F. 
W. Eyre, New York. Directors— A. G. Mat- 
thias, of Minnesota; R. W. Wollenschlager, 
C. P. Staubach, John T. Wall, A. Pollaseck 
and John Cornish, of New York. The only 
road officer nominated was L. V. D. Harden- 
bergh for captain. 

Mr. Van Dyke, the candidate for president, 
when interviewed by a Bicycling World man 
said that the attitude of the new adminis- 
tration toward the Americas would be un- 
compromising and that no olive branch 
would be extended. The only way consolida- 
tion could be effected, he said, would be for 
the Americas to knock at the door of the 
association, disband their own organization 
and join as individuals. 

The association election will be held by a 
mail vote from November 22 to December 3. 
Mr. Van Dyke says there will be no opposi- 
tion ticket in the field, although rumors of 
one being prepared had reached the Bicy- 
cling World. 

When the matter of the trophies which are 
being sought for by the Americas was 
brought up Mr. Van Dyke became evasive. 
He said that the trophies would not be sur- 
rendered but that he was not at the time 
prepared to explain why. There were ex- 
cellent reasons, he said, and he thought the 
claim of the association would be sustained 
in court. Later he would make a statement 
of what the attitude of the association is con- 
cerning the prizes in dispute. When asked 
when they were taken from the club house 
of the association he answered: "I do not 
know. I have not seen them for some time." 
In the story of the missing trophies that 
appeared in the Bicycling World last weeek, 
the types made it read that E. Lee Ferguson, 
the corresponding secretary of the associa- 
tion, had written to the lawyer of the Amer- 



icas, saying that "there were properties be- 
longing to the Century Road Club of Ameri- 
ca in the club house of the Century Road 
Club Association." The word "no" was 
omitted. The sentence should have read 
"there were no properties" etc. 



THE "GREATEST EVER" 



Kings County Plans Embrace Projects that 
Stagger Belief — An Outline of Them. 



flore Presidencies for Parker. 

In addition to being president of the Hart- 
ford Rubber Works Company, Lewis D. 
Parker is now president also of Morgan & 
Wright, Chicago, and of the G. & J. Tire 
Company, Indianapolis. He has been chosen 
for the respective offices by the directors of 
the Rubber Goods Manufacturing Company, 
among whose sub-companies are those 
placed under Mr. Parker's direction. The 
move is in Um with the Rubber Goods pol- 
icy of knitting their units closer together 
and centralizing authority and management. 

That Mr. Parker should be selected as the 




man to handle the reins is sufficient evidence 
of his ability and of the appreciation in 
which he is held by the astute financiers 
who dominate the situation. It is not often 
that such honors fall to so young a man, 
Mr. Parker being yet under 40. He has, 
however, long had the tire business at the 
tips of his fingers and been recognized as a 
man of force and character. He has been 
identified with the tire trade for the past 
twelve years, and it is to his foresight and 
policy that the Hartford Rubber Woi'ks 
Company occupies its present position. When 
Mr. Parker went with the Hartford Com- 
pany there was considerable opposition man- 
ifested in the trade by manufacturers and 
jobbers, especially against the policy of the 
company in compelling the trade to go to 
Columbia branches to secure their tires, the 
company at that time being controlled by 
the Pope Manufacturing Company. Through 
Mr. Parker the entire marketing system was 
reorganized, branches established in various 
sections of the country, and it may be fairly 
stated that there is no tire company that has 
been so uniformly successful as the Hart- 
ford Company has been under his adminis- 
tration. 



Concerning the scheme for a great athletic 
club to take in all bicycle, automobile and 
jockey clubs as branches, that was outlined 
in the Bicycling World last week, H. B. Ful- 
lerton of the Long Island Railroad says: 

"It's coming. We will have the greatest 
coliseum, olympian field and racing amphi- 
theater the world has ever dreamed about. 
And right out on the Hempstead Plains. A 
ten mile rack for automobiles. A run- 
ning track for horses with a one-mile 
straightaway on each side. A bicycle track. 
A cinder path. Football and baseball 
grounds, golf links and all the rest of it. 
It's bound to come, and the money is ready 
to do it all. 

"It is a question of only a few years when 
all the race tracks in New York will have to 
go— Gravesend, Brighton, Sheepshead, Mor- 
ris .Park, Acqueduct, every one of them. And 
out on the grounds I have mentioned there 
is room for all of them. There is room for 
four or five one-mile tracks in a row, so that 
the thirty-day racing law need not bother. 

"All the trotting tracks and other things 
could be absorbed in one big corporation, 
with the present institutions as branches, 
town houses and so on. Trusts are the order 
of the day. Why not an athletic and sport- 
ing trust?" 

"You think the scheme too vast? It's a 
petty thing for New York. Why, Rome never 
was in it with New York. It did not com- 
pare in point of wealth or opportunity, and 
we can do here things that will make the 
whole world blink its eyes. We will do it. 
We've got the capital, the brains, the enter- 
prise and the demand. The time is fast 
approaching, and you will wake up some 
day and find this stupendous dream a reality. 
I will not be in it then. I am only helping 
along now at the beginning. All I want is 
that shall be on Long Island. Things are not 
now in a shape definite enough to give out 
what has been done or is doing. That Kings 
County Wheelmen, Kings County Motor 
Cycle and Kings County Automobile Club 
formation is only one little move on the 
board, but you'll see the rest, all that I tell 
you and more, mark my words." 



To Increase Price of Parts ! 

The Federal Mfg. Co., Cleveland, has in- 
vited all other makers of cycle parts to a 
conference in that city on Saturday next. 
Betterment of existing prices is understood 
to be the object in view. 



Freeman Selling Yales. 

Howard B. Freeman, the well-known, 
racing man, has gone on the road for the 
Kirk Manufacturing Company. 



128 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 




ON EVERY BICYCLE WE MAKE. 



THE NATIONAL AGENCY 
ANYWHERE IN 1903 
WILL BE WORTH MORE 
THAN IT EVER HAS BEEN. 

DO YOU 
WANT IT? 



National Features make the National 
Different From Other Bicycles. 



The most important part of a bicycle is the front tork, for the reason 
that breakage means injury to the rider — there is no escape. National forks 
never break. The fork sides themselves are made tapering in their thick- 
ness, giving the greatest strength at the point upon which the greatest strain 
comes. The tubes from which they are made have the same outside diameters 
throughout their length, but in thickness, vary from 18 to 20 gauge. After 
being drawn in this shape, they are put under a hammer and swaged down 
to an external taper, the small end being at the axle of the wheel. They 
are then bent to the requisite curve. As an additional safeguard, we braze 
into the small end of the fork a strip of steel, which makes a reinforcement 
which avoids the possibility of bre'akage of the fork tips. When placing our 
specifications for fork sides last year, the manufacturer asked us, " Why do 
you get so expensive a fork side ? No one else does." The answer was 
easy : " Because we want them right." They cost more to be sure, but we 
can put them in a bicycle, feeling assured that the rider will not have an 
accident. 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. CO., bay city, mich. 



Safety, Speed and Comfort 

CAN BE OBTAINED BY HAVING YOUR 
AUTOMOBILE EQUIPPED WITH 

FISK TIRES. 



FISK RUBBER COHPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Hass. 



BOSTON, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 



SPRINGFIELD, 

40 Dwight St. 



BRANCHES . 

NEW YORK, 

83 Chamber* St. 



5YRACUSB, 

423 So. Clinton St. 



BUFFALO, 

28 W. Genesee St. 



DETROIT, 

252 Jefferson St. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

916 Arch St. 

CHICAGO, 

54 State St. 



WASHINGTON, 

427 J Oth St., N,W. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

114 Second St. 



«♦♦«♦♦♦ » +«# + ++ + + 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



129 




FOUNDED? 
•18771 

»nd;*#rOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The goodmhn company, 

123-125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 

Single Copies [Postage Paid] . . . fO^gggs, 

Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscriptions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

BE^* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

1^^ Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, November 6, 1902. 

Less Work; More Pleasure. 

Although occurring on the other side of the 
ocean, the tests of the Touring Club de 
France designed to develop the bicycle or 
bicycles best adapted for touring, are not 
without interest on this side of the pond. 
Making due allowance for the gnat strain- 
ing of the scientific gentlemen who served on 
the committee, their deductions, a full digest 
of which is printed on another page, afford 
much food for reflection. 

The mission of these tests: "To evolve a 
type of bicycle that will diminish the fatigue 
and offer every security and convenience to 
the cyclist and mat will economize his 
forces," strikes to the very root of cycling, 
and if the desire exists that the bicycle ever 
again be more than a mere vehicle of utility, 
the case as epitomed by the French Touring- 
Club must be given serious discussion and 
heed, and nowhere would such considera- 
tion serve better purposes than here. In no 
other country apparently have profits become 
more precarious and enthusiasm sunk so 



low, the former condition doubtless being 
due not a little to the latter. 

As an economical and ever ready vehicle 
to convey the boy to school or the man to 
work, the bicycle probably will forever re- 
main without a peer, and if manufact- 
urers are content that it shall remain in 
this category of humdrum and of limited 
scope and unlimited durability, nothing more 
need be said nor thought be given the sub- 
ject. 

If, however, it is to be lifted out of this 
prosaic rut, it is necessary that more than a 
nut or name plate be altered to awaken new 
interest or renew interest that once existed. 
Passing over the relatively few "century 
lieiKls" and hardy "pluggers," if we turn to 
th£*ens of thousands who once rode and the 
'~as numerous tens of thousands who, still re- 
taining their bicycles of uncertain age, ride 
semi-occasionally, what do we find to be the 
most general indictment of cycling? 
"Too much like work." 
This is but the Americanism for the condi- 
tions which gave rise to the French tests 
to which we refer. The plaint is universal, 
and in France, in England, in Germany 
— everywhere apparently except in these 
United States— is there a disposition to heed 
it and to "diminish the fatigue and econo- 
mize the forces" of the cyclist and thus re- 
tain present interest and arouse that which 
is latent. 

After the first flush of enthusiasm and nov- 
elty has worn off, the fact that cycling en- 
tails manual labor forces itself home. It is 
the exception, unfortunately, and not the 
rule, when heat, hills and head winds do not 
cause discomfort and too much of it. The 
fact is as plain as a pikestaff, but while dis- 
satisfied with their portions American man- 
ufacturers have give it small heed. 

It is the abundant testimony of the makers 
of coaster brakes that those labor saving and 
pleasure promoting devices would have at- 
tained not even a degree of popularity had 
their sponsors awaited the welcome and sup- 
port of bicycle manufacturers; the coaster 
brake people were literally forced to appeal 
to the rider and dealer direct for their suc- 
cess; they owe little to the bicycle makers 
themselves. 

It is the same with variable gears. They 
make for less work and more pleasure. We 
have urged them for no other than that very 
apparent reason, but where in America is 
there more than a shadow of evidence of the 
coming of anything of the sort? In every 
other country on the globe the seed is being 



sown and fruit is already being garnered, 
but here the field is absolutely unfilled. The 
references we have printed to foreign gears 
of the sort have brought us inquiries from 
a dozen different foreign countries for the 
addresses of their makers, coupled with as- 
surances of interest in and demand for such 
devices. At this moment even there has 
come to hand such an inquiry from a large 
Dutch purchaser of and believer in Ameri- 
can goods. He desires American variable 
gears. We must refer him elsewhere, not 
because we so desire, but because we must. 
It was because of the "too much like work" 
plaint that we welcomed and advocated the 
motor bicycle. But with rare exceptions, how 
many American makers with established 
plants and reputations and selling organiza- 
tions have taken it to themselves? While 
abroad practically every maker of note has 
considered it worthy of his attention and 
support and is contributing to its perfection, 
our manufacturers have heard or learned 
that motor bicycles entail "a lot of trouble 
and expense," and perforce they leav« it to 
its fate and to the ministrations of those 
whose resources, again generally speaking, 
are limited or inadequate, and the while 
those who scorn or scoff or hold aloof re- 
main dissatisfied with their lots and won- 
der that the tide turns not. 

The American trade is lacking in enthus- 
iasm, in aggressiveness, in spirit — in the 
nothing venture nothing gain spirit. It seems 
blind solely because it will not see. It has 
seen itself toppled from first place to third 
in the matter of exports. It has seen the 
trade of other countries netting good profits. 
It has seen these trades welcome and sees it 
aiding those things that "lessen the fatigue 
and economize the forces of the cyclist," 
but it makes no move, or only min cing 
moves, to profit by the lessons taught or to 
be learned. 

It may be said that the "burnt child dreads 
the fire." But fire did not burn the Amer- 
ican cycle manufacturer. It was not the 
new things that he added to or put into his 
bicycle that caused his discomfiture. When 
that policy ruled interest was keen and 
profits good. It was a too sudden public 
realization that cycling was "too much like 
work" that was his undoing, and he is doing 
nothing and welcoming nothing that will 
eradicate or lessen the force of the belief. 

Will he ever do so or will he forever 
rest content that the bicycle be considered 
merely an errand carrier and a means of 
saving carfare? 



130 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



About Gas Lamps. 

Westward the course of acetylene has 
made its way, but the effete Bast again is 
unprogressive. Why are eastern riders so 
backward in the use of gas lamps? In the 
West they are in universal use, but through- 
out the middle Atlantic and New England 
States one-half or more of the riders cling 
to the old oil and wick contrivances such as 
:their grandfathers used to find a barn door 
"with at night fifty years ago. 
: This is shown by trade statistics; but what 
excuse can there be for it? Are riders in 
the East less intelligent, or the dealers less 
aggressive, than those in the West, unable 
to manage the acetylene lamp, or afraid of 
it?' It looks like it. 

- Now that gas lamps are about as cheap as 
oil lamps, it is inconceivable why a sensible 
man or woman should be content with the 
light like that of a glow worm on the front 
of a bicycle instead of a broad, bright, mod- 
ern glare. 

The light of a gas lamp is a protection to 
the person who uses it and to all others on 
the highway at the same time. It shows the 
road to the rider and enables him or her to 
avoid what might be dangerous obstacles or 
holes, whereas the oil lamp is only a signal 
and a very poor one at that. The gas lamp 
is a protection to others than the rider, be- 
cause it throws a field of light so broad that 
cyclists approaching from behind can see it, 
which is not true of an oil lamp. 

In view of this, it is not only a comfort 
for oneself, but an obligation to others to 
use a gas lamp. Riders should feel in duty 
bound to "let their light so shine" that 
others might see it when approaching from 
the rear, and dealers should make it their 
duty to convince them of the fact. The oil 
lamp as an illuminator is a delusion. 



The Dealer's False Attitude. 

It becomes plainer every year that the low 
prices tide has run its course, and that a 
steady, even although slight, appreciation 
in values is taking place. 

Go where you will and will hear the same 
story— that buyers place more and more 
faith in the higher grade machines and that 
it becomes easier to turn buyers' thought in 
the desired direction than would have been 
thought possible a year or two ago. 

It is realized by nearly all makers that 
there is no longer any money in the cheap- 
est machines. Competition has brought 
prices down to a figure where even enor- 
mous quantities do not suffice to make the 



balance on the profit side of the ledger a 
large one. Taken in connection with the 
risk, most concerns have come to the con- 
clusion that the game is not worth the 
candle. 

But this circumstance would not of itself 
put an end to, or even greatly lessen, the 
business in cheap machines. 

It needs the companion movement, the 
lessened demand for them, coupled with an 
increased demand for the better class ma- 
chines, to bring about the change. 

It is so easy to get into a rut and so hard 
to get out of it that it took some time for 
the change to come about. Once started in 
the way of selling the cheap stuff, the aver- 
age dealer could with difficulty be persuaded 
that he could sell anything else. Therefore, 
it took longer to make the change than it 
should have done. 

But now that it has been made the law 
of averages and of ruts, if the expression 
may be coined, makes it certain that the tide 
will continue to rise. Once convinced that 
he can sell good wheels, the dealer will take 
heart, and from being a confirmed pessimist 
change of heart. 



A Welcome Change. 

When we reflect upon the comparatively 
small number of serious breakages that hap- 
pen nowadays we cannot but feel gratifica- 
tion, if not surprise. 

Time was, and we nearly all remember it, 
when they were or ordinary occurrence. 
Frames, forks, handle bars, cranks, pedals, 
chains, spokes, rims— all were apt to give 
trouble, and no rider was able to tell when 
his turn was coming. If he escaped for any 
length of time he considered himself lucky, 
while if it were otherwise he viewed the 
matter philosophically, and after the first 
irritation had passed dismissed it from his 
mind. 

It is, of course, only natural that a marked 
improvement should in time take place. 

It would be surprising if years of experi- 
ence with the same type of machine should 
not result in the correction of faults and 
errors, the strengthening of weak points and 
the further improvement of strong ones. To 
merely stand still would be to argue some- 
thing radically wrong in the trade, the pres- 
ence of some insidious disease that fore- 
boded ill. 

But nothing of the kind has taken place. 
The old causes of complaint have been re- 
moved in large part, while new ones have 
failed to develop. 

Machines remain the same in weight, yet 



have been refined by the addition of devices 
that materially improve them; and as these 
features must weigh something it neces- 
sarily follows that there has been a saving 
of weight somewhere to account for the 
non-increase in the gross weight. This be- 
ing so, the problem of strengthening the ma- 
chine as a whole was rendered more diffi- 
cult than ever. 

It will scarcely be disputed, however, that 
difficult as it was, the problem has been 
pretty well solved. 

The crop of accidents that used to mark 
the beginning of each season and to follow 
it until it was very well advanced is now 
conspicuous by its absence. New machines 
stand up better than they ever did, and 
even among the old ones the list of casual- 
ties is shrinking. The claims under guaran- 
tees are no longer large, and the friction 
between rider and dealer, and dealer and 
maker, is much less than formerly. 



Fencing a Landmark. 

There is something going on in Brooklyn 
which, when it is generally known, will 
arouse the ire of all those who frequent 
the Coney Island cycle paths— and there 
are thousands of them— against Park Com- 
missioner Young. Prospect Park is being- 
improved exteriorly by the erection of a 
new iron fence all about it. It is the pres- 
ent plan to continue this fence on the Fort 
Hamilton avenue side all the way down to 
the little granite corner house, so as to fence 
in what is popularly known as The Rest. 

This place has been a bicycling landmark 
for years, and is dear to the hearts of a 
multitude of riders who come from New 
York, as well as from Brooklyn. It is 
located at a place which is a natural breath- 
ing spot. It is just where riders have al- 
ways been in the habit of dismounting for a 
rest after the trip through or around the 
park before beginning the ride down the 
cycle path. It was because cyclists were 
so much in the habit of stopping there and 
because the little stone shelter that sug- 
gests a Grecian temple was not ample 
enough to accommodate them that the then 
Park Commissioner established the Rest by 
placing benches and cycle racks there. 

To abolish this place would be to destroy 
one of the best patronized and most ser- 
viceable accommodations of the park. 

Here is a chance for the Associated Cy- 
cling Clubs to act. Stay the hand of Fence 
Builder Young and preserve one of the most 
valuable attractions of Prospect Park. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



133 



BICYCLES FOR TOURING 



Elaborate and Interesting Tests Designed to 
Evolve Them— The Committee's Report. 



Paris, Oct. 24.— The report of the commit- 
tee which conducted the recent tests pro- 
moted by the Touring Club de France on a 
long and very trying mountainous course in 
the south of France has finally been made 
public, and proves full of interest. The com- 
mittee comprised Professor P. Appel, Profes- 
sor G. Koenigs, M. G. Forestier, General In- 
spector of Roads and Bridges; Commandant 
Ferrus, Captain Perrache and Professor 
Carlo Bourlet. 

In the tests of last year it will be remem- 
bered that the committee aimed at selecting 
a suitable type of "mountain bicycle," when 
they astonished makers and cyclists alike by 
condemning the most popular forms of 
coaster brakes. It is true they were looking 
out for a "mountain bicycle" of a type of 
which not one in a thousand cyclists has any 
special need. Moreover, the coaster brake 
has continued to stand forth as one of the 
biggest and most valuable improvements in 
cycling mechanism, despite the skeptical 
conclusions of the learned professors who 
formed the committee. 

On the present occasion the object of the 
tests was to discover the best type of touring 
machine. While the use of the bicycle has 
enormously increased during the last few 
years, it cannot be overlooked that in this 
country, at least, and probably also in others, 
the practice of touring has not grown to the 
same extent, and may indeed be said to have 
greatly lost in popularity. The fatigue of 
riding long distances when the cyclist is not 
fit is undoubtedly mainly responsible for this 
state of things. The Touring Club have 
therefore aimed at evolving a type of ma- 
chine which will diminish the fatigue and 
offer every convenience and security to the 
cyclist, in the hope that by enabling makers 
to turn out bicycles that will economize the 
forces of the rider they will once more re- 
vive an interest in touring. 

The points presented to manufacturers as 
fulfilling the necessary conditions were as 
follows: Safety and less fatigue down hill; 
moderate efforts on the up grades; comfort- 
able and durable tires, easily inflated and re- 
paired; simple and quick adjustment of 
parts; the fixing of packages on different 
parts of the frame without being interfered 
with by brakes, levers, etc.; facility for get- 
ting any required gear without interfering 
with the practical character of the machine; 
easy lubrication; few tools, but sufficient for 
all purposes; reasonable weight of machine. 
The committee regret that out of the twenty- 
four makers presenting forty-eight machines 
very few made any attempt at fulfilling all 
these conditions. They seem to have been a 
little too sanguine. 

In the way of variable speed gears the 
committee are of the opinion that makers 



have usually not the experience necessary to 
guide them in the selection of gears, the gen- 
eral defect being that the lowest gear is 
much too high, and this is one of the reasons 
why so many riders had to walk such long 
distances on the up grades. The judges seek 
to prove their case by stating that the pro- 
fessional Fischer, on a light bicycle with one 
low gear, after doing a wonderful perform- 
ance from Tarbes to Luz, where the road 
grades up all the way, had to walk a kilo- 
metre up the Tourmalet mountain on the 
second stage, while a lady rode a heavier 
machine the whole way with three changes 
of speed. The comparison is scarcely a fair 
one without taking into account the times, 
for it may be supposed that the speed at 
which Fischer rode on the first stage is the 
reason why he failed to take one of the steep 
hills. Even this, however, still leaves an 
argument in favor of variable gears. 
The French professors are decidedly revo- 



Morgan *WRiGHfIiRES 

ARE GOOD TIRES 



. see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 

no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



New York Branch i 214-216 West 47th 8t«iit. 

lutionary in cycle mechanics. They have 
something to say about the frames, which 
they think are more conventional than ra- 
tional, and the "unwarranted custom" of 
having horizontal upper tubes has the result 
of making the head tubes in small frames in- 
conveniently short. The forks should also 
be larger, to allow of plenty of clearance for 
the tires, so that the tourist may not find 
himself limited to the necessity of having 
light tires on his machine. There should 
also be sufficient distance between the front 
hub and the crank hanger, to prevent any 
possibility of the foot touching the tire or 
mudguard when turning. Out of forty-seven 
bicycles examined twenty-three were found 
defective in this respect. The point is im- 
portant, say the judges, because the tourist 
should always be able to affix ample mud- 
guards. 

Variable speed gears next receive atten- 
tion, and are divided into two classes — one in 
which there are two chains or bevelled gears, 
and the other in which the gears are changed 
by a special mechanism on the satellite or 
similar principle. For convenience these are 



described as "juxtaposed" gears and "super- 
posed" gears, respectively. Of the former 
there were six systems competing on nine 
machines. Of the superposed type there 
were seven systems on twenty-three ma- 
chines, four in the hub and three in the crank 
hanger. The Hub two speed gear was adapt- 
ed to twelve bicycles presented by Clement, 
Gladiator, Simpson and La Frangaise. The 
others were the Terrot, Peugeot and W. F. 
W., in the hub, and the Variand, Lancelot 
and Lecarme et Michel, in the crank hanger. 
The "juxtaposed" gears are regarded by the 
judges to have a great advantage in sim- 
plicity, besides being easily adapted to any 
machine, and the strength and durability of 
the chains or bevelled pinions are of course 
beyond all question. The weight of the addi- 
tional chain and pinions is not of much im- 
portance on touring machines, but a diffi- 
culty lies in an unequal stretching of the 
chains. This is overcome by one manufac- 
turer by making the longer chain in two 
parts, of which one has the same number 
of links as the shorter chain, so that they 
may be changed when desired. The "super- 
posed" type has the advantage of neatness 
and compactness and of running in an oil 
bath, but, say the professors, it has the draw- 
back of complication, so that the cyclist is 
unable to take it to pieces for repairs unless 
he is well acquainted with the mechanism. 
Nevertheless, they admit that in properly 
made gears the risk of derangement is very 
small. Again, it has the inconvenience of 
not giving a sufficiently big ratio between 
the two gears. If the low gear is good for 
steep hills the high gear is quite insufficient 
for the level, and if a high gear is used the 
low one is unsuitable for gradients. In none 
of the satellite gears was the ratio more than 
72 and 46. It is advisable to give a practical 
ratio of gear, if only to compensate for the 
power absorbed by the extra mechanism, 
which varies from 1.5 per cent in the hub 
two speed gear to 3 per cent in the Variand 
hanger gear. 

Bicycles with three and more changes of 
speed were presented by G. Richard, Terrot 
and De Vivie. The Richard has the Variand 
hanger two speed gear, as well as a second 
chain giving a third speed, but this combina- 
tion did not satisfy the judges, who found 
that it presented all the disadvantages of the 
"juxtaposed" and "superposed" types. The 
De Vivie bicycle has three pairs of pinions 
and one chain, with an easily disconnected 
link, so that it may be placed on one or the 
other pinions, as required. This pottering 
about with the chain is of course quite im- 
practicable, and the judges recognize that its 
only merit is to show the advantages of 
variable gearing. The chain and multiple 
sprockets must give way to gears which can 
be instantaneously changed while riding. 
Terrot, of Dijon, was regarded as having 
solved the problem in the most practical 
manner by using two chains and four sprock- 
ets. Before starting out for his ride the 
cyclist selects the two gears which are likely 
to be the most suitable, and is able to change 
them as required. It will be seen that the 



J 34 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



judged liave not committed themselves to 
one or the other type of gear, but have 
awarded a gold medal to Terrot because his 
four speed gear is at present the simplest 
and most practical for the tourist. The only 
objection they can raise against the hub gear 
is that the ratio is not sufficiently high. This, 
however, is a matter of personal convenience, 
and the learned professors can hardly expect 
to lay down the law for the general guidance 
of cyclists. Though the judges ^ave given 
the highest award for the double chain, this 
is not likely to popularize a system which is 
bound to be ousted off the market by 'the hub 
gear. 

Among coaster brakes the judges have 
found that the ratchet type was alone effi- 
cient in the tests, and all the roller and other 
systems failed to go through the ordeal. The 
committee, however, regret that makers have 
not profited from the experience of the pre- 
vious tests to alter the section of rims to 
permit of larger tires being used as well as 
of securing a better contact for the rim 
brakes, and makers have also neglected to 
interpose a non-conducting material between 
the rim and the tire so as to avoid any de- 
terioration of the rubber from the heat while 
coasting down long gradients. The only 
means of diminishing the risk of punctures 
is to employ thick air tubes, but as a punc- 
ture proof tire cannot be made without sac- 
rificing resiliency, the judges think that spe- 
cial attention should be given to facilities for 
removing the tires. All the bicycles had two 



rim brakes, and the judges have done little 
more than repeat their recommendations of 
last year. The front brake is an emergency 
brake, which is used for stopping the bi- 
cycle in the shortest possible distance, and 
the rear brake, having a progressive action, 
is chiefly used for coasting, and some makers 
fix it at any pressure for riding down long 
grades by means of a lever notching into a 
toothed sector. We may add that rim brakes 
are being universally adopted over here, ex- 
cept, of course, in the case of free wheels 
with internal brakes, and even with these 
machines a strong effort is being made to 
induce cyclists to have a rim brake on the 
front wheel. This is a point that American 
firms cannot afford to overlook. 

It is significant that many American 
structural features are commended by the 
learned professors as if they were novelties. 
Thus one maker is favorably noted for his 
hangers and fork crowns stamped out of 
sheet steel, and another for his adjustable 
handle bars, while the Manufacture d'Armes 
de Saint-Etienne" had a pedal to which any 
width could be given. 

About a year ago Captain Perrache gave 
a great deal of prominence to a new type 
of machine with which gradients are mount- 
ed by back pedalling, this being done by 
means of a secondary pinion which reduces 
the gear at the same time that a much 
greater power is exerted on the pedals. The- 
oretically this would seem to be a decided 
advantage, because in back pedalling the 



whole weight of the rider is on the pedals, 
and, moreover, the dead centre is overcome 
by the fact that the down pedal is pushed 
beyond the vertical line through the axis of 
the hanger at the moment the weight of the 
body is exerted on the up pedal. It is also 
claimed that back pedalling brings into play 
the stronger muscles of the thighs, and that 
steep gradients can be mounted without any 
difficulty. It is apparently not easy at first 
to ride bicycles in this way, but during the 
tests a rider who had only been using a 
bicycle of this type for six weeks climbed the 
Tourmalet Mountain without stopping, and 
altogether the results showed that the system 
is at least worthy of careful experiment. As 
four back pedalling machines were entered 
it is evident that French makers are begin- 
ning to give some attention to this type of 
bicycle. 

Springlike November. 

"Did you ever see such weather in No- 
vember?" exclaimed a well-known Brook- 
lyn dealer, as he saw the Bicycling World 
man approach. "It is absolutely flawless. 
No one could ask for anything more ideal. 

"And to see the way it is bringing the 
riders out is amazing," he went on. "I 
never knew anything like it except on a 
fine day in early spring. They have been 
pouring in here in one steady stream all 
day, each one wanting his little job done 
right off. It has kept us on the jump, I 
can tell you," and he turned to answer the 
inquiry of another customer. 



FEW MANUFACTURERS CHANGE 

an article when it is giving satisfaction. Change 
for the sake of change is no longer the rule. 

The Forsyth of 1902 



AND 



l MEM. PEKWH 



The Forsyth of 1903 

ARE IDENTICAL. 



We knew it had given general satisfaction but we honestly tried to discover if 
improvement was possible. We failed and we therefore again offer the same coaster 
brake, unchanged in any detail, and offer that as the best reason why it should 
commend itself to all who seek a time tried and reliable article. 



PRICES AND PARTICULARS ON REQUEST. 



FORSYTH HANUFACTURING COHPANY, Buffalo, N. Y. 



■^■^-^-■^--^■■^■■^■■^■■^-■^■■^■■^-■^ 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



B5 



FIRST FOR MOTOCYCLES 



Century Run That Developed Weak Spots 
and Proved Utility of Trailers. 



They had drifted to the days of auld lang 
syne, and soon dropped into reminiscences. 
Some one mentioned the Star, and a former 
knight of the levers straightway began to 
sing its praises. 

"You must admit, however," put in a for- 
mer strenuous advocate of the 'ordinary,' 
"that while it was all right on a very steep 
or rough hill it was just the reverse on a 
long, smooth one without much rise to it. 
I remember that we wanted nothing better 
than to catch one of you fellows on such 
a hill, and then, plunge as you might on 
the levers, we had no trouble in running 
away from you." 

"Well, that beats me," returned the Star 
man. "I never saw any such going on. 
There wasn't a man on an 'ordinary' that 
could run away from me up any kind of a 
hill. In fact, that was just where I wanted 
to get my man. and it did not take him long 
to know it. If you ran away from Star 
riders up hill they must have been of the 
'lobster' variety.' 

"Maybe they were and maybe not," re- 
turned his antagonist. "But that brings up 
another fact; that is, that while about one 
out of ten Star riders were 'crackerjacks' 
the other nine were generally 'lobsetrs.' 

"We used to say that Star riders were 
born, not made. There was no finer sight 
than a good Star rider. He was a hard one 
to beat anywhere. When they came to try 
it themselves they found out their mistake. 
But they were usually spoiled for 'ordinary' 
riders, and so they remained to cast dis- 
credit on the machine they rode." 



Matthews's Fittings for 1903. 

Some commendable features in head 
pieces, clips, ball cases, lugs, crowns and 
rear fork ends are to be found in the com- 
prehensive line of forged and stamped parts 
being turned out for 1903 by the always 
dependable H. A. Matthews Manufacturing 
Company, of Seymour, Conn. 

There is now nothing in the line of frames 
and frame parts that this concern does not 
make, and the known high quality of its 
products gives it an ever widening field of 
patronage. The company has just issued its 
catalogue No. 3, with two supplements, and 
together they present a line that cannot 
fail to interest every manufacturer, big and 
little. A one-piece crown, a new adjustable 
headpiece, a special crank hanger and sev- 
eral varieties of ball cases for front and 
rear hubs and crank hangers are among 
the additions to its list. 



Here's a Powerful Pump. 

A newly patented pump for pneumatic 
tires that seems to promise relief in cases 
where a foot pump is necessary is an Eng- 
lish invention, but patented in the United 
States as well as Great Britain, and which 
is due to make its appearance in this coun- 
try; it is shown by the accompanying illus- 
tration. It goes a step beyond the double- 
action pump, and, as its name implies, is a 
compound article. It has two cylinders or 
barrels, one an inch and a quarter in di- 
ameter and the other two inches. Both bar- 
rels are nineteen inches long and the total 
length of the pump, including a double 



PASSING OF BARGAINS 



Buyers Find it Hard to Appreciate New 
Conditions — Demand for Second=hands. 




"Inclosed is check for the renewal of my 
subscription. I can assure you that it is a 
pleasure to receive the Bicycling World 
each week."— (H. A. Testard, New Orleans, 
La. 



handle and a double foot rest, is twenty- 
three inches. 

On the up stroke air is compressed from 
the larger cylinder into the smaller and the 
down stroke forces this compressed air 
from the smaller barrel into the tire, where 
it expands. One who has tried it says that 
an entirely flat tire can be inflated with 
three strokes. The pumps are made for mo- 
tor vehicle tires as well as for bicycles by 
Hattersley & Davidson, Sheffield, England, 
and the manufacturers warn those using that 
that old and weak tires will be quickly 
burst unless care is used with this pump, 
so quickly does it furnish high pressure. 

Alex. Schwalbach, of 473 Flatbush 
avenue, Brooklyn, has acquired the American 
rights and is the sole agent for the United 
States. 

To Reduce Belt Troubles. 

Of the troubles to which motor bicycles are 
heir, belt slippings and belt breakages are 
conspicuous in the category. That one so 
zealously interested in motocycle advance- 
ment as E. H. Corson, manager of the Auto- 
mobile and Motor Cycle Co., Boston, should 
seek to less the evil is a mere matter of 
course. Corsou applied himself to the task 
with characteristic energy, and the result is 
the "Kantstretch" belt and "Holmefast" belt 
dressing, both of his origination. The belt 
is one that Corson affirms will make happy 
an motocyclist who has suffered from belt 
troubles, and his facilities are such that he 
will make them to order to fit any pulley. 
The "Kantstretch" has already so deeply im- 
pressed two manufacturers of motor bicycles 
that it is likely they will adopt it as their 
1903 equipment. 



"It is peculiar that a condition which Is 
making matters difficult for us just now is 
precisely what we are chiefly counting on to 
make business good next year," said a down 
town retailer the other day. "This is the 
fact that old stocks, both new and second- 
hand, are well cleaned up." He continued: 

"Because of this there never was a fall 
when the outlook for the coming season was 
brighter. On the other hand, there is not 
a day but what I am called upon for some 
of the second-hand and old wheels of last 
year and other years such as I was selling at 
low prices in the spring. When I tell the 
people that there are no more to be had it 
is a hard job to sell them anything else. 
They want something at a very small price 
and do not realize that the time had to come 
when the old stock would be exhausted. I 
mean the genuine great bargains that were 
thrown on the market by the closing up of 
several factories, strictly high-grade wheels 
that were sold as cheaply as job lot trash. 
It will take some time perhaps for the know- 
ing riders who want strictly first-class bi- 
cycles to realize that they can't get them at 
half rates any longer, but when they do ap- 
preciate it business will be more like it was 
in the old days. The demand for the bar- 
gains I had really bothers me now, for I can 
hardly offer a 1902 model as a substitute, 
but I am content, because I know that the 
demand exists for top-notch wheels and that 
there will be plenty of business in the 
spring." 



Rims That Cause Tire Trouble. 

"Time and again during the past two 
years I have noticed how numerous are rim 
chafed tires," writes G. N. Rogers, the vet- 
eran Schenectady dealer, "the principal 
cause being the insufficient depth to the him. 

"When we' used 1% and 2 inch ures there 
was so much stock in the rims that the size 
of the valve. hole made little difference. 

"But this and last season, with the call for 
tires from V-/± to 1% inches, and a rim to cor- 
respond, the tire men have left the valve 
stems the same size, and the rim makers 
have brought out a rim with depth in propor- 
tion to circle. The outcome is that the rim 
flattens between spokes on each side of valve 
hole; the tire draws away and chafes. 

"Fully twenty per cent, of tires changed 
we find chafed more or less, and most of the 
valve holes are almost oval. 

"The only remedy I can suggest is to in- 
crease the depth of the rim at least % or 5-32 
of an inch, to strengthen the rim at its now 
weakest part." 

"The A. B. C. of Electricity" will aid you 
in understanding many things about motor 
bicycles that may now seem hard of under- 
standing. Price 50 cents. The Goodman Co., 
154 Nassau street, New York. •*• 



136 



V I»»^ Mn illll »M I »lM ^ ^>U I M WIWWWII»W<<^ 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 



1903^ 

Samples 

Ready 




®$M®$ 



l^y «^y ^^»^^* 



MGGS-SPENCEB COMPANY 

MANUFACTURERS 

Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A. 




mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm H mmmmmmmmmmmimm¥^ 



H. P. WELLS, 
Light Running Carriages. 

Amesbury, Mass., Oct. JO, 1902. 

THE H. A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 
Gentlemen: — I have given your cones 
rather a severe test by using them on a steel 
tire wagon, and they proved all right. Please 
send me, etc. 

Yours truly, H. P. WELLS. 



We make Cups and Cones, Connections, Head 

Sets ; in fact, most everything just 

as good as the cones. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



THE H. A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 

SEYMOUR, CONNECTICUT, U. S. A. 











" The King's Highway." 




TO THE 

GATEWAYS OF COMMERCE 


THROUGH THE 
CENTERS OF POPULATION, 


adding greatly to the interest of your 
journey, without increasing its expense 
beyond what you would expect to pay 
for the "best," which you secure if you 
travel by the 

NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES. 

A copy of " Four-Track Series" No. 13, "Urban 
Population in 10.00," will be sent free, on receipt of 
a two-cent stamp, by George H. Daniels, General 
Passenger Agent, New York Central & Hudson 
River R. R., Grand Central Station, New York. 









THE BICYCLING WORLD 



137 



JAPAN THE BRIGHT SPOT 



September Proves Anew That Country's 
Regard for American Bicycles. 



September, like August, proved auspicious 
in the matter of cycle exports, developing 
an increase of some $37,000 over September 
of last year, and again Japan proved the 
biggest buyer; the Flowery Empire increased 
its purchases more than threefold. Africa 
is the other most conspicuous country on the 
right side. France, "other Europe," Austra- 
lia, Mexico and British North America were 
also in the column of gains which were not, 
however, particularly large. 

In the table of losses England is most 
prominent. Only in the Netherlands, China 
and the East Indies were there other mate- 
rial decreases. 

The record for the nine months shows 
some satisfactory strides and an increased 
total, which makes it appear that Japan is 
not unlikely to prove our best customer te- 
fore the year closes. 

The record in detail follows: 



Where Care Counts. 

With regard to the breaking of front forks 
or other parts of a bicycle, William E. Fon- 
taine, secretary and treasurer of the Alpha 
Motor Cycle Club, of Brooklyn, last week re- 
marked to a Bicycling World man: 

"Unless there is a hidden flaw inside the 
metal of a machine which cannot be detected 
by sounding it or by putting a strain on it, 
I think a rider is himself to blame when his 
machine breaks on a smooth road without 
having hit any obstruction. There are few 
flaws than cannot be detected by a thorough 
examination. When I got my motor bicycle 
I took out the forks and jumped on them. 
A good repair man and myself then went 
over every part of the frame and the wheels 
and tested all by sounding the tubing, 
bouncing on different places, pulling and so 
on. And there is not a time when I go out 
now that my machine is not gone over thor- 
oughly before I start. I try every part, or 
my repair man does, to see if any crack has 
developed or any brazing has loosened. The 
wheels and handlebars are tested and every 
nut is tried. Careful riders did this with the 
common bicycle years ago. There is more 
reason for doing it with a motor bicycle. 



NOT ALL DEAD YET 



Exports to — 

United Kingdom 

Belgium* 

France 

Germany 

Italy* 

Netherlands* 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Cen. Am. States, Br. Honduras. 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Porto Bicot 

Other W. Indies and Bermuda. 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

A r enezuelat 

Other South American 

Chinese Empire 

British East Indies 

Hongkong 

Japan 

British Australasia 

Hawaiit 

Philippine Islands 

Other Asia and Oceania 

British Africa 

All other Africa 

Other countries 



1901 

Values. 
29,462 
1,120 
4,993 
5,577 
1,406 
9,256 
5,635 
6,634 
508 
1,144 
1,345 

3,210 

218 

618 

70 

52 

2,464 

3,462 

- 6,606 

440 

15,317 

18,278 

130 
2,106 

8,085 



September- 



Totals 



128,136 



1902 

Values. 

18,315 

1,244 

7,737 

3,739 

1,243 

1,511 

8,911 

7,776 

91 

2,349 

146 

2,748 

695 

1,012 

5 

43 

1,388 

640 

3,486 

510 

52,180 

19,294 

2,029 

2,707 

20,714 

475 



Nine months 
1900 ] 
Values. | 
393,104 



174,391 
315,710 



585,582 
345,350 

1,600 
11,516 
63,898 

1,461 
35,907 
68,297 
15,392 

3,421 

32,967 

17,966 

48,567 

6,446 

213,079 

169,468 

32,473 

43,004 

21,266 

46,101 
417 



ending September- 



1901 

Values. 

412.S31 

27,647 
175,677 
175,933 

40,858 

125,587 

243,429 

276,027 

4,242 

17,780 
9,58S 

38,857 

4.980 

5,046 

645 

1,358 

21,263 

46,293 

45,326 

3,253 

189,249 

144,570 

26,360 

16,849 

55,684 

5,441 

282 



160,986 2,647,383 2,115,055 2,15S,465 



1902 

Values. 

344,488 

40,580 

161,163 

237,045 

56,710 

123,458 

257,926 

152,939 

2,224 

20,667 

9,536 

37,655 

6,384 

5,058 

745 

352 

15,171 

i;::.i;i;s 

40,926 

4,807 

322,204 

163,691 

13,755 

22,207 

88.893 

6,241 

12 



•Included in "Other Europe" prior to January, 1901. tNow American possessions, 
tlncluded in "Other South America" prior to January, 1901. 



Nearly 47 Inside the Hour. 

The hour record has been given another 
boost in the direction of the once thought 
impossible but now coveted fifty miles. The 
last effort stands to the credit of the French- 
man, Contenet, who, on Oct. 24, on the Pare 
des Princes track, Paris, covered 75 kilome- 
tres, 492 metres (46 miles 1,605 yards) in the 
sixty minutes, 240 yards better than Mi- 
chael's sensational performance. The per- 
formance is the more remarkable because 
Contenet was compelled to dismount and 
obtain a new wheel before the expiration 
of the hour. 



Every rider should do just as I do. It does 
not cost anything except a little time, and it 
may save a limb or a life. Some jolt or 
strain experienced during a ride may be 
thought little of at the time, yet may have 
started the brazing in some place, caused a 
buckling or a slight crack. You cannot tell 
unless you look. Everyone who values his 
health will look and will look frequently." 



An Instance Proving That Riders who Know 
What 1 hey Want Still Exist. 



In these days of many slipshod and ig- 
norant riders it was a goodly thing to watch 
and listen to a man worth millions who went 
into a store to buy a bicycle the other day. 
It made plain the fact that stylish, sensible 
and mechanically well informed riders are 
yet to be found. This man knew what he 
wanted, why he wanted it and how to order 
it. 

When he walked in the door he took off 
his coat and laid it down. It was plain that 
he meant business. He was a tall man, about 
six foot one inch in height, with legs and 
arms of proportionate length. He plunged 
right into his subject, saying: 

"Now, I want a new twenty-six-inch bi- 
cycle, but I don't want it the way you build 
them. The trouble is when you carry out the 
lines of your wheel as they are up to twenty- 
six inches height and retain wheels of twen- 
ty-eight inches diameter, you cramp the 
space between the saddle and tie handle- 
bars, because of the head having a greater 
rake backward than the diagonal tube. If 
you carried both of them on their individual 
angles up far enough they would meet. This 
is all wrong, because a man who wants a 
twenty-six-inch frame usually has long arms 
and he doesn't want to be cramped up with 
his arms akimbo. A twenty-six-inch frame 
requires a longer wheel base than one of 
twenty-two or twenty-four inches. 

"I want you to build me one and change 
the rake of the strut, give me a longer wheel 
base and put in thirty-inch wheels." 

The knowing customer then went on to 
specify the details in inches and to nominate 
the accessories be wanted. In almost every 
particular of tires, saddles and handlebars 
he had some idea of his own that he wanted 
earned out. In spite of this he was a good 
customer to wait on, according to the man- 
ager, more especially as he was willing to 
pay for all the trouble. 



"How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." $1. The 
Goodman Co., Box 649, New York. •** 



Mc Callister to his Son. 

William McCallister, president of the 
Baltimore Motorcycle Club, started last 
Sunday for a trip on his motor bicycle from 
Baltimore to Philadelphia by way of York, 
Pa. His son in Baltimore received from 
him on election day the following letter, 
sent from Lancaster: 

"Arrived in good shape at 5 p. m. to-day. 
Left Druid Hill Park at 10 a. m., so you see 
I have ridden 100 miles in seven hours. My 
riding time was as follows: Arrived at 
Westminster at 11.35; Hanover, Pa., 1 p. m. ; 
took one hour for dnner and left Hanover 
at 2 p. m.; arrived at Columbia, Pa., at 4 
p. m., and Lancaster at 5 p. m. My actual 
riding time was six hours. Had the best 
of luck — not an accident, and only one stop 
of a few seconds by reason of the contact 
screw working loose. I am now 6S miles 
from Philadelphia, and will pass through 
Parksburg, Dowington and Paoli. The roads 
are In very best of condition. 



138 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



RACING 



Three snappy contests served to wind up 
the cycling racing season at Vailsburg, No- 
vember 2, something over a thousand peo- 
ple being present. The feature of the after- 
noon was the match race between H. Free- 
man and F. Krebs. The conditions called 
for the best two in three half-mile heats. 
In the first heat Freeman wonb y half a 
length in 1.21 1-5; in the second Krebs cut 
across Freeman and the latter, believing 
himself fouled, sat up Krebs, winning in 
2.12 3-5. The final heat was exciting from 
the start. The riders jockeyed for position, 
and entering the stretch Krebs had the 
best of the argument. In the last yard 'or 
two Freeman managed to get up, and they 
crossed the line so close together that the 
spectators thought it a. dead heat. The 
judges, however, gave the decision to Free- 
man. Time, 1.50. 

In the twenty-mile event for amateurs, A. 
Beyerman won both the lap prize and the 
race. After securing a majority of the laps 
he dropped back into last position, but on 
the next to last lap he went around the field 
again and gained an adavantage that landed 
him a winner. C. L. Hollister finished sec- 
ond, J. E. Ac-horn got third and George Glas- 
son fourth. Time, 54.21 4-5. 

Schlee beat out Glasson in the sprint for 
the ten-mile prize. The three cornered ama- 
teur team match race, best two in three, 



one mile heats, was won by Glasson and 
Billington in easy fashion. Achorn and 
Hollister got second and Schlee and Lanes 
third. Time of first heat, 2.36; second, 2.52. 



What was to have been a case of make 
or break — make a record or break a neck — 
fizzled out on Wednesday afternoon. John 
Ruel, the professional pacemaking rider, 
thought he could ride his Soncin four horse- 
power motor bicycle down the Singac Hill, 
near Montclair, N. J., in something less than 
fifty seconds. A party of timers, racing- 
men, newspaper reporters and N. C. A. of- 
ficials went out to see him do it. The course 
selected is a straightaway, and for two- 
thirds of the distance there is a 7 per cent 
grade. The finish is on a very slight up 
grade. Ruel tried, but did not try again. He 
made the mile in 1:19, and then they all 
went home. The record is 1:10 2-5, made by 
C. H. Metz on Staten Island, May 31. 



After his sensational reappearance on 
which occasion he upset the hour record, 
Michael is said to have become lax in the 
matter of training, and when they met for 
the second time in Paris on October 19, 
Elkes had no trouble in giving him a de- 
cisive drubbing. It happened in a fifty- 
mile paced race, in which, in addition to 
the other two, Contenet, Ryser and Jacque- 
lin started. Elkins had no trouble in win- 
ning, beating- Michael by nearly a mile, who 
probably owed second place to Contenet's 



pacing trouble. Time, 1:09:03 3-5. Jacquelin 
did not finish. 

C. Duestes, who the Sunday previous won 
the organization's 100-mile handicap road 
race, captured both of the shorter events 
run by the Century Road Club Association 
on Sunday last on the road near Valley 
Stream, L. I.— the 2-mile handicap from the 
the 45-second mark in 5.30 and the 15-mile 
with 30 seconds handicap in 44.55. H. R. 
Strauss (.45) was second in the first event 
and P. Reninger (1.30) in the second. 



As the result of his Baltimore spill Benny 
Munro, the Tennessee pace follower, has 
a couple of places in his head where there 
is no skull bone and the brains lie next to 
the scalp. He will wear a leather cap here- 
after whenever he goes on the track. 



Some of Frank L. Kramer's last season's 
winnings have been invested in an automo- 
bile. While the champion has no intention 
of abandoning the cycle track, he is quite 
enthusiastic over his new acquisition. 



Advices from Paris state that Harry 
Elkes, while racing against Jimmy Michael 
at the Pare des Princes track there on 
November 1, had a fall and was severely 
but not seriously hurt. 



"Good Old Eddie" Bald won a race from 
scratch at the Pare de Princes track, Paris, 
last Sunday. The distance was 1,458 yards. 
Bald's time was 2.33 '1-5. 



Jobbers, Dealers -' Users of Bicycles 

SHOULD INSIST ON HAVING 

" Diamond E " Spokes 

They represent the highest development of the art of spoke manufacture, and 
for years have given the Lest of satisfaction. All reputable manu- 
facturers of bicycles equip their wheels with them. 

NONE GENUINE UNLESS STAMPED WITH THIS TRADE-MARK: 



TRADE 




MARK 



| STANDARD SPOKE & NIPPLE CO.,Torrington,Conn.,U.S.A. 1 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



139 



ELECTRIC IGNITION 



Its Difficulties and Some Hints as to how 
Best to Avoid Them. 



No feature in the manufacture of gasolene 
motors is of greater importance, or causes 
more trouble than electric ignition. The 
fact that electricity is so little understood 
by the majority of mechanics handling this 
class of work is of itself one of the funda- 
mental reasons for trouble arising. But 
even to those having a knowledge of elec- 
trical appliances troubles come just the 
same, and in many instances can be traced 
to the fact that electric current cannot tie 
seen— followed with the eye as can gasolene 
and steam. 

When once a general idea of the workings 
of electricity is secured, and the conditions 
necessary for attaining satisfactory results 
are understood, there is still trouble in pro- 
ducing a construction suitable to the work 
and which will remain so in continuous ser- 
vice. 

It is well to look first to the apparatus pro- 
vided for making and breaking the circuit 
in which it is absolutely necessary the in- 
sulation must be perfect. The insulation of 
parts depends on the number of terminals 
used on the coil, and it is a wise precaution- 
ary measure to make it with coil connections 
in mind. Unless this be done it is likely to 
cause some trouble and to puzzle the builder 
who is working on the theory that a gaso- 
lene motor is an easy thing to make. 

Perfect insulation having been secured, 
however, attention should be given to the 
size and kind of coils, plugs and batteries 
to be used. All of these bear a relation to 
one another that make a correct under- 
standing of all of them essential. 

The plug should be as large as possible, 
and space permits, and the insulation pref- 
rably of porcelain or mica, although when 
the latter is used great care must be taken 
that it does not come in contact with the 
steel shell of the plug, else short circuiting 
is likely to occur. 

Lava, or in reality, talc, has been used, 
but it is porous to a certain extent, absorbs 
moisture and is likely to short circuit in 
time. Porcelain, on the other hand, when 
properly glazed, will give the best results 
and when properly fitted will not crack 
under heat. This is an important feature 
and should not be lost sight of, for should a 
plug fail when on the road it is a case of 
walk or "tow" home, unless an extra one 
be handy. 

Coils, like all else, must be properly made. 
The insulation must be perfect and the 
quantity, size and proportion of wire must 
be right to give satisfactory result and to 
use the minimum amount of battery power. 
This last feature will be readily appre- 
ciated inasmuch as the replacing of batter- 
ies becomes a serious problem, , 



Where an economical coil is provided it is 
serious enough, but where a coil or coils are 
used in which the consumption is extrava- 
gant, the situation assumes a larger con- 
dition. On motor bicycles it behoves the 
builder to look well to his construction from 
an economical point of view in energy con- 
sumed, not in first cost of material. 

First cost is probably responsible for more 
errors in building motors, and retards ad- 
vancement more than any other one thing, 
and is found to play an important part in 
the purchase of almost every pavt, no matter 
what the type may be. The successful 
builders of to-day are those who have passed 
through or would have none of the cheap 
stage, and are now building with the best 
goods obtainable, regardless of the cost. 

Batteries are bought in the cheapest mar- 
ket and are given the least attention by 
many, because they have not passed through 
that trouble commonly known as experience. 
In time they are given greater thought, and 
then it is that the economy above mentioned 
begins to play an important part. 

It is a fact that some makers of otherwise 
good motor bicycles are having trouble with 
batteries and yet do not look for the cause 
In the large consumption daily going on 
through the coil. They know they secure a 
good, hot spark, but not thoroughly under- 
standing the principle of coil construction, 
never dream for a moment that therein lies 
the source of trouble. They continue usiug 
batteries, trying all kinds, and still seem to 
make little progress, 

A hint, taken early, will save considerable 
expense, worry and trouble, and will enable 
more rapid production and, therefore, more 
rapid advancement of the industry. 

First, see to the make and break. When 
satisfied as to that, select plugs, coils and 
batteries that have proven the most highly 
efficient— best by test and continuous usage- 
even though the price is a little in advance 
of others obtainable. Then you may rest 
assured the chances are A 1 for getting re- 
sults at once, and results that will prove 
satisfactory all round. 



Substitute for Case Hardening. 

"Most people are familiar with the coarse, 
pebbly grain of case-hardened steel, especial- 
ly those who ride bicycles and who have 
been so unfortunate as to have had a case- 
hardened bearing break when out on the 
road,'' says "Sparks." 

"The ease-hardening process is one that 
imparts carbon to the surface of steel, and 
if this element penetrates to any depth and 
the hot piece is cooled in a bath, the large 
grain, due to the highest heat the piece has 
received, is 'fixed' by the bath; and where 
the grain is coarse the piece is weak. Fine 
grain, on the other hand, gives density and 
strength. 

"A piece of case-hardened steel should be 
treated just the same as a piece of fine tool 
steel that is intended to harden. 

"After the carbon has penetrated the steel 
by the usual case-hardening process, the 
piece, if not intended to be mottled, or to 
be preserved in outside finish, should be al- 
lowed to cool until entirely cold, after which 
it should be heated evenly and carefully 
to a low hardening heat — a heat a trifle low- 
er than that required for tool steel of me- 
dium carbon— and then it should be cooled 
rapidly in the bath. This will usually give 
a refined, strong grain. 

"The only advantage in a case-hardened 
piece so treated, over a piece of high-carbon 
steel, regularly hardened, is that the case- 
hardened piece has a soft cntre; we are 
spaking of a journal bearing. Steel makers 
now provide stoft-back die steel with a face 
of high carbon material, and soft-back and 
scft-centre plow and vault steel, the latter 
having the advantage of possessing two 
hard faces. 

"It is somewhat surprising that this ma- 
terial has not come into larger use in places 
where case-hardened steel is indicated." 



"The Motor: What It Is and How It 
Works." See "Motocycles and How to Man- 
age Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 649, 
New York. *** 



ti 



THE "CORSON" MOTOR CYCLE STAND. 



Price, $5.00, 

F. O. B. 

An absolute ne- 
cessity to every 
user of a Motor 
Cycle as a holder 
for cleaning, ad- 
justing and test- 
ing mixture and 
ignition. 

Guaranteed to 
hold machine and 
rider with motor 
running. 




NO MORE STRETCHING OR SLIPPING OF BELTS, THE BANE TO MOTOR CYCLING. 

THE CORSON "KANTSTRETCH" BELT. 

The " KANTSTRETCH " belt is guaranteed not to STRETCH or SLIP and to be impervious to water, if kept clean 
and dressed occasionally with " Holmefast " belt dressing. Belts made to order to fit any motor cycle. 
Prices quoted on application, giving shape, size and length of belt wanted. 

AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR CYCLE COMPANY, 

t.H. CORSON, Manager. . Office; Pope Building, 221 Columbus Ave., Room 22, BOSTON. 



140 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Nuisance of the Dog. 

"There is no mistake about the fact that 
dogs are> a holy terror to all motorists, big 
or little. It is, of course, more dangerous 
for cyclists than for any other kind of mo- 
torists, because the equilibrium of their ma- 
chines is so much more likely to be upset," 
says one who has had experience. 

"Dogs seem to have grown more indulgent 
to the ordinary cyclist, and to have evolved, 
so to speak, a superior system of manners 
to pedallers generally, though they are still 
a source of great discomfort. But the man- 
ner in which the majority of them will 'go' 
for motor cyclists is a real drawback to the 
pleasures of that class of sport. 

"It will probably offend the feelings of 
the ultra sensitive and oftentimes very fool- 
ish dog lovers to say so, but there certainly 
should be a law to prevent every cur bark- 
ing at you when motor cycling. For though 
some of those who have never been victim- 
ized may laugh at the peril— as it is the na- 
ture of a good many ignorant people to do — 
and the horrible nuisance of every 'puppy, 
whelp, and hound, and dogs of low degree,' 
yelping and snarling and charging recklessly 
about in the path of the motorist or cyclist, 
it should not be forgotten that if human 
beings were capable of the same sort of 
thing and did it, they would have to pay the 
penalty. 

"It is all very well to say that the dear 
dog should have his liberty, and that it 
would be a sin and a shame to keep him off 
the roads; what about the humans, for 
whom the highways are primarily intended? 
I have as much respect for 'the friend of 
man' as anybody can possibly have, and ad- 
mire them as greatly as their perrervid lov- 
ers; but no stoppabie nuisances should be 
permitted on our roads. 

"It seems to me that drastic methods are 
necessary concerning dogs. If the owners 
were made to pay smartly for their eaniue 
friend's pranks, intentional or otherwise, 
there would very soon be a diminution of 
the evil." 



The End of old Stocks. 

How true it is that the old stocks of 1900 
and 1901 and the odds and ends are quite 
cleaned up is indicated by the fact that E. J. 
Willis, of the Park Row Cycle Company, 
took in a lot of seventy bicycles which repre- 
sented the last of the "left overs" of the 
American Cycle Manufacturing Company. 
Seeing a truck load of new machines, or 
rather frames and wheels minus saddles, 
tires and handlebars, going into the busy 
store at 29 Park Row, a Bicycling World 
man went in to inquire what they were. 
Said the enterprising proprietor: 

"These are the very last of the A. B. C. 
odds and ends. It is the clean up of every 
old part, and I cannot buy any- more from 
that combination after this I am told." 



An Idea in Pulleys. 

While the assertion may be accepted with 
some reservation, the motor pulley shown 
by the accompanying illustration is claimed 
to afford "as positive a grip as a chain 
drive"; it is a foreign creation, of course. 




The pulley is V-shaped and takes either a 
round or V belt. The sides of the pulley are 
grooved with dovetailed slots, in which com- 
pressed leather blocks are inserted. The 
bottom of the pulley is also of leather. 



Hanger for flotor Bicycles. 

The Park City Manufacturing Company, of 
Chicago, whose D. & J. crankhanger has 
earned for itself a reputation that is not to be 




denied, have brought out a hanger specially 
designed for motor bicycles which is shown 
by the accompanying illustration. It is con- 




Front forks with the minimum of rake 
make for the maximum of vibration and 
Dumpiness. 



structed on the same general principle as 
their other hanger but with regard to the 
heavier work for which it is intended. With 
a tread varying from 5*4 to 6 inches it obvi- 
ates the necessity of bending cranks and 
tubing to give working space to all parts of 
the motoeycle. The bracket is made in- dif- 
ferent angles to suit the position of engine. 



The Week's Patents. 

711.005. Carburetter. George M. Scheb- 
ler, Indianapolis, Ind. Filed April 21, 1902. 
Serial No. 103,875. (No model). 

Claim.— 1. In a carburetter, the combina- 
tion, with a reservoir whose shape is such 
that a uniform volume of liquid contained in 
its bottom may be defined by any one of a 
plurality of surface planes having substan- 
tially the same point of intersection, of a 
discharge-nozzle communicating with the 
reservoir and the discharge-outlet of which 
lies substantially at the point of intersection 
aforesaid, an air-pipe into which the said 
discharge-outlet of the nozzle leads, means 
for controlling the flow of liquid through the 
nozzle, and means for maintaining a sub- 
stantially constant volume of liquid in the 
reservoir. 

712,048. Liquid Brake. Sigismondo Dia- 
mant and Carlo Margoni, Triest, Austria- 
Hungary. Filed Oct. 1, 1900. Serial No. 
31,645. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a liquid brake, the combina- 
tion with a closed cylindrical casing of a 
screw rotably arranged within said casing, 
means for leading liquid into the latter, 
means for regulating the degree of filling of 
the casing, and means for connecting said 
casing to the mechanism upon which the 
brake is to be utilized, substantially as set 
forth. 

712,059. Cycle Seat. Emil J. G. Goerke, 
Neumunster, Germany, assignor to the 
firm of Hermann Sager, Neumunster, 
Schleswig, Holstein, Germany. Filed Feb. 
28, 1901. Serial No. 49,343. (No model.) 
Claim. — 1. The combination with the two 
halves of the divided cycle seat and a pivot 
common to both; of a resilient support com- 
prising a fork having diverging arms paral- 
lel to the seat and adapted to be secured 
to a seat post, springs connected with said 
fork and the saddle halves, means for ad- 
justing the latter about their pivot or their 
supporting fork, means for locking said 
halves thereto, and a spring connecting said 
fork with the aforesaid pivot, substantially 
as described. 

712,165. Cycle. Frank S. Willoughby, Man- 
chester, England. Filed Jan. 21, 1902. Se- 
rial No. 90,621. (No model.) 
Claim. — 1. The combination of a driving 
shaft 1 carrying a chain wheel 5 and the 
inner parts of free clutches 7 and 7* a bear- 
ing 3 reciprocating cranks 6 and 6*, the in- 
tegral heads of which form Internally the 
outer parts of the free clutches and have 
teeth on their peripheries, an intervening 
tooth wheel 12* gearing therewith, an ad- 
justable clamp plate 17 and annular ball- 
races and balls 14 on the faces of the hub 
of the chain wheel of the cranks of the 
bearing bracket and of the clamp plate, sub- 
stantially as described and shown. 



"The Bicycling World is well worth its 
price to any man in the bicycle business." — 
(L. E. Stair, Mitchell, S. D. 



The Bicycling World 



AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 



u 



v 



In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, November 13, 1902. 



- 



No. 7 



■ H 



MAKERS IN SESSION 



Probable That a National Organization Will 

be Effected and That Prices Will be 

Increased — Those In Attendance. 



It is quite apparent that the "in union 
there is strength" precept is forcing itself 
home in the cycle trade. The New York 
jobbers were first to recognize it and to act, 
and at this moment the effort to nationalize 
the State association is being made, and with 
every assurance of success. The "get-to- 
gether" germ has lodged also in the cycle 
manufacturing trade, and as a result there is 
every prospect that a national -association 
of cycle manufacturers shortly will be 
brought into being, and one embracing all 
classes, "trust" and "independent," and rep- 
resenting all grades. 

The meeting at the Hollenden Hotel, Cleve- 
land, on Saturday last, of which The Bicy- 
cling World gave notice, was the first symp- 
tom of the sort. While at first supposed to 
be a meeting of parts makers, it proved to 
be a session of bicycle manufacturers, called 
by George N. Pierce, of Buffalo. Mr. Pierce 
-presided, and after exhaustive discussion, 
which developed that none of the concerns 
represented were earning comforting or satis- 
factory margins of profit, an epitome of 
opinion was crystalized in the form of a 
resolution. This resolution follows: 

Resolved. That it is the sense of this meet- 
ing that an advance in the price of bicycles 
is material and necessary. 

Resolved further, That the concerns here 
represented deem it desirable to form a per- 
manent association and to invite makers not 
represented at this meeting to become mem- 
bers in order to consider and take action 
affecting the condition of the trade, and that 
we agree to have a representative with full 
power to act at a meeting to be called No- 
vember 13 at the Waldorf-Astoria, New York 
City. 

Those present and who concurred in the 
resolution were as follows: Geo. N. Pierce 
Co., T irk Mfg. Co., Eagle Cycle Mfg. Co., 
Stearns Bicycle Agency, Wisconsin Wheel 
Works, Arnold, Schwinn & Co., Snell Cycle 
Mfg. Co.. Great Western Mfg. Co., Worth- 
ington Mfg. Co., Acme Cycle Mfg. Co. Let- 
ters expressing sympathy and conveying as- 
surances of co-operation were received from 



the National Cycle Mfg. Co., Toledo Metal 
Wheel Co., Davis Sewing Machine Co., Na- 
tional Sewing Machine Co., Bean Chamber - 
lin Co., H. P. Snyder Mfg. Co. and Day Mfg. 
Co. 

To-day the adjourned meeting was held in 
the Waldorf-Astoria, this city, with Mr. 
Pierce again in the chair. The others in at- 
tendance were: Col. Albert A. Pope, Ameri- 
can Bicycle Co.; Messrs. Breckenridge, Ran- 
som and Kirk, Kirk-Snell Institution; H. E. 
Maslin, Stearns Bicycle Agency; Harrison 
Williams, Waltham Mfg. Co.; C. S. Dikeman, 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg. Co.; A. L. Garford, 
Worthington Mfg. Co.; G. Frank Fries, Day 
Mfg. Co.; E. S. Fretz, Light Cycle Co., and 
Joseph McKee, McKee & Harrington. 

The day was devoted to speech making, in 
which every one present indulged, but noth- 
ing tangible was accomplished. The nearest 
approach to anything of the sort was a mo- 
tion fixing a minimum price on stripped 
bicycles. This, however, was voted down, 
the sentiment being that too many jobbing- 
contracts had been already closed to make 
the price equitably effective as applying- to 
next season's business. 

After this had been done and more ex- 
periences and opinions expressed, a commit- 
tee comprising Messrs. Pierce, Ransom, Kirk 
and Fries was appointed to prepare and 
present a definite plan of action at a session 
to-morrow. 



Morgan and Herrick Retire. 

Fred W. Morgan, formerly the head of 
Morgan &, Wright, Chicago, and one of the 
directors of the concern since it became a 
Rubber Goods possession, has resigned his 
office and retired from the company. Will- 
iam Herrick, for many years Mr. Morgan's 
right hand man and the active manager of 
the factory, lias also resigned. He had 
originally tendered his resignation to take 
effect January 1, but last week insisted on 
its immediate acceptance. 



Labor Troubles Affect Tire Factories. 

Morgan & Wright and the labor union 
are at odds in Chicago, and as a result of 
the strike the factory has practically ceased 
operation. The wage scale is the point in 
issue, employers and employees both charg- 
ing bad faith and repudiated agreements. 
J. C. Wilson, general business manager of 
the Rubber Goods Mfg. Co., is on the scene 
and dealing with the strikers, and it is be- 
lieved will succeed in effecting a settlement. 
The Kokomo Rubber Co. also has a strike 
on its hands. 



WELLES AND KECK CONTROL 



Buy out Other Solar Interests and Now 
Rule— Will Open New York Branch. 



R. H. Welles and L. J. Keck, who are 
known the length and breadth of the trade, 
as "the men who made the Solar gas lamp 
famous," are now in sole control of the 
Badger Brass -Mfg. Co., and hereafter will 
devote themselves wholly to that lamp. 

Heretofore C. N. and W. J. Frost were 
stockholders and officers of the company, 
and the factory at Kenosha, Wis., was em- 
ployed in part in the manufacture of plumb- 
ers' supplies. Welles and Keck, however, 
have purchased the Frosts' interests and the 
Messrs. Frost have formed the Frost Mfg. 
Co., which will continue the production of 
plumbers' tools. 

Welles and Keck will, if anything, now 
pursue a more aggressive policy than ever. 
One of their first moves will be the estab- 
lishment of a New York branch, which, will 
carry a full line of Solar bicycle and auto- 
mobile lamps and parts thereof. No loca- 
tion has yet been secured, but the branch 
will surely be in operation by January 15th 
next. 



W. E. florrison Dies After Operation. 

Walter E. Morrison, president of the Dow 
Portable Electric Co., died rather suddenly 
in the Polyclinic Hospital, this city, on 
Tuesday night last. His headquarters were 
in Boston, and he was here on one of his 
periodical business visits when his malady, 
cancer of the stomach, took a serious turn. 
He was removed from the Herald Square 
Hotel on Sunday, and the next day under- 
went the operation, from which he failed to 
recover. Mr. Morrison was but 37 years of 
age. He was a particularly energetic and 
likable man, whose efforts had contributed 
very materially to the success of his com- 
pany. 

British Shows Open Next Week. 

While even a local cycle show appears 
impossible in this country, England is still 
supporting the two rival national exhibi- 
tions of the sort, the Stanley and the Na- 
tional. Both open their doors next week, 
21st inst, and continue until the 29th. 



J 50 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



CYCLE PATHS ON BIG BRIDGE 



Innovation on New New York-Brooklyn 
Structure That Will Help Cycling. 



There is a good time coming for the bi- 
cyclists of New York and Brooklyn and New 
Jersey. It will arrive when the new East 
River bridge from near Houston street, New 
York, to near Broadway, Brooklyn, is com- 
pleted. Then riders from the metropolis or 
from New Jersey can ride to Coney Island 
or out to the good roads of Long Island, and 
Brooklyn cyclists can cross to Manhattan to 
seek the resorts of Westchester County, or of 
New Jersey, and the workingman can ride 
daily to his work without paying even a 
ferriage toll and without risking limb and 
life by a ride through a tangle of trucks and 
trolley cars. This will be possible because 



been incorporated in a public bridge as an 
essential part of the whole structure. It is 
something to cause every one interested in 
the bicycle to rejoice greatly. It will be a 
boon to workers of all classes. It will en- 
able the laboring man to save 10 cents of car- 
fare daily, and it will furnish to the business 
man and his clerks an opportunity to get 
daily a needed bit of exercise as a change 
from office work by riding to and from his 
place of business and his home. For those 
who live on the lines of well paved streets 
these paths will make it a pleasure to cross 
the new bridge. It will be well worth while 
for many to go considerably out of their way 
in order to cross the new bridge, for there 
are asphalt routes to both the New York 
and Brooklyn ends of the structure, and the 
trip across will be a delightful one. 

The Brooklyn end of the bridge is further 
advanced than the New York end, and the 
pictures shown here were taken for the Bi- 



either side of the footwalk and even with it 
across the bridge. The arrangement on the 
New York side will be similar. 

Going from New York to Brooklyn on this 
grand wheeling course, the rider who wants 
to go either to Coney Island or out on Long 
Island, or simply to the other side of town, 
finds asphalt on South Fifth street, right at 
the exit. He can ride two blocks to Bed- 
ford avenue, and then, if he does not mind 
three blocks of granite blocks, can ride di- 
rectly out on that avenue to Eastern Park- 
way. If he prefers to go a little out of the 
way for the sake of keeping on asphalt, he 
can continue on South Fifth street a couple 
of blocks further toward the river to Berry 
street, turning left on which will lead him to 
Division avenue, and that to Bedford ave- 
nue. It would be only a matter of about 
three average sized city blocks more of a 
ride to make this detour. 

The New York end of the bridge finishes 




E. ELEVATED RAILROAD. 



B. BICYCLE PATH. 



P. PEDESTRIAN PATH. 



T. TROLLEY TRACK. 



R. ROADWAY. 



on the new bridge there are being built two 
paths exclusively for bicycles, one for travel 
going east and the other for riders going- 
west. 

In the lapse of time many riders have for- 
gotten the agitation in favor of getting a 
cycle path on the Brooklyn Bridge now in 
use, the failure of the effort, and the deter- 
mined demand, made chiefly by the Good 
Roads Association of Brooklyn, for cycle 
paths on the new bridge now being built. 
This second effort was successful. The 
credit for its success belongs largely to H. 
B. Fullerton, Eugene La Manna arid James 
D. Bell, of the Bridge Commission. Twin 
cycle paths were incorporated in the plans 
of the bridge, and now they are a material 
fact, for they are partly built. 

For the information of the trade and pub- 
lic, the Bicycling World has investigated, to 
learn whether or not the paths were being- 
built, or whether they existed on paper only. 
The paths are there as designed, and they 
will be fine wheel courses. 

So far as is known, this is the first time 
that a path exclusively for bicycles ever has 



cycling World on that side of the river. The 
Brooklyn approach of the bridge begins in 
South Fifth street, a short block north of 
Broadway, near Rcebling street. There the 
cycle path begins in the exact centre of the 
bridge, rising at an easy grade from the 
street. It is about twenty feet wide there, 
with no division to separate those going in 
opposite directions. On each side is a road- 
way for two trolley tracks, four in all, and 
on the outside of the trolley roadways are 
the driveways, each twenty feet wide. Over 
the bicycle path runs the elevated road. The 
pedestrian path begins a block west from 
the end of the bridge, and runs beneath the 
bicycle path. There is one entrance for 
pedestrians under the stone archway at 
Driggs avenue, and another one at Bedford 
avenue. 

The bicycle path continues under the ele- 
vated road and over the promenade until 
well along toward the tower, where the foot- 
walk, which has been rising at a sharper 
grade than the cycle path, comes to a level 
with it. Then the cycle road splits into two 
paths, each seven feet wide, running along 



now on Clinton street, near Houston. Clinton 
street is about midway between Second and 
Third avenues, and both it and Houston 
street are asphalted. Of course, there will 
be plazas, though, at each terminal of the 
bridge. Riders crossing to New York will 
land in the thoroughly asphalted section of 
the East Side, and have the choice of a num- 
ber of asphalted streets on which to go up- 
town or downtown or across to the West 
Side. They can go along Houston street to 
the asphalt on Second avenue, or start for 
the City Hall by way of Essex, Ludlow, For- 
syth or several other streets. They can 
start for uptown right on Clinton street, or 
can continue on Houston street across 
Broadway. 

The total length of the bridge from end to 
end will be 7,200 feet, affording a board- 
walk ride of more than a mile and a quarter. 



Bud Mills, of Somerville, Mass.. rode ten 
continuous centuries, 1,000 miles, last week 
in four days. He had only three hours' 
sleep during the ride, 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



J5J 



CHANCE FOR CYCLE SHOW 



Associated Cycling Clubs of New York Take 
up Project Will Sound the Trade. 



Quite unexpectedly the Associated Cycling- 
Clubs of New York have stepped into the 
breach and projected a cycle and motor bi- 
cycle show for the metropolis, to be held 
next spring. 

At a regular monthly meeting held last 
Monday night at the house of the Royal 
Arcanum Wheelmen, in West Ninety-ninth 
street, with Alderman Joseph Oatman pre- 
siding, the question came up of doing some- 
thing to liven up the winter season in order 
that the vantage gained by the renewal of 
interest and activity during the summer 
should not be lost. 

The delegates of the dozen clubs took a 
very sensible view of the matter when a 
show was suggested. Three different dele- 
gates arose and said they knew from pei-'- 
sonal experience that there were plenty of 
dealers in the city who were willing to go 
in and help support a show if one could be 
arranged and managed by any competent 
and responsible organization. It was re- 
called that the first show in Philadelphia 
was held under the auspices of the asso- 
ciated cycling clubs of that city, and that 
one of the earliest held in Madison Square 
Garden was run by the old Metropolitan As- 
sociation of Cycling Clubs, that both of 
these exhibitions were successful and that 
at this time when there is no local trade 
organization, it would be eminently fitting 
for a body of clubs to conduct an exhibition. 
The sentiment was expressed that a show 
run by the Associated Cycling Clubs could 
get the support of the "trust" and the inde- 
pendent makers also. 

Several representative dealers who were 
seen by a Bicycling World representative 
approved of the idea and said they would 
go in and do their part. From what investi- 
gation has already been made there would 
seem to be no doubt but what a sufficient 
number of exhibitors could be obtained. 

A committee was appointed to inquire 
into the situation and report back to the 
association on the feasibilit5' of a show 
being held either by the Associated Cycling- 
Clubs alone or in conjunction with some 
trade committee. 

The idea on which the committee is work- 
ing is substantially the same as that put 
forth in a Bicycling World editorial recently. 
So far as has been tentatively planned the 
show will be held in the spring, during the 
retail selling season. It is to be a show for 
riders and some sort of a regular nightly 
entertainment is projected. 

The first work of the committee after 
being satisfied of adequate support from the 
trade is to find a suitable place. Grand Cen- 
tral Palace and Lenox Lyceum have both 
been fav< rably mentioned, and one of the 
two places is likely to \e selected. 



Th« Absence of Personal Persuasion. 

"I really cannot understand why the manu- 
facturers in the cycle trade should find fault 
with the state of affairs," remarked one of 
the best known dealers in Brooklyn the other 
day. "If the trade lacks life, it is because 
the manufacturers lack life; they no longer 
go out for business as they once did, and at 
the time when they had small need to do so. 

"They now try to do business by mail. 
Why, bless your soul, in the last four years 
just two tire salesmen have called on me, 
and only one coaster brake man, and all he 
asked was the privilege of tacking up an 
advertising show card. The bicycle sales- 
men come around in the fall or the early 
spring, and if it were not for them we would 
hardly know that the trade still employed 
travelers. Motor bicycles? No one has even 
tried to interest me in them much less to 
sell me one. If it were not for the Bicycling- 
World and for the circulars I receive I would 
hardly know that such things existed. 

"Manufacturer's no longer seem to value 
the effect and influence of personal acquaint- 
ance or personal solicitation, or if they do 
they expend all such effort on the jobbing- 
trade; certainly, retailers see small evidence 
of it nowadays; printed matetr is evidently 
considered good enough for us, and we re- 
ceive enough of that to start a good many 
fires in the course of a season. 

"No, I do not overstate the facts. Except- 
ing bicycle salesmen, I have been visited by 
no more than the two tire salesmen and one 
coaster brake placard-hanger during the last 
four years." 

Tell nakers What They Want. 

While dealers' organizations never flour- 
ished in this country, they still exist on the 
other side, and do not appear to lack ac- 
tivity and influence; indeed, the extent to 
which they go is evinced by this recent reso- 
lution of the Liverpool Cycle Trades Asso- 
ciation: "That, The Liverpool Centre are in 
favor of a standard machine of best makers, 
with two brakes and free wheel, should be 
still listed at ten guineas and not raised in 
price, but that same should only be sold to 
agents on condition that the price of ten 
guineas is strictly adhered to until after 
August Bank Holiday, when, if agents wish 
to clear stock, they can accept reduced 
prices." 

One Drawback to flotor Bicycles. 

"One of the commercial drawbacks to 
motor bicycles," said a metropolitan dealer 
yesterday, "is the spot cash terms which 
their makers impose. When we require and 
are afforded datings on even our relatively 
low priced samples of motorless bicycles, the 
impossibility of dealing extensively with any- 
thing that is higher priced is apparent. We 
certainly cannot carry any stock, and if we 
use our sample we naturally have only a 
second hand machine to show prospective 
buyers." 

When good advertising is supported by 
good goods and good management it pays, 
tritely remarks Printers' Ink. 



RUBBER GOODS REFORMS 



Meaning of Recent Occurences and the Ob- 
jects Which are Sought to be Served. 



Since the control of the Rubber Goods 
Manufacturing Company passed into the 
hands of T. J. Taylor & Co. a thorough in- 
vestigation has been carried on with a view 
to effecting economics. As a result of the 
research a complete reorganization of the 
internal affairs of the company has been 
decided upon, and it is now officially an- 
nounced that the management of each of the 
eight companies controlled would hence- 
forth be the same. 

Heretofore there were separate boards of 
directors, separate officers and distinct man- 
agements of each of the eight companies 
the control of which is owned by the Rub- 
ber Goods Manufacturing Company. 

Interests identified with those now in con- 
trol stated last week that the organization 
and status of the Rubber Goods Manu- 
facturing Company is practically the same 
as the United States Steel Corporation. It 
is a stock holding concern and owns the 
control of the following companies: Me- 
chanical Rubber Company, Morgan iV: 
Wright, Chicago: Feerless Rubber Manu- 
facturing Company, New York; India Rub- 
ber Company, Akron, Ohio; Sawyer Belting- 
Company, Caiubridgeport, Mass.; Peoria 
Rubber and Manufacturing Company, Peo- 
ria, 111.; Indianapolis Rubber Works, Indian- 
apolis, Inch; Hartford Rubber Works, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

As is well known, each of these concerns 
had its own list of officers and the opera- 
tions of the plants were conducted indepen- 
dently of other companies which were con^ 
trolled by the Rubber Goods Company. For 
some time past the Taylor management has 
been considering plans to eliminate this sit- 
uation and these have now been perfected. 
According to statements made pesterday, 
one set of officers, with practically the same 
board of directors, will manage each of the 
eight companies. 

It is also stated that the question of sub- 
stituting cash for certain real estate secu- 
rities which the company still holds as a 
relic of the Flint management will soon be 
settled. The matter is still under considera- 
tion by the attorneys for the five directors 
against whom suit was threatened and those 
of the Taylor management. It can definitely 
be stated, however, that an outcome favor- 
able to the Rubber Goods Manufacturing- 
Company is expected. 

There has been a great deal of adverse 
comment made over the recent changes in 
the internal affairs of the company, but this 
has not influenced the determination of the 
management to carry out their plans. The 
latter say that the criticism has come mainly 
from former employes, who have lost their 
positions as a result of the many changes 
made in the interest of economy. 



152 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 




•S •^•^•^•^•^: 



& 
/Is 

A 
/*> 

/Is 
/Is 



- 



National / 

PIPER j 

i never! 

CHANGtdi 

HI5M0UNT 



if 




'^ 



\\/l* s±+*s± are y° u g° ir| g to & et y° ur I 

V V lit/ 1 C good bicycles for 1903 ? 



THAT WILL BE A PREGNANT QUESTION PRETTY SOON. 

THE BUYER IS WILLING 

to pay a fair price for a bicycle which has been shown up to him 
to be a better one than another at a lower price, but he has to be 
satisfied of that fact. You can show it to him in a NATIONAL. 

There are a good many features on the NATIONAL that make 
it distinctively different from others — better than most. 

THERE'S ALWAYS A PROFIT IN THE NATIONAL. 



National Cycle Mfg. Company, 



MAKERS OF BICYCLES EVERY DAY. 



BAY CITY, MICH. 



I 



I 
I 



*«. 




UNBQUALBD 




THISTIRE HAS IN IT THE 



BEST HATERIAL- BEST WORKHANSHIP 



MADE AND GUARANTEED BY 



FISK RUBBER COMPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Mass. 



BRANCHES • 

BOSTON, SPRINGFIELD, NEW YORK, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Dwight St. 83 Chambers St. 

SYRACUSE, BUFFALO DETRIOT, 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Oenesae «t. 2S2 Jefferson Ave. 



PHILADELPHIA, WASHINGTON, 

9I6 Arch St. 427 10th St., N. W 

CHICAGO, SAN FRANCISCO, 

54 State St. 1 14 Second St. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



J53 




THE 




FOUNDED^ 

»n d /#TOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
" The Wheel " and the " American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The G©©dmhn ©©Mphny, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... 10 Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscripiions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

fl[^p" Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

IH^^ Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, November 13, 1902. 

Possibilities of a Show. 

Now that the call of the Bicycling World 
for a cycle show in New York City has 
found an answer in the appointment by the 
Associated Cycling Clubs of New York of 
a committee to investigate the feeling in 
the trade on the subject, with the assurance 
that the clubs will run a show if they get 
the local dealers to guarantee their hearty 
support, the manufacturers who are repre- 
sented in the city should help their agents. 

There is no reason why a first rate show 
should not be put together for the thousands 
of earnest riders of the Greater New York 
and vicinity, and with the aid of some form 
of entertainment, such as was run in the 
early days of bicycle shows, to draw the 
general public, many converts might be 
made and more than a few backsliders re- 
claimed. The conditions now call for some 
sort of a stage performance to draw a crowd 
the same as they did ten years ago. One 
of the biggest exhibitions that goes to Mad- 
ison Square Garden, the Sportsmen's Show, 



depends altogether upon its amusement 
feature to fill the house. In latter years 
there has .been some prejudice against any- 
thing in the nature of a stage entertain- 
ment at the national bicycle shows, but 
there should be no such prejudice in connec- 
tion with this projected local show, and the 
committee commends itself as a wise one 
in having immediately planned it. 

The Associated Cycling Clubs is a sub- 
stantial, reliable and responsible body. In 
such hands a show would be successfully 
managed, and not a dealer should refuse 
his support. The object of the organization 
as declared at its meeting is solely to infuse 
some life into the trade and sport, and not 
to make money. The desire is only to meet 
the expenses and break even. 

A show such as this, expressly for riders, 
should appeal particularly to the makers 
of motor bicycles, at this time, when so 
much of the selling is being done direct. 
There is a great amount of missionary work 
to be done in the way of educating riders 
concerning the motor bicycle. Agents do 
not do this as it should be done, and for 
the want of shows the manufacturers have 
not done it. Beyond the educational work 
to be done, however, there is every reason 
to believe a show such as has been pro- 
jected would be a business bazar at which 
a lively retail business would be done in 
both motor and rnotorless machines. 

A selling show of three or four days' du- 
ration, run for riders and the general pub- 
lic, would be the best place in the world 
to let it be known that old stocks are well . 
cleaned up and that the trade has gotten 
back again to the healthy basis of selling- 
bicycles of the current year's model at list 
prices. With this well understood at the 
outset, there would be less discontented 
shopping about by bargain hunters later on 
and a healthier tone would be given to the 
business for the whole spring and summer. 

There could be no better time, nor place, 
either, to acquaint riders with whatever 
advances in prices there may be. It will 
be impressive ' and final, if learned at an 
exhibition where the general public finds 
practically all the trade represented, where- 
as if confronted with the new conditions 
in the store of a single retailer, there would 
likely be skepticism, dissatisfaction, and an 
inclination to seek elsewhere, if indeed 
many would not back out entirely from buy- 
ing. 

There should be no souvenirs, but there 
should be a popular price at the door and 
spaces should be rented at moderate fig- 



ures. There will be plenty of things of in- 
terest to riders to be seen in the way of 
modifications in wheels, and coaster brakes, 
and motor bicycles and new things in sun- 
dries. The motor bicycles could be shown 
jacked up and the exhibitors allowed to 
put visitors on them and run the motor. A 
show run along these lines, with a good, 
healthy entertainment feature, could not 
fail to be a success, and it would be a great 
boon to the retail trade and a boom for the 
riding of the coming season. The time is 
ripe, the opportunity here, and not a man 
in the trade should hold back. 



Two Commendable Tendencies. 

It is a hackneyed subject, but one . that 
is of perennial interest, hence the recur- 
rence to it. We have in mind the astonish- 
ing popularity of the pastime and the em- 
phatic soundness of the trade in Great 
Britain. 

At the present time there are two ten- 
dencies noticeable among others. There is 
a strong reaction in some quarters from the 
low price craze, and a movement in the di- 
rection of lighter machines — featherweights, 
as it is the custom to term them. No one 
can gainsay the existence of this twin move- 
ment. 

What the British regard as low prices- 
say, $40 and $50 machines— still rule and 
account for the bulk of the trade. It is 
by no means certain that this will ever cease 
to be the case, although there is more ground 
now for holding a contrary belief than there 
has been for a number of years. But in 
spite of this low price tendency as regards 
the greater part of the business, the number 
of higher class— and price— models is steadily 
growing. 

One firm lists its best machine at $110— a 
plain chain driven wheel— with an extra $5 
for a free wheel. There are plenty of others 
at or about $100, and for next season makers 
anticipate a more extensive trade in them 
than they have experienced since the boom 
years. They do not fear to make changes 
and improvements, nor to advance the price 
on account of them. Nor do buyers balk at 
their demands. On the contrary, the vol- 
ume of business in the best grades is steadily 
increasing. 

At the same time, earnest and seemingly 
successful efforts are being made to cut 
down weights. 

Lighter models are continually being 
brought out. 

As is well known, the British rider wants 



154 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



solidity and even massiveness. Further- 
more, he insists on loading down his ma- 
chine with weird and wonderful parapher- 
nalia, without which he could not, or thinks 
he could not, get along. The result is weight, 
and while he objects to this he stands like 
a rock in the way of cutting down of his 
accessory list. 

That in the face of this makers should keep 
weights down as much as they do is com- 
mendable. Their further efforts— and suc- 
cess—is an indubitable sign that the trade 
has really recovered, or is in a fair way to 
recover, from the prolonged depression that 
plagued it for so long. 

Opinions will differ as to the comparative 
depths of the abysses into which the trade 
of this country and England plunged. But 
whether the palm is to be awarded to them 
or to us, it is beyond dispute that recovery 
was more rapid and more complete across 
the water than here. 



profit well worth while. Printers' ink is 
powerful, but personal acquaintance and 
personal persuasion is more powerful. 



THE UNMUFFLED MOTOR 



Denounced as " Hellish " and an Injury to 
flotocycllng— Corson's Experience. 



Neglect of the Small Trade. 

as an instance that shows how vastly the 
practices of the trade have altered during 
recent years, that cited by the Brooklyn 
dealer in another column is entitled to more 
than casual remark. 

Time was when every tire maker and the 
maker of practically every meritorious sun- 
dry, no less than the bicycle manufacturer, 
appreciated the value of keeping in per- 
sonal touch with the retail trade, and who 
had their men almost constantly circulating 
amongst dealers, effecting sales if possible, 
but doing "missionary work"and influencing 
opinions and perforce future business, at 
any rate. 

The Brooklyn man's testimony that within 
the past four years he has been called on 
by but three such salesmen or "mission- 
aries," other than bicycle travelers pure and 
simple, Is astonishing, and we would hesi- 
tate to believe it did we not know the man 
and know that makers now incline to 
"cover" only the large trade and to "take 
care" of the comparatively little fellows 
by circular letters. 

It is a situation that shows its own weak 
spot and one that should suggest to some 
manufacturers, at least, that an opportunity 
offers for them. The "small trade" was once 
the strength of not a few tire and sundry 
makers, and now that it is no longer the 
fashion to cultivate it, the chance to do so 
that is afforded is one that should enable 
them to so establish them in the favor of 
retailers as to make the probable money 



All But Prejudice Outlived. 

So persistent is prejudice, that naught 
avails to dispel it— neither success nor any 
other equally convincing circumstance. 

In our hearing the other day an argument 
raged, one disputant holding that the three- 
piece style of crank shaft construction was 
the best ever, and that all other forms of 
constructions were failures. No massing of 
proofs to the contrary would turn the opin- 
ionated man from his stand or alter his 
belief one jot or little. 

Yet as we look back over the past, and 
view the matter in what seems to be an 
impartial spirit, but one conclusion seems 
possible. 

The cotter pin fastened crank was efficient 
if it was made properly. But it was never 
designed to be disturbed, and even in the 
hands of expert repairers it underwent de- 
terioration every time it was taken apart. 
And when poorly fitted it was one of the 
worst features ever seen on the modern 
bicycle. 

It is a relief to turn to almost any of the 
many styles of one and two piece crank 
shafts and note how they have been brought 
to practical perfection. 

Early in their career they were dubbed 
"mechanical fastenings." 

The term was an apt one, and telling the 
oblique blow it dealt at the old style or un- 
mechanical fastenings. Justly chargeable 
with shortcomings, with sins of omission and 
commission, at first, it was worked with 
until complete and unequivocal success 
marked its career. 

To-day it is accepted as standard, and to 
even hint that it has a rival is heresy of the 
rankest sort. 



Ten miles an hour— oh, pshaw! Any octo- 
genarian oyclist or any boy of eight travels 
that fast on a good road unless they are 
wabblers. The walking record for one hour 
is 7 miles 1,318 yards, made by J. B. Clarke 
in New York City, September S, 1880. The 
running record for one hour is 11 miles 1,286 
yards, made by Harry Watkins at Rochdale, 
Eng., September 16, 1899. Yet nice spoken 
men are prating to city officials about ten 
miles an hour being too fast for a bicycle or 
an automobile to travel on asphalt! Some 
ignoramuses ought to be muzzled. 



Editor The Bicycling World: 

There is a practice indulged in by a few 
motor cyclists that is decidedly wrong, and 
should be set down on! I refer to their using 
their machines with the exhaust opening into 
the air without passing through the muffler. 
It is an injury to the sport, and the business, 
and is most certainly an injury to other 
riders who are not guilty of such a misde- 
meanor. Several gentlemen motor cyclists 
have spoken to us about this, and were very 
indignant. 

I went into a certain city not long since on 
my motor bicycle and the next morning at 
the breakfast table met an old friend, who, 
by the way, is the most prominent lawyer in 
that city. He asked me how I came, and re- 
marked: "With an automobile, I presume?" 
You can only imagine his disgust and aston- 
ishment when I told him I came on a motor 
bicycle. He said: 

"What, you riding one of those hellish 
thing's?" 

I replied that I was, and asked him what 
he meant. He just let out on me, and said 
there should be "a law made at once to pro- 
hibit their use on the highway." Asked why 
he was so down on the machine, he replied 
that they were the noisiest thing he ever 
heard, that they frightened horses, and wom- 
en as well. 

I informed him I had ridden thousands of 
miles and never had such trouble, and that 
our machine did not make any more noise 
than a carriage going through the street. He 
could not understand it. Well, I investigated 
matters and found that the party who had 
made all the trouble (and trouble there really 
was, for everybody was down on the motor 
bicycle), was using his machine through the 
streets with the muffler off, and that he 
would not stop for anybody. If people did 
not get out of his path they had to take the 
consequences. To cap the climax, this party 
was an old-time wheelman and a bicycle 
dealer and agent for the machine he rode. 
Not a very good way to make a new thing 
popular! 

We stopped in that city some two weeks 
and all were ready to say: "Your machine 
does not make any noise, to speak of! Why, 

Mr. 's makes noise enough to craze one!" 

Our lawyer friend changed his opinion of the 
motor bicycle. He is a noted horsemen, and 
the other fellow had frightened his horse, 
which came near a very bad runaway. We 
meet him without any trouble! 

Now, Brother Motorcyclists, use your ma- 
chine as you should use it. Treat people as 
though they had rights. Do net bring the 
grandest sport into disrepute. Keep your 
mufflers on! If you have not got a machine 
that will do the work you want it to do with- 
out exhausting into the air direct, sell it and 
get one that will. E. H. CORSON. 



LAMP TROUBLES 



Causes That Contribute to Indifferent Illu- 
mination — Rich rs Largely to Blame. 



A few evening's spent where riders most 
do congregate, with the view of looking for 
lamp troubles, now that any riding done 
"after hours" ought to be done with the 
thought, "let your light so shine" that the 
way may be pointed out, developed much 
of interest. From an examination and ex- 
perience extending over several evenings 
the natural conclusion was arrived at that 
by first looking at the bicycle its condition 
of cleanliness and care was an infallible 
guide to the light giving powers of the ac- 
companying lamp. Whenever the bicycle 
was found to be in an unkempt condition 
the lamp unfailingly showed a like state of 
affairs. Per contra, a bicycle that gave 
evidence of pride in possesion and conse- 
qeunt cleanliness in appearance, had in al- 
most every instance a bright light shining 
before. 

Looking for the causes for poor light, with 
the addition of the user's carelessness, it 
was determined that the general factors 
producing the bad result were: The one 
named, the lamp itself and the keeping the 
lamp attached to the machine at all times. 
These apply to any and all kinds of lamps. 
To these must be added the oil and the wick 
in one type and the carbide and the burner 
tip in another. 

With the present knowledge of construc- 
tion and past faults and successes to go, the 
lamps themselves deserve little criticism. 
Their ehiefest fault has been in the matter 
of ventilation, and in some cases this fault 
still clings, even though it be to a minor 
degree. Occasionally a lamp is seen which 
will burn in city riding, or when riding at 
a normal pace, that gives trouble in the open 
country, or when "scorching." The causes 
and effects are obvious. When riding under 
the first two conditions larger ventilating 
holes and less protection for those holes 
are needed than when riding with the last 
two surroundings. 

Whether or not it would pay and be ap- 
preciated is a question, but all conditions 
could be provided for in designing, by a sim- 
ple and light weight attachment which 
would permit variations of ventilation. It is 
questionable, however, if the average user 
of a lamp would take pains to give proper 
regulation, and, furthermore, if there was 
the slightest stupidity in this direction the 
riders would see to it that the fault reflected 
on the maker of the lamp rather than upon 
themselves. 

The matter of the owner's negligence ap- 
plies to and is in conjunction with every 
other point herein mentioned. The maker 
may have supplied perfection in construc- 
tion. The owner may start out with the 
best o:°>? wick, carbide or what not, yet 
sooner or later everything is rendered non- 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

effective to a greater or less extent by just 
so much indifference as is displayed in 
keeping all these in a condition at least ap- 
proaching the beginning of all. 

Other than the self-contained causes for 
accumulation of dirt, the ehiefest seems to 
be from dust gathered while riding between 
the times of using the lamp. That is, too 
many don't want to bother to take off the 
lamp, once it is put on. If they had the 
excuse that they started out in the morn- 
ing with the lamp on because they might 
be caught out after sundown, there could 
be some excuse for them. But this excuse 
is rarely good; it is a reflex from the excuse 
they have at times given the police when 
they were so caught. At first it would seem 
that only country riders need think of this 
dust accumulation. Not so, however. With 
the nowadays extensive use of asphalt pav- 
ing for the streets and macadam for the 
parks, the rider who confines himself to the 
city will find that each give off a very fine 
powdered dust, the more insidious because 
of its very fineness, which makes it fairly 
unnoticeable. 

Of oils there are sufficient. It is in their 
choice that trouble frequently lurks. Known 
mixtures of oils have been in use indoors 
for ages, and with the advice of the lamp 
maker there should be no trouble from this 
point if a lamp oil refuses to burn in a lamp 
which is designed by- its makers to burn a 
burnable oil; either the lamp or the wick 
must be at fault. 

This brings the subject to the ehiefest 
source of trouble, outside of want of clean- 
liness in the lamp proper, and that is the 
wick. There are two causes here, a poor 
wick or a filthy one, generally the latter. 

From a rather extended inquiry it is an 
established fact that few lamp users under- 
stand the functions of the wick.. Many, too, 
think that the action with a lamp wick is 
the same as with the wick of a candle. 
There is a fundamental difference. The 
wick of a candle is consumed with the ma- 
terial, whereas the lamp wick is ideally un- 
touched. 

The function of the wick is to lift the 
combustible material from the reservoir to 
the place where it is burnt. The wick does 
this by virtue of what is called its capil- 
larity. Theoretically a wick consists of a 
great many minute hair-sized capillary 
tubes, up which the liquid rises by reason 
of the attraction between it and the sides of 
the tube. In order to insure perfect com- 
bustion the wick must lift fluid exactly at 
the speed at which the flame consumes it. 
But the speed of rising depends on the de- 
gree of capillarity (looseness or tightness 
of weaving the wick); on the viscosity 
(thickness of the liquid), and on the vertical 
height between the oil level and the base 
of the flame. 

With all this it is manifest that, since 
the wick consists essentially of fine narrow 
tubes, it inevitably possesses the highly un- 
desirable property of a filter, straining out 
the liquid and retaining within its pores all 
the dirt and insoluble matter present in the 



is? 

oil. These rapidly stop up the passages and 
reduce the capillarity of the wick. Added 
to this internal dirt is the collection previ- 
ously mentioned as coming from the road, 
which settles at the critical point— that of 
combustion. 

With carbide the same rule holds true as 
with oil— the selection of a known quality. 
With the tip there is the matter that affects 
all conductors of gas. There is a residue 
in the latter that, being heavier, settles on 
the walls of the passages through which it 
flows. An occasional cleaning is all that is 
required, but it is needed and should be 
given attention. And this attention is not 
of a frequency which will use up much time 
—none by comparison with that which it 
saves. 



English Trade's Good profits. 

The annual balance sheets filed by most of 
the concerns engaged in the cycle trade in 
Great Britain, as required by law, are of a 
nature to make the American trade blink, 
as they should cause it to think. 

In addition to the Birmingham Small Arms 
Co., Kudge-Whitworth and the Swift Cycle 
Co., each of which reported profits of more 
than $100,000, as previously detailed in The 
Bicycle World, practically all of the other 
reputable companies made splendid show- 
ings. The Humber statement discloses prof- 
its of $90,510; the Rover, $62,710; Enfield, 
$94,595; Raleigh, $47,390; Raglan, $27,705; 
Triumph, $S0,575, and New Hudson, $59,300. 

J. B. Brookes & Co., the leading saddle 
makers, turned in a balance of $100,045, and 
Lucas, the lamp and bell man, one of $55,- 
045, while the Brampton parts factory 
earned $40,040. 

In all save two instances, these figures are 
improvements on those of the previous 
year, the gains being substantial, ranging 
from $6,000 to $30,000. 



Will Protest Young's Action. 

Park Commissioner Young, of Kings, is 
to hear from the cyclists what they think 
of his proposal to abolish the "Rest" at the 
south end of Prospect Park. There was a 
lively discussion over this thing at the No- 
vember meeting of the Associated Cycling 
Clubs of New York, on Monday night. Great 
indignation was expressed that any such 
action should be contemplated, and a reso- 
lution was passed that Alderman Oatman, 
president of the association, should call on 
Commissioner Young and make the strong- 
est sort of a protest. President Isaac Rob- 
erts, of the Associated Cycling Clubs of 
Long Island, who was present, made 
a speech expressing strong indignation and 
said that he would see that the Brooklyn 
clubs also made a loud protest against doing 
away with this popular and convenient re- 
sort. 

Pulton on the Coast. 

H. H. Fulton, president of the Eclipse 
Mfg. Co., is now on his annual visit to the 
Pacific Coast. It is believed, however, that 
his stay will not he as long as usual. 



158 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



THE DIFFERENCE 

in the cost of 

The Best Spokes 

and 

The Next Best 

is so small that there is 
no good reason why any 
wheel should be fitted with 
other than the best, i. e. f 
the one bearing this brand: 



TRADE 




MARK 



STANDARD 
SPOKE & NIPPLE CO., 



TORRINCTON, CONN. 



• • • H MM Cr • • • 



REGAS 

IS READY. 

Are you ready 
for the Regas ? 



As it is the only means 
of giving riders 

eyeuNG 

LUXURY 



at a 

POPULAR PRICE 

it is hard to see how any man 
in the bicycle business can 
afford to be without a Regas 
Spring Frame Model. 

No telescoping tubes em- 
ployed. Stays are not cut in 
two. Four inches of spring 
action (twice as much as rival 
devices) and springs adjust- 
able to any weight of rider by 
simply turning a screw. 

Not one broken 
spring reported 
in 1902. 

We Furnish 

the fittings, enabling any builder 
of bicycles to easily and quickly 
furnish his trade with a model 
that not only sells, but sells others. 

1 Quotations on application. 

Regas Vehicle Co. 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



AFFAIRS IN AUSTRALIA 



Season There Just Opening and Holds Hitch 
Promise for Both Trade and Sport. 



Melbourne, Oct. 4.— For the past two or 
three months there has "been very little doing 
in cycling circles, and except for the big 
road race, Warrnambool to Melbourne, 165 
miles, there has been nothing of importance 
to chronicle. The season, however, is just 
opened, and while the trade reports a fair 
winter's business, there is considerable im- 
provement during the past month. A very 
satisfactory feature in cycling is that there 
seems to be a return to the wheel as a pas- 
time of the leisure classes, which, in the 
boom time, went baldheaded for the cycle. 
If this materializes to any great extent it 
means much for the business. 

The progress of the motor in the Common- 
wealth is slow, but, it may be said, sure, 
cycle, it being the only practical type of 
Most of the interest is centred in the moto- 
motor suitable for our roads, and, it should 
be added, to the purchasing power of this 
community, which, in a young country, is 
necessarily limited. With a view to popu- 
larizing this type of motor, the management 
of the big road race above referred to (the 
Dunlop Tire Co., of Australasia), intend to or- 
ganize a road race for motocycles next year, 
to be run over the same course and on the 
same day as the cycle race, except that the 
motorists will start some two hours after the 
cyclists. 

The present racing season promises to 
eclipse all previous seasons in the matter 
of the number of race meetings and the 
value of the stakes offered. The great Aus- 
tral Wheel Race is overshadowed in the 
matter of prize money by the publication of 
a programme of a series of race meetings to 
be held at Sydney, N. S. W., in which an 
open handicap for one mile will carry $5,000 
as a first prize. The aggregate amount of 
the prizes for the Austral amounts to a little 
more than half that sum— $2,750. However, 
things may so happen that it may never 
eventuate. 

The accounts of the racing in the States 
containing in the Bicycling World, especially 
that which concerns Martin, Beauchamp and 
Lawson, prove very interesting to Austra- 
lians, and the cycling contributors keep the 
wheelmen well informed of the doings of 
the trio. Martin hardly seems to have re- 
tained the form he was holding at the time 
he left Australia. Doubtless, however, he is 
meeting with younger and faster men. 

We anticipate that there will be a fair 
representation of foreign cracks this season 
in Australia, and we are in hopes of seeing 
Major Taylor among them. We recently 
noticed a cable published which stated that 
Taylor had been offered $7,500 to ride in a 
series of races in Australia, but that sum 
was deemed insufficient by him for the rac- 
ing he would have to do, and required a re- 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

duction of the number of events or an in- 
crease of the appearance money to $10,000. 
If Taylor and a few other cracks visit us it 
will mean a great deal for the sport here, 
which is in need of a little new blood. 

The condition or rather the method of con- 
ducting the so-called wholesale trade is far 
from satisfactory. Those houses which im- 
port, and sell at wholesale prices, sell as 
much retail and at prices that put the ordin- 
ary retailer completely out of it. The conse- 
quence is that they cut the prices down be- 
low the point of profitable handling. It 
should be pointed out here also that the ab- 
sence of any system in the direction of ap- 
pointing sole agents or local depots for 
specialties in the trade is responsible for 
much of the cut-price practices. Any little 
firm here seems to be able to import any 
quantity of almost any line, and sell at a 
price which at the time of landing may pay 



Morgan xWrightTires 
are good tires 



. see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 
no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



New York Bbanchi 314-216 West 47th 8trect. 

it. An idea of how trade is done may be 
given in the case of a wholesale parts house, 
which, in the course of a month, had up- 
wards of forty transactions with a large re- 
tailing firm of cycles and sundries. The 
aggregate value of the business transacted 
did not exceed $45— about a dollar at a time! 
It is, of course, understood that the retail 
firm required more goods than this, but its 
buyers went the round of the trade and 
picked what it required at those places 
where the particular lines were sold at cut 
prices. The policy of the B. S. A. concern is 
very different. It has a resident agent here. 
The price of the sets vary so very little as 
to be disregarded, and depends chiefly on 
the quantity of the material in the market. 
If sets are scarce, the price may go up a 
dollar. 



159 



MANAGER WAS EMPHATIC 



He Who Waits, Loses. 

The man who sits down and waits for 
business to come to him will never rise to 
his feet to greet it. In his case there is com- 
plete refutation of the old maxim, "Every- 
thing comes to him who waits," observes a 
philosopher. 



Agreed With the Customer and Proved it 
by Throwing Away the Pedals. 



One good customer of an establishment, the 
manager of which is a man who has been 
prominently identified with the trade for 
years, wais strongly impressed with the 
honest intentions of that manager and con- 
firmed as a patron recently by an incident 
of a peculiar kind in which there might be a 
hint for some one. The customer was a 
wealthy man who always wanted the best. 
He brought to the store a couple of pedals, 
one with a split plate, the other having a 
cracked cup. He asked: 

"I just want to show you these as a mat- 
ter of interest to you and ask if they are the 
proper sort of pedals to put on a high-grade 
wheel like mine?" 

The manager took the pedals in his hand 
and examined them. They were from a 1902 
model of a make that has a reputation second 
to none. They were "tin" pedals. 

"No, they are not!" exclaimed the man- 
ager with a burst of genuine indignation. 
Then, instead of putting them carefully aside 
to be stripped before being consigned to the 
scrap bag he opened the front door and 
hurled them with dramatic violence into a 
rubbish box that stood on the curb. 

"Why did you do that?" gasped the patron. 

"Because they are no good, and I'm going 
to give you a new pair." 

"But if they are not good why do you put 
them on?" 

"I don't, confound it! '.iney do it at the 
factory and I have' nothing to say about it." 

The manager then got out a pair of honest 
ftrged pedals of the 1896 model and present- 
ing them sent the man away, a customer for 
life. 

Clips That Sell. 

He took down a box from the shelf, picked 
a saddle clip out of it and gave it to his cus- 
tomer in exchange for a quarter. 

"Wish I had all the quarters that have 
been paid me for these clips," he remarked 
as he made an entry of the sale. "I'd have 
a nice little sum. You have no idea how 
many of these clips we sell in a year. You 
know, it's the only clip that is any good— 
for repair work, at least. The bolt binds 
directly against the saddle post and holds 
tight, so tight that it can't get loose if it 
is fastened properly. 

"I must sell hundreds of them in the 
course of a season. There's never a week 
goes by -that I don't have some calls for 
them, and sometimes not a day. There's 
a nice little profit in them, too. They cost 
me — well, not quite a quarter, and if I 
could sell only enough of them I would re- 
tire in a little while." 



"The Motor: What It Is and How It 
Works." See "Motocycles and How to Man- 
age Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 649, 
New York. **» 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



NOW 
READY. 





THE FEATURE 

OF 
THE SEASON. 



Parallel Opening Brake Shoes. 
NEVER STICK OR BIND. 



CORBIN DUPLEX 
1903 

New Departure Coaster. 





DUPLEX BRAKING CLUTCH. 
NEVER SLIPS. 



Riders demand the CORBIN DUPLEX COASTER and the wheel equipped with it is easy to sell. Endurance 
tests in competition with other coasters have proven the superiority of the Corbin features. 

1902 DEMAND CLEARED OUT OUR STOCK. 1903 DEMAND WILL BE STILL GREATER. 

GET CONTRACTS ENTERED EARLY. 



NEW YORK. 

CHICAGO. 

PHILADELPHIA. 



P. & F. CORBIN 

NEW BRITAIN, CONN. 



Agents in 

all the principal 

cities. 



H. P. WELLS, 
Light Running Carriages. 

Amesbury, Mass., Oct. JO, 1902. 

THE H. A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 
Gentlemen: — I have given your cones 
rather a severe test by using them on a steel 
tire wagon, and they proved all right. Please 
send me, etc. 

Yours truly, H.P.WELLS. 



We make Cups and Cones, Connections, Head 

Sets ; in fact, most everything just 

as good as the cones, 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



THE H. A. MATTHEWS 
MFG. COMPANY, 

SEYMOUR, CONNECTICUT, U. S. A. 



* 



According to the Proverb 

" Where Ignorance is Bliss, it is Folly to be Wise." 
But why remain ignorant when wisdom is so easily 
obtainable ? 

We maintain that 

The Forsyth 

is not merely a good coaster brake but the best one. 




We simply ask a chance to prove our assertion. Will 
you grant it ? It will cost you but the price of a postage 
stamp and may be the means of adding not a little to 
your wisdom — and profit. 



FORSYTH MFG. CO., Buffalo, N. Y. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



161 



TO MAKE STREETS SAFER How Coaster Brakes Renewed Pleasure. JQ INCREASE SPEED LIMIT 



Reform in Sprinkling System Now Likely— 
The Hovement to That End. 



There is now some definite prospect of a 
successful issue to the long fight against the 
street sprinkling nuisance in New York that 
has been waged for so long a time by the 
cyclists and latterly has been taken up by 
the automobilists, pleasure drivers and 
hackmen of the city. Street Cleaning Com- 
missioner Woodbury is himself strongly in 
favor of the ordinance that has been intro- 
duced to banish the Street Sprinkling Asso- 
ciation when its contract expires nest 
March and place the control of the sprink- 
ling in charge of his department. 

At a public hearing before the Law Com- 
mittee of the Board of Aldermen held on 
last Friday there was a notable attendance 
of well known citizens to speak on the 
sprinkling question and on the traffic ordi- 
nance that fixes a rate of ten miles an hour 
for the speed limit of bicycles and auto- 
mobiles in the city. 

Commissioner Woodbury explained the 
peculiar nature of asphalt that made it ac- 
quire a film of gum on its surface, which 
when wetted makes the street very slimy 
and dangerously slippery. He said that the 
asphalt should be flooded at night and after- 
ward dried by means of board scrapers with 
a rubber edge, or squee-gees, as they are 
called. He submitted an estimate of what 
it would cost the city to install a sprinkling- 
plant and of the cost for running it one year. 
The investment expense he fixed at $161,830 
for 200 trucks. 440 horses and 70 sets of 
double harness. The running expense for 
drivers, feed, stable rent, etc., for one year 
he estimated at $197,4S0. 

The ordinance proposed by Alderman Isaac 
Marks as a substitute to the one being urged 
was hit a body blow by a man who pointed 
out the fact that it was so drawn that the 
same Street Sprinkling Association, which 
has been such a nuisance, would inevitably 
get the contracts of all the boroughs of the 
city if the Marks ordinance was passed and 
the borough presidents allowed to award 
contracts to the lowest bidders "having ex- 
perience in sprinkling city streets." 

President .1. P. Haines, of the Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, said 
that the agents of that society had to kill 
every year a number of horses which had 
been hurt by falling on slippery asphalt. He 
advocated the measure, as did also President 
A. R. Shattuek, of the Automobile Club. 
Robert Winston, secretary of the Hackmen's 
Protective League, told how the streets of 
London are washed and scraped between the 
hours of midnight and 4 a. in., and he ad- 
vised the Commissioner to adopt the same 
method and to sand the asphalt on damp 
days. 

Alderman Armitage Matthews, chairman 
of the Law Committee, seemed to be in 
favor of the ordinance being passed, and the 
advocates of it felt very hopeful when the 
hearing closed. 



"A great many years ago, when I rode a 
high wheel, and after I first learned to coast, 
I used to climb nice, long, smooth hills solely 
to have the pleasure of coming down them, 
feet over the bars," confided the old timer. 

"Some how or other I never fell into this 
practice with the safety.' Perhaps the first 
safeties were too heavy, with their solid 
tires, to be pushed up any hills that did not 
have to be climbed; and then, by the time 
the 'featherweights' were evolved, with their 
air tires, I suppose I had gotten out of the 
way of doing such things and never resumed 
the practice. I do remember that I used to 
coast, but only when a down grade came 
my way. I never climbed hills in order to 
coast down them. 

"But since I have used a coaster brake the 
old habit has returned. I will take a longer 
and round about way almost any time in 
order to get a coast down a particularly fas- 
cinating hill. 

"There is something so exhilerating in 
shooting down a long grade, without even 
having to shift your feet from the pedals, 
and I can never resist the temptation to do 
it. It seems to me that then, as at no other 
time, is the height of enjoyment reached. 
It is this that tempts me to try a motor 
bicycle. If I get such pleasure out of a 
coast of a quarter of a mile or so why 
couldn't I increase it proportionately by rid- 
ing a machine that would give me a per- 
petual coast?" 



New Law Proposes Ten Instead of Eight 
niles— Hackman's Admission at Hearing. 



The Drinks That Served Two Purposes. 

"How I Warm My Motor and Myself" 
might be the title of a brief homily that was 
delivered by Will R. Pitman on the cold 
Saturday morning of last week, when he got 
out before breakfast to watch Commissioner 
Woodbury run his squee-gees along Fifth 
avenue, and quite incidentally to "get took" 
in the photographs. Pit. had his faithful 
Kelecom motor bicycle with him and came 
exploding down to the scene in fine style at 7 
A. M. The thermometer stood at 35, and 
the Kelecom stood against the side of a 
building opposite the Waldorf-Astoria for 
half an hour. With the cold carburetter the 
gasoline did not etherize readily, and Pitman 
had trouble getting the machine a-moving. 

"I know," he said, "it's cold. It acted the 
same way when I first took it out this morn- 
ing. Now, see how we fix this. I'm cold 
myself and so are you. Come along and 
have a drink with me." 

Pitman led the way to a hostelry, where 
he lugged the big motor bicycle inside the 
swing doors and stood it up near the radi- 
ator. Then he and his companion warmed 
their inwards liquidly and lingered over their 
imbibing while the motor was getting warm. 
When he took the machine out again it 
started with the first spark, and Pit. sailed 
off looking pleased as a babe with a tickled 
foot and exclaiming: 

"I told you so. All it needs is a little 
mother wit and the price of a drink." 



Bicyclists are for the most part lucky 
mortals in these days when the automobile 
is getting the brunt of the persecution de- 
vised by the prejudiced, but they are in- 
cluded in the whole mass of vehicles by the 
men who are afraid of rapid progress of any 
kind and are trying to prevent the passage 
of an ordinance in New York City permitting 
the terrible clip of ten miles an hour to bi- 
cycles and automobiles. The timorous trio, 
who are always on hand in New York on 
such occasions with tragic tales of the men- 
ace to life that the automobile is, heard 
themselves talk extensively at a hearing on 
the speed question before the Law Commit- 
tee of the New York Board of Aldermen last 
Friday. J. L. Brower, of the West End 
Association; J. B. Backus and Horace Par- 
ker, of the Committee of Fifty, were the 
three men in a distinguished gathering who 
stood apart from all others and opposed the 
terrific speed of ten miles an hour. Century 
riders who know what it is to average 
twelve miles an hour for one hundred miles 
with stops included should have been on 
hand to try to make the lovers of slow going 
understand what a really slothful gait ten 
miles an hour is. 

A. R. Shattuek, the automobilist, made 
the point that at eight miles an hour, all 
that is allowed by the present law, it would 
take five hours to go from one end of New 
York City to the other. A hackman, James 
Brown by name, told a wholesome truth 
when he said: 

"Aw, ten miles an hour ain't nothin'. 1 
drive fifteen miles an hour every night and 
sometimes twenty." 

The same Mr. Brown enthusiastically in- 
dorsed the suggestion of a motor bicyclist 
who was present that the speed limit be 
made ten miles an hour for bicycles, auto- 
mobiles and horse drawn vehicles as well. 
Half a dozen persons at the hearing spoke 
in favor of the increased speed and the 
chairman of the Law Committee plainly 
favored it, while only the trio mentioned op- 
posed it. Although cyclists are not bothered 
as much now as formerly, because the 
cranks have turned to the automobile as the 
latest thing to call "juggernaut" and 
"demon," yet it would be better for them 
and all to have a more reasonable limit, 



What One Doctor Did. 

What the motor bicycle means in an 
emergency is illustrated by an instance de- 
tailed in the English papers. Being called 
to attend a case of lockjaw, the physician, 
whose name is given, found that the nearest 
town at which the necessary serum could 
be obtained was 66 miles distant. As 
neither the mail nor the express could fetch 
it within 36 hours, he immediately mounted 
his motor bicycle, obtained the remedy and 
reached the bedside of his patient in time to 
save his life, having ridden the 122 miles in 
less than six hours. 



162 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



GAS LAMPS BEST 



Why They are Superior and Safer Than Oil 
and Worth the Care Involved. 



"Now that the evenings are closing in and 
few afternoon runs can he finished without 
lighting up, I suggest that more serious at- 
tention should be given by riders to the 
use of acetylene lamps than has hitherto 
been the case," says Henry Sturmey in Tlie 
Cyclist. 

"As for the reason of this, any one who 
likes can make observations for himself upon 
any dark night, when he will find that, 
whereas the users of acetylene lights can 
be readily seen from behind, by reason of 
the large patch of light thrown upon the 
ground and around generally in front of 
them, it is next to impossible to perceive 
many riders at all until right upon them, 
these using weak oil lights, quite sufficient 
to indicate their approach from the front, but 
entirely inadequate to show their position 
from the rear, or, for the matter of that, 
to be of any real use to themselves in show- 
ing up things in front of them. I conclude 
that many cyclists only carry lamps at all 
In order to comply with the law; but what- 
ever may have been the case in the past, 
there cau be no doubt that to-day lights, and 
strong lights at that, are really wanted for 
riders' own protection. Nothing will be of 
real utility which gives much less light 
than a gas lamp. 

" 'Oh, yes, I've had some,' I fancy I hear 
a reader remark, but that is just the point 
I am coming to. 

"When acetylene lamps first made their 
appearance the idea undoubtedly "caught 
on," and there is little doubt but that, had 
they been reliable, and suitable productions, 
they would long ere this have entirely ousted 
the oil lamp, but the gas lamp movement 
was largely killed in its infancy by cheap- 
ness and its very simplicity. 

"A cheap acetylene lamp is worse than a 
'cheap' pneumatic, and most cyclists know 
what sort of a thing that is. These 'cheap' 
gas lamps soon fell to pieces, refused to work 
properly, were messy, dirty and unreliable, 
and 'went out' as quickly as they came in; 
and to a large extent took the better class 
lamps with them. But most cyclists now 
know— or at any rate they are now beginning 
to appreciate the fact — that a machine is not 
cheap which is merely cheap in price, but 
that the really cheap article is the one which 
will fulfil their requirements rather than the 
one which will not, even though it cost more 
money. And the same holds good with the 
lamp. Very cheap oil lamps can be made 
which keep alight and serve sufficiently well 
to merely comply with the law, but if a 
really effective light is required, a lamp of 
good quality, whether oil or gas, must be 
employed. Then, again, one of the reasons 
given for the decline in favor of the gas 
lamp was that it was 'so. much trouble,' and 



another that it was 'messy,' but, carefully 
analyzed, these reasons have but little foun- 
dation in fact; at any rate, both the trouble 
and 'mess' are little, if any, more than char- 
acterize an oil lamp, if it is to be kept in 
really good order. All that is necessary 
with a good acetylene lamp is that it be 
cleaned out and filled up freshly when re- 
quired for use, and this really is not a 
trouble. It need be but the work of a few 
seconds to detach the container, and with 
the blade of a pocket knife, an old key, a 
nail, a piece of wood, or anything of such 
like character, to break up the cake of de- 
posit and empty it out on the road or down 
the sink, replace it with fresh, and screw 
into place again; while to screw off the cap 
of the water vessel and fill from a jug or tap 
is likewise no great task, and if a proper 
'pricker' in metal case is used, the work of 
clearing the burner, should it be choked, is 
done in about ten seconds." 



USE OF WRENCH 



Here's a Han who Claims That the Average 
Cyclist Don't Know how to Handle it. 



First Century for Motocyles. 

The first open century run ever confined 
exclusively to motocycles occurred on Elec- 
tion Day, November 4th. It was conducted 
by the New York Motor Cycle Club over 
the Brooklyn - Valley Stream - Amityville 
course on Long Island. The run was started 
in two divisions, an hour apart, the fast 
pack scheduled to complete the hundred 
miles in six hours, the slow one in eight 
hours. Of 30 starters, 14 joined the first 
division, 12 the second and four stragglers 
left singly from 20 minutes to an hour and 
a half late. 

Of the 30, 17 survived, one of them, A. P. 
rainier, outside the limit, and another, C. 
Mankowski. having been towed for several 
miles. Those who qualified for survivors 
medals were as follows: Roland Douglas, 
James Farley and G. Miller, each on an 
Auto-Bi; B. Guy Warner, on a Royal; W. 
F. Dugan, S. W. Anderson, D. D. Miller, 
W. H. Wray, W. E. Fontaine and H. P. 
Macrery, on Orients; E. J. Willis, on a Mer- 
kel; F. F. Baker, on an Indian; George P. 
Jenkins, on a Marsh; H. Jehle, on a P-T, and 
Will R. Pitman, on a Kelecom. 

Tire, belt and electrical troubles caused 
most of the failures, the early nightfall mak- 
ing repairs difficult and causing several men 
to "chuck it" when within 15 miles of the 
finish. The most serious trouble was the 
breaking of two piston rods and the weak- 
ening of another. One of the men who suf- 
fered in this wise was towed 15 miles by 
Jenkins and Fontaine and eventually fin- 
ished in the trailer attached to Willis's Mer- 
kel. Willis's young son had occupied the 
chair on wheels until the unfortunate was 
met; the latter then took the youngster in 
his lap and Willis drew the double burden 
some 15 miles without trouble. 



"It gives me a bad case of the 'nerves' to 
see some men handle a monkey wrench," 
remarked an old rider. "They are just 
about as fit to be trusted with it as a child 
or a drunken man is with a loaded pistol. 

"Now, most riders can carry a wrench 
and use it only when there is a need for 
it. In the first place, such men seldom have 
to use a wrench, for things do not often go 
wrong. They go over the machine occa- 
sionally and see that all nuts, bolts and 
screws are tight. Then the wrench be- 
comes merely an emergency tool— like a 
hand pump— to be requisitioned only when 
something unexpectedly goes wrong. 

"But the men I refer to are always fuss- 
ing with their wrenches— like a toper with 
a flask, who was always pulling it out and 
taking a swig. 

"They never learn to handle a wrench 
properly— apply the pressure toward the 
open end of the wrench, so as to spread the 
jaws. Then they loosen the nuts so they 
can have the pleasure of tightening them 
again. You can tell them by the round 
corners on the nuts and bolts, or the places 
where the enamel is worn- away by care- 
less use of the wrench. 

"Every time I see one of these riders I feel 
like taking his wrench away from him and 
giving him a good berating, and, at the 
same time, instruct him in the use of it." 



"Many thanks for notifying me of the ex- 
piration of my subscription. Inclosed please 
find the amount of renewal. I cannot get 
along without my weekly caller. Do not let 
me miss a single issue,' 1 — C. H, Denison, 
Mystic, Conn, 



Have Made More Than 1,000,000 Bars. 

What the Ideal Plating Co., of Boston, 
cannot supply in the way of handle bars, 
will be difficult to secure anywhere, and 
there is this to be said of the Ideal bars: 
In quality and finish there are none better 
or more conscientiously made in this coun- 
try or in any other. That they are appre- 
ciated is evidenced by the fact that this 
season was the best the Ideal Co. experi- 
enced since 1894, when they first engaged 
in the manufacture. In the eight years that 
have intervened they say they have sold 
more than 1,000,000 of their bars, which are 
made in three grades. 

The best bars are made of seamless tubing 
and the No. 2 grade of clincher joint lami- 
nated tube. The No. 1 and No. 2 grades have 
a heavy duplex triple plate. This means first 
a cyanide copper, then an electrotype copper, 
which is buffed down bright and then nick- 
eled over. This process makes steel stand 
the weather as good as would copper or 
brass. 

The Ideal people are also making a motor- 
cycle bar, in any length or shape. The stems 
are all made from one-piece forgings, both 
expander and forward extension. They 
are also making a forward extension from 
drop forging with three-inch forward throw 
and 3%-inch down stem where it goes in 
head. These are finished in a medium finish 
and are slightly cheaper than the regular 
Ideal extensions and are suitable for those 
wanting a medium price stem. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



163 



RAGING 



There is promise of as much interest as 
ever being taken in the six-day race of this 
year, which will be started in Madison 
Square Garden at five minutes after mid- 
night on the morning of Dec. 8. Thus far 
eight teams have signed for the race, and 
J. C. Kennedy, who is now in France mak- 
ing contracts with European long distance 
cracks, is expected to arrive here on the 
25th, with Elkes and Bald and four or five 
pairs of foreigners. The teams that have 
signed are Floyd McFarland, the California 
sprinter, and Otto Maya, of Erie; Will C. 
Stinson, New England's champion pace fol- 
lower, and James E. Moran, of Chelsea, 
Mass.; Nat Butler, of Boston, and Charles 
Turville, of Philadelphia, both crack six- 
day performers; Will Fenn, of Bristol, 
Conn., and Pat. Keenan, the flying Irishman, 
of Lowell, Mass.; John and Menus Bedell, 
of Lynbrook, L. I.; C. D. Barclay and Franz 
Krebs, of Brooklyn; Jed Newkirk, of Chi- 
cago, and Jacobson, of New Haven, and 
George Leander and "Farmer" Wm. Blum, 
of Chicago. The last mentioned pair will 
be known as the team of "giants," and John 
West, the veteran trainer, expressed great 
confidence in their abilities. Blum is a re- 
cent "discovery" of West's. 



Eddie Bald effectively demonstrated on 
October 2t> that his victories abroad were 
not flukes, but prove a genuine and almost 
electrifying return to form. On that date, 
at the Pare dos Princes track, Paris, and in 
the presence of 20,000 spectators, he gave 
Thorwald Ellegaard, the hall-marked 
"world's champion," a drubbing so decisive 
that the Dane literally "took off his hat" 
to the American. The race was run in three 
heats, each of 1,458 yards, and each was a 
jockeying match. In the first, the Dane out- 
geueralled Bald and won by half a Avheel 
in 5:13. In the second and third heats Bald 
turned the tables on Ellegaard and, after 
the usual crawl, jumped away and won 
amid almost riotous enthusiasm; times, 



4:31 1-5 and 4:15 1-5. On the same date 
Mihael won an hour's race as he liked, bea1> 
ing Dongla, Bouhours and Ryser, and cover- 
ing 44% miles. 



Durando Miller, the sixteen-year-old son 
of James Miller, te veteran oarsman, is now 
the possessor of the historic Citizens' Cup 
of the New York Athletic Club. Young- 
Miller not only earned the cup by capturing 
the fifteen-mile handicap road race on Elec- 
tion Day, but also won the first time prize 
and established a new record for the course. 
His time for the distance was 45 minutes 
12 3-5 seconds. This is nearly one minute 
better than the former record, which was 
held by W. J. Douglass. 

Te race was started at noon from Travel's 
Island, the course being over the Pelham 
road through New Rochelle to the Boston 
road, through Larchmont to Mamaroneck, 
and hack by a detour to Travers Island. 



Robert Walthour, the crack pace follower, 
and winner of last year's six-day race, had 
a fall on Tuesday night while racing in his 
natice city of Atlanta, Ga., but escaped 
with a broken collar bone. Walthour and 
Nelson were riding a Daced match race. In 
the second lap of the fourth mile, while 
Walthour was trying to pass Nelson, the 
pacing machines collided and every one 
went down. Nelson dived twenty feet over 
the back of the track, but he was uninjured 
and neither of the men on the motor bicycles 
was hurt. 



Fifty miles an hour on a bicycle behind 
pace has been brought nearer than ever by 
Contenet, the French rider, who succeeded 
in riding 48 miles 695 yards at the Buffalo 
Velodrome, Paris, on October 30. Contenet 
was not a bit distressed at the finish of the 
hour, for he went on after the 100 kilometer 
record and reduced it by five minutes, cov- 
ering the distance in 1 hour 17 minutes. 

While "Bobby" Walthour found relays of 
nine horses too much for him, he had no 
trouble in defeating the crack trotter, 
Cresceus. at Piedmont Park. Atlanta, Ga., 
November 7. in a mile exhibition race; 
Walthour did 2:22% to the horse's 2:32. The 
track was soft and treacherous, and pre- 
vented fast going. 



it 



THE "CORSON" MOTOR CYCLE STAND. 



Price, $5.00, 
F. O. B. 

An absolute ne- 
cessity to every 
user of a Motor 
Cycle as a holder 
for cleaning, ad- 
justing and test- 
ing mixture and 
ignition. 

Guaranteed to 
hold machine and 
rider with motor 
running. 




NO MORE STRETCHING OR SLIPPING OF BELTS, THE BANE TO MOTOR CYCLING. 

THE CORSON "KANTSTRETCH" BELT. 

The " KANTSTRETCH " belt is guaranteed not to STRETCH or SLIP and to be impervious to water, if kept clean 
and dressed occasionally with " Holmefast " belt dressing. Eelts made to order to fit any motor cycle. 
Prices quoted on application, giving shape, size and length of belt wanted. 

AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR CYCLE COMPANY, 

c H. CORSON, Manager. office; Pope Building, 221 Columbus Ave., Room 22, BOSTON. 



If you would 



IMPROVE 
THE QUALITY 

of your bicycle, equip it 
with a 

Persons Saddle 




■-.- -^-t 



If you would 

MAINTAIN 
THE QUALITY 

of your bicycle, continue 
to employ 

The Persons 

It is so generally admitted 
to be the unimpeachable best 
that when a reputable bicycle 
is equipped with any other 
saddle it affords grounds for 
suspicion. 



PERSONS MFG. CO., 

C. A. PERSONS, President 

WORCESTER, MASS. 



164 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



The Week's Patents. 

712,528. Mechanical Movement. Daniel H. 
Haywood, New York,- N. Y. Filed February 
12, 1902. Serial No. 93,676. (No model.) 

Claim. — 1. The combination with two mem- 
bers, each adapted to be alternately em- 
ployed as the driving and the driven mem- 
ber, and gearing therefor, adapted to give a 
different relative 'rate of speed to the said 
members, of an automatic clutch mechanism 
for automatically connecting the two said 
members to move at a different relative 
speed, according to which member is em- 
ployed as the driving member. 

712,553. Bicycle Attachment. Ira A. Law- 
rence, Campbell, N. Y. Filed September 20, 

1901. Serial No. 75,760. (No model.) 
Claim. — The combination with a bicycle- 
frame including rear forks and rear tie-rods 
rigidly connected at opposite sides of the 
frame and having openings at their points of 
connection to receive a wheel-axle, of a plate 
at each side of the frame, each of said plates 
having a laterally-projecting lug at one edge 
having a perforation and a bolt engaged with 
said perforation and the axle-receiving open- 
ing at that side of the frame, said plate hav- 
ing also a longitudinal slot and a lug at one 
end beyond the slot and provided with a per- 
foration, a block having a reduced portion 
slidably engaged in the slot of the plate and 
having a plate secured there against and 
overlapping the slotted plate to prevent with- 
drawal of the block, a lug upon the side of 
the block having a rod slidably engaged in 
the perforation of the lug at the end of the 
plate, a helical spring upon the block to hold 
the rod yieldable at one end of the slot of the 
plate, a brace connected to the upper end of 
the plate and having a clip engaged with the 
adjacent fork side, and a. wheel having an 
axle engaged with the blocks of the two 
plates. 

712,556. Combined Coasting Hub and 
Brake for Bicycles. Henry Lear, Newport, 
Ky. Filed January 7, 1902. Serial No. 88,- 
769. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a combined coasting hub and 
brake, a stationary shaft adapted to be se- 
cured to the forks of the bicycle, a hub 
journaled upon the shaft, a sleeve also jour- 
naled upon the shaft, a sprocket-wheel se- 
cured to one end of the sleeve, frictional sur- 
faces formed upon the interior of the hub at 
each end thereof, frictional disks journaled 
loosely upon the sleeve and arranged in jux- 
taposition to the frictional surfaces, cam- 
teeth formed upon the inner face of the fric- 
tional disks, two collars secured rigidly to 
the sleeve, cam-teeth formed upon each of 
the collars, the cam-teeth of the two different 
sets of collars and disks so beveled as to 
operate in opposite directions to one an- 
other, substantially as and for the purpose 
set forth. 

712,580. Motor-Car Saddle and Handle-Bar 
Support. Charles P. Norgate, Orrell, Eng- 
land. Filed May 31, 1902. Serial No. 109,- 
7U7. (No model.) 

Claim. — In supports of cycle and auto-ve- 
hicle saddle and handle-bar pillars, the com- 
bination of the pillar — the spring — having its 
lower end fastened to the lower end of the 
pillar (a) an outer sleeve, a pin (d) held in 
the outer sleeve and passing through the pil- 
lar, and to which the upper end of the spring 
is attached, and slots in the pillar in which 
the pin works vertically, all arranged so that 
the pillar is suspended from the pin by the 
spring which stretches when pressure is ap- 
plied to the pillar. 

712,093. Bicycle. James W. Master, San 
Diego, Oal., assignor of one-half to Charles 
R. Richards, San Diego, Cal. Filed May 15, 

1902. Serial No. 107,494. (No model.) 



Claim.— In a bicycle, or a like vehicle, the 
combination of a drive-wheel, differential 
gears carried upon each side of the drive- 
wheel, a rotable side shaft upon each side of 
the drive-wheel, differential gears carried 
upon both ends of the rotable side shafts, a 
crank shaft, a sleeve carrying differ- 
ential gears adapted to alternately en- 
gage the gears of both rotable side shafts, 
a gear connection between the sleeve and the 
bearings for reciprocating the differential 
gears, bearings in which the sleeve recipro- 
cates, a sector carried by the reciprocating 
sleeve, a rack engaging the sector on the 
sleeve, and a rod connecting with the rack 
for alternately oscillating the sleeve and 
changing the speed of the gears. 

712,7S4. Bicycle-Frame. Robert Ellis, Ni- 
agara Falls, N. Y. Filed September 10, 1902. 
Serial No. 122,S02. (No model.) 

Claim. — In a bicycle, the frame comprising 
the bars, sleeve post and pivoted upper and 
lower frames, the upper frame provided with 
the sleeve having the side perforated lugs, 
the bar constructed with the reduced portion 
engaging said sleeve, and shouldared and 
the forward end pivoted to the seat-post, the 
springs pivoted on each side of the bar and 
having their ends engaging the eyes in the 
side lugs, the block pivoted to the side arms 
of the hub and to the forward end of the 
frame, the whole adapted to operate substan- 
tially as described. 



March 7, 1902. Serial No. 97,071. (No model.) 
Claim. — 1. A toe-clip comprising a substan- 
tially U-shaped bridge-piece provided with a 
group of holes, means for detachably secur- 
ing said bridge-piece upon the pedal, a flex- 
ible strap provided with a plurality of group 
of holes, each group being adapted to mate 
said group of holes in said bridge-piece, and 
fastening's for detachably engaging said 
holes in said strap and said holes in said 
bridge-piece. 

712,985. Variable Sprocket-Gear. William 
D. Wansbrough, Lincoln, England. Filed 
February IS, 1902. Serial No. 94,624. (No 
model.) 

Claim. — 1. In an expansible wheel, the 
combination, with a flexible divided ling 
provided with a series of laterally-projecting 
pins, of two superposed plates provided with 
slots which cross each other and engage with 
the said pins, and means for revolving one 
of the said plates relative to the other to 
adjust the said ring, substantially as set 
forth. 

Bicycle Ideas in Speed Wagons. 

As showing how the "bicycle idea" has 
been carried into speed wagons and inci- 
dentally as showing a vehicle of the sort 
made by bicycle makers and which a num- 
ber of bicycle dealers are selling to their 




712,791. Muffler for internal Combustion 
Engines. Carl G. Hedstrom, Portland, Conn., 
assignor to George M. Hendee, Springfield, 
Mass. Filed October 2S, 1901. Serial No. 
S0.192. (No model.) 

Claim.— In a muffler having closed ends and 
a discharge-opening in one of said ends, the 
combination of a deflecting plate secured by 
one edge to said end, and having its oppo- 
site edge in close proximity to the surface 
of said end, whereby the gases are turned 
from their normal line of discharge and are 
deflected to issue from said plate in oppos- 
ing directions, in the same plate. 

712,929. Valve for Internal Combustion 
Engines. Carl O. Hedstrom, Portland, Conn., 
assignor to George M. Hendee, Springfield, 
Mass. Filed October 28, 1901. Serial No. 
S0.191. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. The combination with the cylin- 
der of an engine, of a valve body, and means 
for removably securing the latter to the 
cylinder consisting of interlocking devices 
between the valve-body and the cylinder, a 
bushing screw-threaded into said valve-body, 
and means to hold the bushing against ro- 
tation, whereby the rotation of the valve 
body will cause the said interlocking de- 
vices to engage. 

712,953. Toe-Clip. Fred J. McMonies and 
Walter H. McMonies, Portland, Ore. Filed 



profit, the accompanying illustration of the 
speed wagon made by E. C. Stearns & Co., 
Syracuse, N. Y., is of interest. The truss 
form of construction not only brings down 
the weight of the wagon to 42 pounds, but 
permits the employment of a turnbuckle 
underneath the body of the wagon, allows 
the axle to be adjusted to any weight of 
driver, thus keeping the wheel perpendic- 
ular and in exact line. Adjustable truss 
rods on the shaft enable them also to be 
kept perfectly true, and the consequent ab- 
sence of friction, sidewise motion and drag- 
ging, is claimed to make the wagon seconds 
faster than any other. 



Should be Effective, not Effusive. 

Window displays are powerful helps to 
trade, if they are attractive. In order to be 
effective they should not be effusive. Too 
many windows, like too many advertise- 
ments, are overcrowded and "messy," says 
a contemporary. They are a jumble of all 
sorts of things. Their owners think they 
must place in them samples of everything 
carried in stock. It is better and far better 
to place in them a few attractions at a time, 
changing these dailj', or certainly two or 
three times a week. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, November 20, 1902 




No. 8 



REORGANIZATION NOT READY 



Despite Other Rumors, A. B. C. Report Is 
not Drafted— An Inkling of the Plan. 



of the original forty-seven manufacturing 
plants turning out bicycles, three in the East 
and three in the West. 



ASSOCIATION NOT FORMED 



R. Lindsay Coleman, president of the 
American Bicycle Company, and one of the 
receivers for it, said on Tuesday that, de- 
spite reports to the contrary, there would be 
no definite plan of reorganization submitted 
to the stockholders for several weeks yet. 
He confirmed the statement that the reor- 
ganization would involve a radical change 
in every way and a great reduction of the 
capitalization. Mr. Coleman declared em- 
phatically that he would get out as soon as 
the reorganization is completed. His resigna- 
tion is already written. He said: "I have 
carried the thing along for two years and a 
half against the greatest kind of odds. Now 
I want to let some other fellow run it. 
When it has been all fixed up anew and the 
stocks have some standing, it can be run all 
right, but I'm not going to do it. I have 
other things I want to do. I'm going out in 
my automobile now and forget it." 

Concerning the co-operation of the A. B. 
C. with the independent makers in an effort 
to raise prices, Mr. Coleman said that the 
receivers certainly would co-operate if per- 
mitted to do so by the court, but that they 
could not do it without such permission. 
"We are under the orders of the Court to 
sell and realize on our stocks, and we cannot 
raise prices on them or enter into any agree- 
ment to do it unless we get the court's con- 
sent," he explained. 

Meetings of the financiers who compose 
the organization committee were held Mon- 
day and Tuesday at the offices of Vermilye 
& Co., on Nassau street, corner of Pine 
street, New York. Colonel A. A. Pope at- 
tended, but President Coleman preferred to 
go out in his automobile. Nothing was offi- 
cially given out for publication, and it was 
understood that the plans were not yet 
completed. Colonel Albert Pope left New 
York for Boston Tuesday night. 

One of the directors of the company said 
that the plan would be to merge the deben- 
ture bonds of the company with the pre- 
ferred stock and to levy an assessment on 
the common stock. There are now only six 



Glllettes <io Under. 

L. P. Waldo Marvin was last week ap- 
pointed receiver of the well known bicycle 
and sporting goods house of Gillette Bros., 
Inc., Hartford, Conn., on the application of 
Albert A. Pope, R. Lindsay Coleman and Ar- 
thur L. Shipman, ancillary receivers of the 
American Bicycle Co. 

In the complaint it was set out that de- 
fendant has a capital stock of $10,000, and 
that the plaintiffs as receivers were credit- 
ors of the defendant in the sum of $2,7S2.25. 
It was alleged that the defendant owed 
about $6,000, and that it had assets of about 
$3,500. The complaint said that the defend- 
ant was unable to meet its obligations, and 
that unless a receiver was appointed the 
property of the defendant would be attached 
and its business suspended and assets there- 
by wasted. The directors of the defendant 
had voted to join with others in the appoint- 
ment of a receiver, and the application for 
the receiver was made in behalf of the pe- 
titioning creditors and the other creditors of 
the corporation. 

Under the appointment Mr. Marvin is 
given authority to continue the business of 
the corporation for a period of four months. 



Manufacturers Talked Only of Stripped Bi- 
cycles, Then Adjourned Until To-morrow. 



Mossberg Incorporates With $110,000. 

The Frank Mossberg Co., a copartnership, 
has been succeeded by the Frank Mossberg 
Co., a Rhode Island corporation, with paid 
in capital of $110,000. The Mossberg con- 
cern is, of course, the one so well known to 
the cycle trade as manufacturer of bells, 
wrenches, etc., at Attleboro, Mass., where 
the factory will be continued. The corpora- 
tion is naturally in the nature of an en- 
largement that will reach out for greater 
things. The president is Charles Sisson, of 
the Hope Webbing Co.; the vice-president 
and general manager is Frank Mossberg, 
the treasurer is C. M. Polsey, and J. B. 
White is the secretary. The officers are 
members of the board of directors, and the 
other directors are J. Vinton Dart, assistant 
city engineer of the city of Providence, and 
D. McNiven. 



The factory of the A. H. Warner Co., 
Bristol. Conn., was badly damaged by fire 
last week. The concern included cork grips 
among its manufactures. 



After talking all of last Thursday and 
Friday about stripped bicycles the meeting 
of bicycle manufacturers at the Waldorf- 
Astoria, called by George N. Pierce, who 
makes only high grades, adjourned without' 
definite accomplishment. The chief point 
of agreement was that another meeting be 
held in Cleveland to-morrow, the 21st inst. 

Newspaper men were rigorously excluded, 
and nothing for publication was given out, 
but the best information obtainable makes 
it appear that no effort was made to organ- 
ize the national association, as suggested by 
resolution of the original meeting at Cleve- 
land. 

The committee which was appointed on 
Thursday to report a plan of action on the 
following day was apparently absorbed in 
the omnipresent discussion of the price of 
stripped bicycles; certainly if the committee 
submitted a specile report of any kind bear- 
ing on the general object in view, the secret 
has been unusually well guarded. 

"Words, not deeds," characterized the ses- 
sion of both days, and when all was said 
it was made the "sense of the meeting" that 
the price of stripped bicycles be— well, never 
mind how many dollars. It was $1 less than 
the price that had been voted down on the 
first day. and lower than the quotations of 
which some of those represented in the 
"sense of the meeting" had gone out of 
their way to hurriedly book orders twenty- 
four hours x">reviously. 

It is possible that the adjourned meeting 
at Cleveland to-raorrow may be productive 
of more sincerity and more tangible accom- 
plishments. 

Ashby Now Sales manager. 

E. K. Ashby has been appointed sales 
manager for the E. R. Thomas Motor Co., 
Buffalo, succeeding to the vacancy left by 
E. B. Olmstearl. Mr. Ashby was formerly 
a well known and successful dealer in 
Evansville, Ind., where he developed a great 
aptitude for motor bicycles. 



174 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



WHAT SPOILED DEALERS 



One Man's Views of Their Lack of Enthus- 
iasm— flen Have Changed With flachlnes. 



They were talking about the changed atti- 
tude of the tradesman, and more particu- 
larly of the average dealer— his disinclina- 
tion to conquer difficulties that a dozen years 
ago would not have feazed him. 

"He has been spoiled by the wonderful im- 
provement that has taken place in ma- 
chines," exclaimed an old timer whose ex- 
perience went back to the pre-safety days. 

"To-day bicycles are almost perfect. The 
guarantee is short, and the burden of look- 
ing after machines is infinitesimal compared 
to what it formerly was. The dealer's re- 
pair shop, where he runs one, is a money 
making proposition instead of, as formerly, 
resulting in a loss and being an adjunct to 
the salesroom. Consequently if anything 
should go very wrong and require a lot of 
looking after the dealer is all at sea. Either 
he hasn't the facilities or he lacks the in- 
clination to throw himself into the breach 
as he formerly did. 

"Why, years ago, when wheelmen were 
most enthusiastic, machines gave all man- 
ner of trouble. Breakages of all kinds were 
of the most ordinary occurrences. The guar- 
antee was for a year, and riders expected it 
to be lived up to, and looked to the dealer 
to be the buffer between the maker and him- 
self. 

"What was the result? We— for I was a 
dealer then— had to jump in and 'make 
good' ourselves. 

"There was one season that we put forty 
new heads in English machines— forged and 
brazed them right in our own shops rather 
than wait for new forks to come from the 
other side. Another year we had the spokes 
in an' American machine go wrong. As 
soon as we learned how serious the matter 
was we made preparations to respoke wheels 
ourselves as fast as they came in— and there 
were several scores of them before we got 
through. Once it was broken frames we had 
to contend with; and we kept new frames 
constantly on hand and gave a -ider back 
his machine an hour or two after he brought 
it to us. And so it went through Die whole 
list. We had to back up the machines, and 
we did it to the queen's taste. Of course, the 
makers replaced all the parts Ave sent them, 
but we were out our time. 

"As to pneumatic tires, they were enough 
to qualify one for a funatic asylum. 

"From the time I sold the first one. in 
1S91, until they had been in use r'aree or 
four years there was nothing but J .roiible 
with them. Time and money without limit 
were spent on them, and that, and that only, 
made them right. Without them the air 
tire would have been swept out of use by a 
host of indignant wheelmen. 

"But it turned out just the other way. 
Ami why? Why, because we all turned in 



with a will and made wrong right until it 
stayed right. Punctures were almost the 
least of the evils that afflicted us. Defects 
developed in the fabric, in the covers, in the 
tubes and valves— everywhere, in fact, that 
they could develop. In time the makers got 
them all right, but we were led a pretty 
dance in the interval. 

"If some of the dealers of to-day had to 
go through such times now they would soon 
find out how pleasant their lines are at 
present, and would welcome and not decry 
motor bicycles simply because they give 
some trouble." 



THOSE CENTURY TROPHIES 



Their Whereabouts Still a Mystery and 
Ludlum's Receipt Called into Question. 



'Increase of Spring Seat Posts. 

Each succeeding year having seen them 
gain ground in the natural order of things, 
spring seat posts are due for a consider- 
able inning next season. How much of an 
inning may be imagined from the experience 
of W. J. Loomis, manager of the Berkey 
Spring Seat Post Co., Grand Rapids, Mich., 
who was in New York on Monday last after 
a tour of the Eastern jobbing trade. Be- 
fore he left the factory he had prepared lor 
a 50 per cent increase of production. When 
he reaches home it is his intention lo more 
than double this year's output. He booked 
no order for less than 100 posts, and took 
several for 1.000. 



His Individual Business. 

A New York salesman has worked up what 
he calls an "individual export" business. It 
is the sale of bicycles to foreigners who 
want to take them home with them as bag- 
gage. The business has been worked up by 
cultivating the friendship of the consuls of 
the different foreign powers, and the consuls 
send their countrymen to this enterprising- 
salesman whenever any of them happen to 
want anything in the bicycle line. New York 
is not the only city that has foreign consuls 
and visitors from abroad. If there was more 
clever activity of this sort there would be a 
better tone throughout the trade. 



What Makes an Extra " Special." 

Great Britain's largest manufacturer, 
Kudge-Whitworth, Ltd., has come to the cot- 
terless crank shaft, the axle and left crank 
being formed in one piece. This and a new 
pedal, new front fork, handle bar adjust- 
ment and aluminum rims and guards are the 
chief features that make up the concern's 
1903 "Aero Special," listed at SS0, $15 more 
than the plain, ordinary Special of 1902. 



Cole Found Dead. 

Everett Cole, who formerly manufactured 
"Greyhound" bicycles at East Brookfield, 
Mass., was recently found lying in the woods 
near Likton, Md., by gunners. Cole, who 
has had business reverses, was apparently 
demented. He lives at Worcester, Mass., 
and had gone South selling a patent awl 
handle of his own. 



A prominent member of the Century Road 
Club Association sheds a little light on the 
squabble about trophies that is now going 
on between the "Association" and the 
"Americas." This authority explains that 
the trophies were put up by different or- 
ganizations for clubs having the greatest 
number of finishers in their century runs on 
Long Island, and that they really were won 
by the Association, which at the time was 
a part of the Century Road Club, because 
the national organization could not qualify 
as a club, while the Association could. The 
fact that the trophies were inscribed with 
the name of the Century Road Club of 
America does not, it is claimed, alter the 
fact of their having been won by the Asso- 
ciation and actually belonging to that body. 

Beyond the question of title, however, 
there is another one more serious, which is 
darkly hinted at. The Americas have in 
their possession, or rather their lawyer has, 
a receipt signed by H. A. Ludlum, as secre- 
tary of the Association, setting forth that 
he had received the property in dispute 
from the Century Road Club of America, 
that it had been "loaned for safe keeping" 
and was to be returned "upon demand." 
This letter is the strongest argument of 
ownership that the Americas have. The let- 
ter was written by Ludlum when he was 
secretary of the Association, and short- 
ly before the difficulty which caused the 
Association to start on an independent career 
in opposition to the Americas. Ludlum cast 
his lot with the Americas, and he is now 
the candidate for president of that organiza- 
tion. 

The same authority who explained the 
claim that the Association had to the tro- 
phies says that the receipt written by Lud- 
lum, as secretary, never was authorized by 
the Association, and that there is nothing on 
the minutes to show that it was. 

Meanwhile the whereabouts of the cups 
and banners is a dark mystery. They are 
not in the clubhouse, in Fifty-third street, 
New York, and every member professes ab- 
solute ignorance as to what has become of 
them. 



Tires at $i2.5o. 

One of the well known makes of English 
tires is now quoted at retail at the priee of 
$12.50 a pair. 



Gasolene for Wounds. 

That wonderful fluid, gasolene, has been 
discovered to possess another virtue. Writ- 
ing to a contemporary, a motocyclist who 
oeverely cut his hand with a screw driver 
while adjusting his machine says he ap- 
plied a rag soaked in gasolene to the wound, 
and to his surprise the bleeding stopped 
and the pain disappeared. 



"How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." ifi. The 
Goodman Co., Box 649, New York. •** 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



175 



THEY ARE RESPECTABLE 



None Doubted it but L. A. W. Was Sacri- 
ficed to Emphasize it— Regulars Win. 



Eighteenth District— E. E. Mansfield, Ni- 
agara Falls, 3. 

Nineteenth District— C. Lee Abel, Buffalo, 
30. 

Twentieth District — No election. 



SIGNS THAT SERMONIZE 



Placards Employed by a Live Dealer That 
Make Strong Points for Cycling. 



The respectability of C. J. Obermayer, 
president of a German bank in Brooklyn and 
chief consul of the New York Division of 
the League of American Wheelmen, and 
that of his fellows who have contributed so 
superbly to the calm, quiet, graveyardish 
conditions existing in the organization, has 
been maintained. It cannot be recalled that 
any one ever doubted their respectability, 
but Obermayer and his friends made it so 
appear, and by means of personal appeals to 
league members secured "vindication" by 
a majority as handsome as any man on their 
ticket. 

The ballots in the State election, which 
closed November 1, were counted on Satur- 
day last, and disclosed that result. The "in- 
dependents," who made "a live league or a 
dead one" the issue, were beaten by a vote 
of about four to one, but one of their candi- 
dates, Robert Bruce, of Clinton, being 
elected. The vote follows: 

For Chief Consul— C. J. Obermayer, Brook- 
lyn, 750; Joseph Oatman, New York, 190. ■ 

For Vice-Consul— W. M. Thomas, Albany, 
755; R. G. Betts, Brooklyn, 193. 

For Secretary -Treasurer— J. F. Clark, New 
York, 914. 

For Representatives, First District— Ru- 
dolph Hepp, New York, 278; George C. Pen- 
nell, New York; 291; W. H. Hale, New York, 
2S7; Fred S. Wells, New York, 281; Benja- 
min H. Newell, New York, 13S; George C. 
Wheeler, New York, 131; Will R. Pitman, 
New York, 13-1; F. B. Bradley, New York, 
107; Charles E. Miller, New York, 111; M. L. 
Bridgman, New York, 134; scattering, 10. 

Second District— G. T. Stebbins, Brook- 
lyn, 122; N. S. Cobleigh, Brooklyn, 1G4; 
Richard J. Wulff, Brooklyn, 3S, and H. P. 
Macrery, Brooklyn, 12. 

Third District— C. F. Smith, Cutchogue, 12. 

Fourth District— S. Allen Mead, Peekskill, 
53. 

Fifth District— E. V. Sidell, Poughkeep- 
sie, ID. 

Sixth District— C. P. Hermance, Hudsou, 
15. 

Seventh District— S. V. Cole, Newburg, 0. 

Eighth District— Harry W. Smith, Albany, 
20. 

Ninth District— Delancy Watkins, Schenec- 
tady, 9. 

Tenth District— H. O. Folger, Waterford, 
2 t 

Eleventh District— No nomination. 

Twelfth District— Robert Bruce, Clinton, 4. 

Thirteenth District— Theodore Coles, Onei- 
da, 1. 

Fourteeuth District — No election. 

Fifteenth District— F. H. Warner, Ithaca, 
10. 

Sixteenth District— E. P. Gardner, Canan- 
daigu.-i. 0. 

Seventeenth District— No election. 



Improvements in the Harsh. 

The Motor Cycle Mfg. Co., Brockton, 
Mass., now has the Marsh motor bicycle of 
1903 well in hand, and will have it ready 
for display at the automobile show in this 
city in January next. 

The general design of machine will be 
the same as the 1902 model, except that the 
motor will be just about twice as powerful 
and will be lower and nearer to the ground. 
This, they believe, is a step in the right di- 
rection, inasmuch as it is very essential to 
have the weight of the motor as low as pos- 
sible. The motor will be 3% inch bore by 
BVi inch stroke, giving 3% horsepower on the 
brake. The rear driving pulley will be made 
of wood, being a part of the rim to which 
the tire is cemented. This gives large di- 
ameter of rear pulley, which reduces the 
liability of belt slipping. The belt will be 
1% inch wide, of double thickness and made 
up endless. This extra width, together with 
the increased diameter of pulleys, will make 
the belt last much longer. The flywheels of 
the new engine will be larger in proportion 
than those of the old one, and cause the 
machine to run steadier and at a slower pace 
in rough places. The weight will be about 
125 pounds. 



What may be Scraped Together. 

Regarding old stocks of bicycles in the 
factories of the American Cycle Manufac- 
turing Company, one of the directors of the 
parent concern, the A. B. C, said that he 
thought possibly by scraping together all 
odds and ends, there might be two or three 
thousand wheels made up from all the fac- 
tories, but not more than that. All the 
plants were much behind in their product, 
he said, and there is now, for the first time 
in years, a prospect of the supply not ex- 
ceeding the demand, and even of a shortage. 
Continuing, he remarked: "There has been 
a tremendous over-production ever since 
1896. Each year every factory in the coun- 
try carried over more goods and each year 
it turned out more, because it could produce 
them easier, and the manufacturers believed 
they could market them cheaper. The situ- 
ation has been worse than was generally 
known, but now the overproduction has 
ceased, and there is solid ground to stand 
upon." 

Front Forks a Feature. 

The front fork of the 1903 Merkel motor 
bicycle will be one of its features. It will 
have its sides extended through the crown 
plates to the top of the head, where it will 
be secured to the stem with a liberal clip; 
the handle bars will have two stems that 
will enter the extended fork sides, thus 
forming, practically a triple fork, and. one 
which will relieve the fork stem of all bend- 
ing strain. 



A live manager or salesman can always 
do something to help matters during the dull 
season. A few wise words timely spoken 
are always effective, often more so than is 
thought. 

In Warren street, New York, the store 
where Elliott Mason presides as manager the 
retail sales of the American Cycle Mfg. 
Co.'s line are being helped by some well 
printed and plain reading notices displayed 
in the front window. These are made ap- 
propriate to the season and to whatever 
may be going on, whether it is election or 
other holiday, and are changed frequently. 
At present the following are on evidence in 
the window: 

"Cycling — A refined, healthful and pleasant 
outdoor recreation; insuring continuous 
pleasure and added zest to life. Not con- 
fined to any season, but useful throughout 
the year." 

Thanksgiving Proclamation. 

"Eat strenuously, but avoid dyspepsia and 
headache by topping off with a ride on a bi- 
cycle." 

"A man takes 2,112 steps walking a mile, 
allowing thirty inches to ea<m step. Riding 
a bicycle of medium gear he takes 272 steps 
going an equal distance. What a waste of 
time and energy is caused by walking." 

Inside the store a larger sign on the wall 
reads: 

Bicycle Sense." 

"Do you enjoy good health? A bicycle will 
insure its continuance. 

"Are you a lover of nature? Enjoy it 
under the most favorable circumstances by 
riding a bicycle. 

"Don't get run down. Relieve that tired 
feeling. Be jolly. Riding a bicycle will ac- 
complish this. 

"A bicycle is a positive cure for dyspepsia, 
rheumatism and headache. It is cheaper 
and better than a doctor." 

These sayings may be trite enough in 
character, but it is well to remind a man 
occasionally of facts that have become so 
trite to him that he never thinks about 
them. 



Three Instructive Events. 

Three novel and unusually interesting 
events will be held by the Alpha Motor 
Cycle Club of Brooklyn on Thanksgiving 
Day, the 27th inst. They are a slow race, 
a brake or stopping contest, and a gasolene 
consumption trial, in which the man cover- 
ing the greatest distance on one pint will 
.be the winner. They will be held during 
the forenoon on a Long Island course, and 
the results should furnish some really in- 
structive and valuable data. 



176 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 




HAT YOU GET FOR YOUR 
MONEYJSAS IMPORTANT 
AS THE AMOUNT YOU P . 

PAY. =1? ***F ,. =3? . =3? 






-m- 



? 



Every buyer of a bicycle figures either on the 
pleasure he will get from its use or the saving 
it will make him in time or money. To get the 
best results he must have a bicycle which is 
always in condition and not in the repair shop. 



THE PARTS OF ALL NATIONAL BICYCLES 

are noted for their simplicity, durability and freedom from defect in material and workmanship. 




This chain adjuster is found on no other bicycle made. IT HO JUSTS B0TH SIDES HT ©PVCJE, the operator being behind his wheel 

and at the same time trueing his rear wheel in the frame. The tightening of the nuts after the adjustment is made serves 

to bind together the rear ends of the frame, making it stiffer and stauncher than any other frame made. 

NATIONALS ARE A CLASS BY THEMSELVES, ALONE AND OF THEIR OWN KIND— NOT LIKE OTHER BICYCLES. 

NATIONAL prices are always fair — you get what you pay for and you get it when you want it. That will be worth something in 



1903. If you want a real money-making agency, ask to have our traveler call. 

National Cycle Mfg. Company, 



Bay Gity, 
Michigan. 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ 



NEW BICYCLES 



SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH 



F1SK TIRES 

It means that you have the best that can be obtained. 

FULLY GUARANTEED. 



F1SK RUBBER COHPANY, - Chicopee Falls, Hass. 



1 



BRANCHES: 

BOSTON, SPRINO.FIELD, NEW YORK , 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Dwight St. 83 Chambers St. 

SYRACUSE, BUFFALO, DETRl IT, 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Genesee St. 2S2 Jefferson St. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

910 Arch St. 



CHICAGO, 

54 State St. 



SAN FRANC1SC"\ 

1 1 4 Second St. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



J77 



-THE 





FOUNDED^ 
•18751 

a nd^\%ocYCLE REVIEW<*s»- 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 
By 

The gooomhn ©©mphny, 

123=125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... lo Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscripiions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Ordere 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

WW* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

§3T* Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, November 20, 1902. 

The iTanufacturers' fleetings. 

What will grow out of the several meet- 
ings of manufacturers no man can tell. De- 
spite the Cleveland resolution that expressed 
desire for national organization, that ob- 
ject appeared to have been snuffed or lost 
sight of in New York, both meetings being 
strangely unprolific of results. 

For some unaccountable reason there ex- 
ists a disposition to surround the meetings 
with secretiveness, if not mystery, but from 
the best information obtainable only stripped' 
bicycles have been talked of, and talked of 
so much that we beard one high grade man- 
ufacturer express wonder that he had been 
invited to attend the meetings. And while 
the subject was being discussed men with 
stripped bicycles to sell were scurrying 
around New York trying to sell them at a 
lower price than they feared would be 
fixed by the organization which it was 
thought might be formed. 

That an organization of manufacturers 
would do no harm and could institute some 



needed reforms and serve some good pur- 
poses is not to be denied, and for that rea- 
son it is hoped that to-morrow's meeting at 
Cleveland will see some real accomplish- 
ment toward that end. 

"To be talked to death is a terrible death, 

'Tis a terrible death to die." 

It would be loo bad if such a fate should 
overtake such a promising movement. 



Ready for Its Shroud. 

It may now safely be written that the 
League of American Wheelmen is past hope, 
beyond helping and, indeed, hardly worth 
helping. The result of the election in the 
New York Division makes this so plain that 
only the sentiment-saturated can fail to 
see it. 

More than a year ago one of the national 
officials of the League wrote us: 

"The career of the L. A. W. is about ended. 
There are ways to bring it up, but New 
York and the grafters will not see them. 
If they continue, the League is dead. It is a 
great pity, but New York has been wreck- 
ing the organization for the last ten years." 

We refused to share these beliefs, and 
when, this Pall, a movement was inaugu- 
rated that sought and promised regenera- 
tion, we gave ourselves to it. The adminis- 
tration had accomplished nothing. It did 
not attempt r o deny the charge. The fact 
was notorious. The issue was made clear 
and placed fairly before the membership. 
A live organization or a "dead" one? was 
the question that the regenerators -asked to 
have decided. 'They warned the members 
that the return of the present officials would 
mean that their policy of "rest and quiet," 
and plenty of it, was indorsed and its con- 
tinuance desired 

The question has been decided, and by 
such a substantial majority as to leave no 
room for doubt. The members have voted 
for a "dead" organization. That they will 
have it, the record of the past is sufficient as- 
surance. 

Let them have it. The national official 
whom we quote spoke truly. The man or 
publication that would hereafter seek to 
better the condition of the League of Amer- 
ican Wheelmen must be hard pressed for 
want of something to do. 



The Matter of Improvements. 

It will be readily admitted that the proc- 
esses of manufacture of the present day bi- 
cycle have undergone material improvement 
during the last half dozen years. But the 



companion question, has the machine itself 
been equally improved, is not so easily an- 
swered. 

It stands to reason, of course, that with 
the improved processes have come better 
parts. Designs have also been improved. 
Extremes no longer rule, or even appear on 
many machines. The reign of moderation 
is in full sway, and in appearance as well 
as in running qualities a decided betterment 
has undoubtedly taken place. 

There is little doubt that along with the 
decrease in the number of breakages and 
the lessening of minor troubles has come 
increased efficiency. 

For example, the sprocket wheels and 
chain of to-day give less trouble than for- 
merly; therefore they must almost certainly 
run better, for the former troubles were 
undoubtedly due to defects in construction 
or design, and with these eliminated better 
results must necessarily follow. 

It is a fair inference that in other parts 
of the machine the same process has been 
going on. 

Let a man make a certain article long 
enough and it is a dead certainty that he 
will get it wellnigh perfect. It is change 
alone that interferes with this law. 

It may be said that to simply improve on 
present patterns is not to get the best pos- 
sible out of them. Perhaps so. But it also 
insures holding fast to what is good and 
making it so exceptionally good that further 
improvement is wellnigh impossible. 

There is needed only a look at the pres- 
ent patterns to see that stagnation has not 
set in. Aside from the radical changes and 
improvements, the coaster brake and its 
like, there are plenty of little things that, if 
compared with similar fittings of the nine- 
ties, would show the advance that some peo- 
ple profess to look for in vain. And no one 
will dispute that the improvements then 
made have long since passed from the list 
of expariments into that of standard and 
perfected parts. 



Some parents in buying machines for their 
children seem to have but one thought in 
mind— to get one that the child will not out- 
grow. Particularly is this the case with 
boys. 

If the latter are of a good size a regular 
man's machine with low frame instead of a 
juvenile :s often taken. By using a low 
saddle the boy's legs will be found long- 
enough to reach the pedals, and this is con- 
sidered to be sufficient. No thought is given 
to the fact that the machine may be other- 



178 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



wise unsuitable— the handle bars too wide, 
the frame too long, the machine too heavy 
or the reach too long. It is too frequent a 
sight to see a child riding a machine the 
pedals of which he can reach only by leav- 
ing the saddle. A penny wise, pound fool- 
ish, policy of this sort always does harm. 



CORSON STARTS WEST 



Bubbling With Enthusiasm, he Undertakes 
the Longest Journey on a flotor Bicycle. 



Whether or not it ever was the intention of 
Park Commissioner Young, of Kings County, 
to abolish the Rest at the south end of Pros- 
pect Park, Brooklyn, he and the general pub- 
lic have had a fresh demonstration that cyc- 
ling has plenty of followers who are alive 
and kicking. The editorial protest in the 
Bicycling World of Nov. 6 against the Rest 
being fenced in was taken up by nearly 
every daily newspaper in Greater New 
York, and Commissioner Young became the 
recipient of many written and verbal re- 
monstrances. He quickly declared that he 
never had any intention of doing away with 
the Rest. The word of the intention came 
from one of his own foremen on the fencing 
job, who told that his orders were to carry 
the fence past the open space used by cyc- 
lists, and the fact is that racks and seats 
had been removed. The Commissioner has 
been gracious, however, in declaring that 
the Rest will be not only preserved, but en- 
larged and improved, and there is no need 
to question or criticise what might have 
been. 



If there is anything easier or less expen- 
sive than marking the intermeshing teeth 
of the gears that time the spark of a motor 
we cannot imagine what it is. Despite the 
fact, and despite the great importance of 
proper timing, manufacturers of motor bi- 
cycles persist in sending out their machines 
with unmarked gears. Why, the Lord aione 
knows. It is inattention to such apparently 
trivial and yet highly important details that 
is giving motocyclists more trouble than is 
their due and than is good for the health of 
the business. 



"Bicycle" may -be- forced to rhyme with 
"Michael,"' but "the motor bicycle that looks 
like JJimmie' Michael" is such a far cry that 
we would deny the poetic license if it were 
held by other than such: an enthusiastic soul 
as E. H. Corson. But as the first American 
production of the sort, Corson's "Song of 
the Motocycle," published in another col- 
umn, "goes." Now, altogether! 



If a pump is an inflator, can a tack be 
correctly described as a "deflater"? 



Editor The Bicycling World: I am ready 
for my Western trip, and if the weather 
holds good and continues six weeks or two 
months I will make such a trip on the motor 
bicycle as has not been made before. 

My route from Boston to Milwaukee was 
given in the Bicycling World a few weeks 
ago. I asked to hear from old time friends 
and any who might be interested in the 
motocycle, and have had the pleasure of 
several replies. Several are coming to meet 
me between towns. I would like to have 
others do the same. One old "Star" rider, 
whom I never had the pleasure of meeting 
personally, but have heard from in one way 
and another in years ps.st, is coming to 
Milwaukee to see me while I am there. 
This seems like old time fraternity, same as 
we had in "Star" days! Would that there 
was more of it now, and it is coming! The 
motor bicycle is the agent that will bring 
its devotees into close friendship. Why? Be- 
cause it makes a fellow feel happy to ride 
one, and when he feels this way he loves 
his fellow men. 

We had the pleasure of meeting an old 
time "Star" rider, one of the very first to 
ride this machine, the second machine that 
Mr. Pressy, its inventor, ever built, a few 
days ago, whom we had not seen for quite 
a long time, and in introducing us to a 
friend of his he remarked: "This is the man 
of bicycle renown, E. H. Corson, who many 
years ago, when we first rode bicycles, said: 
'The time is coming when women will ride 
bicycles!' We laughed at him and thought 
he must be a little out, but, as you know, 
the laugh was turned on us many years 
ago." 

Mr. Editor, if I could only do or say some- 
thing to have my old cycle friends under- 
stand how much pleasure there is in store 
for them in the motor bicycle I should feel 
that I had done them an everlasting favor. 
It seems very strange to me that they are 
so slow to understand it! Well, I presume 
that it would not be well for all to be so 
much enthused as I am, but I enjoy it! It 
is such sport! Why, I always wanted to 
fly, and have said I would live to do so, and 
the motor bicycle comes so near to being a 
flying machine that I feel as though my de- 
sires had been almost gratified. 

I shall put myself out to meet as many 
who are interested in the motor bicycle as 
possible while on my trip, and would like 
to have them inform me who they are and 
where they may be found. Letters ad- 
dressed to No. 221 Colunbus avenue, Bos- 
ton, will find me on the road. 

Let us hope for good weather, and I feel 
that the weather gods are going to favor me. 
My return trip, providing snow and rain 
does not compel me to give up the trip, will 
be as follows: Chicago to Toledo and Cleve- 



land, Ohio; Pittsburg, Harrisburg and Phil- 
adelphia, Pa.; Trenton, N. J.; New York 
City; New Haven and Hartford, Conn., and 
Providence, R. I. Between these larger 
cities I shall take the best and most fre- 
quented roads, and would be more than 
glad to hear from local wheelmen in these 
places as to which is the better way. 

E. H. CORSON. 



The Man Who Worries. 

A two horsepower engine has the power of 
two horses. If you employ it to run a ma- 
chine requiring the full capacity of its power 
there is no reserve force left. Each day it 
rises up its strength and is supplied by a 
renewal from which it can accept but the 
mechanical limit— the power of two horses, 
says the Business World. 

Each man represents a certain "horse- 
power," which is his limit of capacity to do. 
in our strenuous age he usually "runs him- 
self" up to the limit. But well is it if the 
full strength is utilized in legitimate per- 
formance. Too often, however, this is not 
the case, and he daily and hourly wastes 
power by a foolish doing we call "worry- 
ing." 

Every ounce of power which he consumes 
is so much strength, force, money, thrown 
away. If he works one horsepower and wor- 
ries one horsepower he might better have 
been a one horsepower man! and, indeed, is 
such, with added disadvantages, for he has 
to put forth waste effort equal to the profit- 
able kind. 

It is certain that many a failure would 
have been prevented had certain men not 
allowed the curse of worry to fall upon 
their minds. 

If the worry folks would show the rest of 
us (for you, surely, don't worry!) wherein 
worry accomplishes any good, we might 
adopt the plan, which on the very face of it 
appears to unfit them for comfortable, help- 
ful companionsnlp with the world. They 
can't support their actions with sane argu- 
ments, however, so we may as well go right 
along doing our level best and putting forth 
such amount of our total energies as we 
think wise — all toward an accomplishment 
that accomplishes, so to speak. The vital 
forces of man are not given him for dissipa- 
tion into empty space through "worry" win- 
dows. 

Price not AINPowerful. 

Having the best and marketing it under 
modern methods, think you the price will 
not take care of itself? Don't try to sell 
under somebody else to increase trade, but 
try to improve quality so that you will have 
for your customers the buyers of best things. 
Such buyers pay proper prices. They insure 
profitable business and permanent business, 
and business with as little friction as is pos- 
sible in the running of commercial machin- 
ery.— (Ex. 

Never shoulder another man's worries and 
troubles— unless you know you can relieve 
him of them instead of crippling yourself, 
advises the Advisor. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



181 



HIS $40 REPAIR JOB 



How the Dealer Did the Work and Earned 
the Honey Without Touching a Tool. 



"Whenever I think of the most profitable 
repair job I ever made, I have to grin," re- 
marked the ex-Chicago dealer when the sub- 
ject of unusual sales was under discussion. 
"It was some years ago, of course, and be- 
fore prices had come down. The man who 
owned the bicycle I knew well, and though 
I tried repeatedly I never could get him to 
buy what I considered a decent wheel. He 
had some unaccountable affection for a 
particular bicycle which was then one 
of the butts of the trade, but, notwith- 
standing, he could not be induced to 
make a change. One day he brought 
it into my store a sorry looking wreck. 
It had been run over by an ice 
wagon and badly mangled, but, strange to 
say, not even a spoke was broken. He 
wanted it repaired. I tried to sell him a new 
machine of reputable brand. He wouldn't 
even consider it. and while we talked an 
idea popped into my head. Finally I agreed 
to undertake the repair, provided he would 
never ask how it had been made. He agreed 
to this condition and to the price I named, 
$40. The factory in which the bicycle was 
made was also located in Chicago, and after 
my customer had departed I loaded his 
wreck onto an express wagon and accom- 
panied it to the factory. I knew the man- 
ager well. When I saw him I unfolded my 
idea. 

" 'You know that your bicycle has none too 
good a name?' I ventured. 

"He could not well deny it, so notorious 
was the fact, and made no attempt to do so. 

" 'Then I have a chance to help you,' and 
proceeded to unfold my plan. Briefly, it was 
this: That one of his bicycles that had been 
run over by an ice wagon without being 
broken in any part would make an influen- 
tial exhibit and advertisement, and one that 
would give the lie to the repeated and ugly 
criticisms which the product of his factory 
was receiving on every side. I told him that 
I had such a bicycle, and after showing it 
to him proposed that he give a new one for 
the battered wreck. After some discussion 
he agreed to the proposal, and the exchange 
was effected. 

"Several days later my customer came in 
and the new bicycle was delivered to him 
after the 'repair bill' of $40 had been paid. 
He looked over the machine critically sev- 
eral times Defore taking it out of the store, 
and remarked the fine job I had made. As 
he trundled it out of the place, lie continued 
to look at it until I feared he had become 
suspicious. After riding it a block or so, he 
returned and came at me. 

" 'It's all right,' he said, 'but as a matter 
of curiosity I'd like to know how in you 



were able to make such a repair. It looks as 
if you'd rebuilt it completely.' 

"I reminded him that one of the conditions 
of our agreement was that he should ask no 
questions, and refused to give him any in- 
formation. 

"He went away, and although his wrecked 
machine was duly advertised, as he never 
mentioned having seen it I have no reason 
to believe that to this day he is any the wiser 
regarding the part I played and the $40 're- 
pair' I made without touching a tool." 



MATTER OF PARTNERSHIPS 



Huch Light Thrown on flany Doubtful and 
Involved Phases of the Subject. 



The Song of the Motor Cycle. 

(Air — Baby Mine, or Illinois.) 

By the rivers gently gliding 

On our way, on our way; 
O'er the prairies swiftly riding 

Every day, every day, 
Comes the flash of burnished steel 
From a swiftly flying wheel, 
And it is our Motor-Bi. 

On its way, on its way; 
Sure it is no Automobile, 

Not to-day. 

It's a "dandy" little Motor 

That you see, that you see; 
And it looks like Jimmie Michael, 

Can it be that it's he? 
No, it's one of many more 
That you'll find the country o'er 
Who their Motor-"Bikes" adore 

More and more, more and more. 
Who their little Motor- "Bikes" adore 

Ever more. 

Automobiles, trains and horses 

Need repair and much care; 
Walking may be very healthful, 

But it's "slow" to "get there." 
So, for unalloyed delight. 
Be it morning, noon or night, 
If you'd have your cares take flight, 

Get a Motor "bike"- 
For the world does look so bright 

From a wheel. 

But to ride with ease and pleasure, 

Not to tire, never tire; 
To have rapture without measure, 

Rising higher, ever higher, 
Have your mount a Motor-Cycle, 

Which has surely come to stay, 
B^or soon the world'il all ride this way, 

Every day, every day. 
Join us now, old friends of pleasure, 

On our way, on our way. 

E. H. CORSON. 



The Evil of Tobacco ! 

Casimir Mankowski, one of the active 
members of the New York Motor Cycle Club, 
relates an odd incident showing the pecul- 
iar causes to which motocycle troubles are 
sometimes due. Having occasion to go in- 
doors he left his machine on the sidewalk 
after removing the switch plug and placing 
it in his pocket. When he returned and re- 
placed the plug, the motor, which previously 
worked beautifully, gave but a few fitful 
explosions. After working for half an hour 
to locate the source of the trouble he found 
it. It was a small piece of tobacco, which 
had evidently adhered to the plug while it 
.was in his pocket and which when placed 
on the block prevented perfect contact and 
thus permitted only spasmodic sparks. 



Partnership has been recognized from the 
earliest times, but the law at present in 
force differs very considerably from the Ro- 
man law, upon which so much of our own 
law is based. The Roman law of partner- 
ship dealt only with the claims of partners 
as between themselves, every transaction by 
a partner being considered as his private 
business, so far as regarded the persons he 
entered into business transactions with, and 
third parties had no direct remedy except 
against the individual partner with whom 
they contracted, he merely having his rights 
against his co-partners, says D. A. Kerster 
in the Business World. 

Inasmuch as there are many varieties of 
partnership, no one, so far as I am aware, 
has been able to define the term so as to 
include all these. But for the purposes of 
this address it can be considered as the re- 
lation which subsists as the result of a con- 
tract, usually a duly executed deed of part- 
nership, but not necessarily so, between per- 
sons who have agreed to share the profits 
of some business or profession or specula- 
tion. 

In order to constitute a partnership be- 
tween two or more persons there must be an 
agreement between them, but not necessarily 
in writing, and in either case special ar- 
rangements can be made as to the nature 
of the partnership. For example, one part- 
ner, although sharing profits and losses, 
may have no right to interfere with the 
management of the business, or he may 
have no right to dissolve as an ordinary 
partner has, or he may not be entitled to 
share in the goodwill of the business on a 
dissolution. 

In the event of there being no deed of part- 
nership, or any agreement in writing, the 
question as to whether a partnership exists, 
or any dispute between the partners, must 
be ascertained from their words and con- 
duct, and, even where a written contract 
has been entered into, it may be modified 
by a verbal agreement between all the part- 
ners. 

Unless an intention to the contrary can be 
shown, persons engaged in any business or 
adventure, and sharing the profits derived 
therefrom, are partners as regards that busi- ■ 
ness or adventure. In fact, as regards the 
question as to whether persons are really 
partners or not, it is really answered by de- 
ciding their intention by a consideration of 
the agreement into which they have entered. 
It is not essential to the existence of a 
partnership that there shall be any joint 
capital or stock. When two persons horsed 
a coach and divided the profits between 
them, each finding his own horses, the other 
having no property in them, they were held 
to be partners. An agreement to share gross 
returns does not constitute a partnership. 



182 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Where two persons joined in the purchase 
of wheat with the intention of paying for it 
and dividing it equally, it was held that 
they were not partners. 

Again, where the lessee and the manager 
of a theatre shared the gross receipts equal- 
ly, the manager pjaying the expenses out of 
his share, it was held there was not a part- 
nership. 

A partnership also is not created between 
persons who are only contemplating a future 
partnership, or who have only entered into 
an agreement that they will at some future 
time become partners, until the arrival of 
the time agreed upon between them. When 
one person contemplates joining another 
who is really in business, and agrees that 
the business shall be carried on upon cer- 
tain terms not themselves creating a part- 
nership, stipulating for an option to become 
a partner either at a specified time or at any 
time he may choose, a partnership is not 
created until the person having the option 
has exercised it. 

Persons who agree to become partners 
may be partners, although they contemplate 
signing a formal partnership deed and never 
sign it; but, if they are not to be partners 
until they sign the formal deed, and they do 
not so act to waive the performance of such 
condition, they will not be partners until it 
has been performed. 

Until 1860 it was held that all persons 
who shared the profits of a business in- 
curred the liabilities of partners, although a 
pertnership between them might never have 
been contemplated, but in that year a case 
was decided that those who share the profits 
of a business do not incur the liabilities of 
partners unless the business is carried on by 
themselves personally, or by others as their 
real or ostensible agents. 

In 1865 an act of Parliament was passed 
which is usually known as Bovill's act, en- 
acting that the advance of money by way of 
loan to a person engaged, or about to en- 
gage, in any trade or undertaking upon a 
contract in writing with such person that the 
lender shall receive a share of the profits 
arising from carrying on such undertaking 
shall not, of itself, constitute the lender a 
partner. The lender, however, cannot re- 
cover his loan, or his share of the profits, 
or his interest, until the claims of the other 
creditors are satisfied. The act also pro- 
vided that a contract for the remuneration 
of a servant or agent by a share of the 
profits shall not of itself constitute a part- 
nership, and it also exempted from partner- 
ship a widow or child of a deceased partner 
receiving, by way of annuity, a portion of 
the profits. 

Whatever may be the private arrange- 
ment between persons carrying on an en- 
terprise, any one who holds himself out as 
a partner is liable to those he thus repre- 
sents himself as thougn he were a partner, 
although they may know he does not share 
the profits or losses. 

A person may be interested in the share of 
a member of a partnership; this is called a 
sub-partnership, and the parties to it are 



partners inter se, but it in no way affects 
the other members of the principal firm, and 
a sub-partner cannot be held liable to the 
creditors of the principal firm because he 
participates in the profits. 

Persons may become partners in one single 
transaction only, such as for the working 
of a particular patent, in which case their 
rights and liabilities are governed by the 
same principles as those which apply to 
ordinary partnerships. 

It is quite possible for two or more per- 
sons to become co-owners of property with- 
out their becoming partners if such be their 
intention. There are many differences be- 
tween co-ownership and partnership; for ex- 
ample, co-ownership is not necessarily the 
result of agreement, which partnership is. 
Partnership necessarily involves community 
of profit or of loss; co-ownership does not. 
One partner cannot, with the consent of 
the others, transfer his interest; a co-owner 
can. Co-ownership does not necessarily ex- 
ist for the purposes of gain; partnership 
does. 

If several persons jointly purchase goods 
for re-sale with the object of dividing the 
profit, they create a partnership, but not so 
if the object is only to divide the goods 
among themselves. The leading case on this 
point is, where one person purchased oil for 
the purpose of dividing it among himself 
and others. The purchaser became bank- 
rupt, and the seller tried to make the other 
parties to the agreement pay for the oil. It 
was held, however, that the purchaser 
bought as a principal and not as an agent, 
and that as there was no community of 
profit or loss the persons among whom the 
oil was to be divided could not be made 
liable either as partners or quasi-partners. 

Part owners who divide what is obtained 
by the use or employment of the thing 
owned are not thereby constituted partners. 
If two tenants in common of a house let it 
and divided the rent equally among them, 
they are not partners, although they may 
pay for repairs out of the rent before divid- 
ing it. 

Agreements to share profits, like all other 
agreements, require to be founded on some 
consideration in order to be binding. Any 
contribution in the shape of capital or labor, 
or any act of which may result in liability 
to third parties, is a sufficient consideration 
to support such an agreement. 

It has been held that if one man had skill 
and wanted capital to make that skill avail- 
able, and another had capital and wanted 
skill, and the two agreed that one should 
provide the capital and the other skill, there 
was good consideration for an agreement on 
both sides, that it was impossible for the 
court to measure the quantum of value, and 
the parties to the agreement must decide 
that for themselves. 

An incoming partner frequently agrees to 
pay a premium oh being admitted into an 
established business. Such an agreement is 
valid; and, if the premium be not duly paid, . 
it may be recovered by an action, provided 
the plaintiff has been ready and willing to 



take the defendant into partnership as 
agreed. 

If a person has been deluded into becom- 
ing a partner by false and fraudulent rep- 
resentations, and has paid a premium, he 
may either abide by the contract and claim 
compensation for the loss occasioned by the 
fraud, which he may do in taking the part- 
nership accounts; or he may disaffirm the 
contract, and thereby entitle himself to a 
return of the whole of the money he has 
paid. 

In the absence of fraud the principles ap- 
plicable to cases where the return of a pre- 
mium paid is in question are not well set- 
tled. 

A valid contract of partnership can be en- 
tered into between any persons who are not 
under the disabilities of minority or un- 
soundness of mind, except convicts. Married 
women may be partners under certain cir- 
cumstances; an alien, not an enemy, may be 
a partner; an infant may be a partner, but 
while an infant he incurs no liability, and is 
not responsible for the debts of the firm. A 
person may legally carry on business under 
a name not his own, if he registers. 

A partnership is illegal if formed for a 
purpose forbidden by the current notions of 
morality, religion or public policy; for ex- 
ample, when two countries are at war it is 
illegal for persons resident in either to have 
dealings with persons resident in the other. 
An agreement for an illegal partnership will 
not be enforced, even if it has been partly 
performed. 

Actions by an illegal partnership cannot 
be maintained, but it can prosecute a person 
stealing its property, and it can be sued. 
The members of an illegal partnership have 
no remedy against each other for contribu- 
tion or apportionment in respect of the part- 
nership dealings and transactions, and if the 
illegality be brought to the notice of the 
court, it will of its own accord decline to in- 
terfere between the parties, although there 
may be no desire on their part to urge such 
an objection. 



Assisting the Retailer. 

The practice of wholesalers to assist re- 
tailers in the advertising and sale of staple 
goods is now followed more and more by 
those firms who have a clear conception of 
the value of publicity, says an exchange. 
They frequently find, however, that the 
apathy and lack of true understanding on 
the part of the retailer nullifies to a certain 
extent, and often to a very large one, the 
best laid plans— plans which can only be 
successfully consummated if every link in 
the chain is helping to lift. All large con- 
cerns have this experience, and a big per- 
centage of their expenditure is practically 
lost for the reasons stated above. 



Compression Taps Disappearing. 

According to an English authority, the 
compression tap on motor bicycles, with its 
rod and lever, is becoming obsolete; valve 
lifters are taking its place. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



J 83 



"SURFACE" VS. "SPRAY" 



Merits anp Demerits of the two Carburetters 
—But the Spray Type is Winning. 



- While in this country the spray type of 
carburetter is in universal use on motor bi- 
cycles, on "the other side" they are still 
toying with the surface type, although there 
are indications of a breaking away from it. 
In endeavoring to effect a "straddle" a for- 
eign authority thus points out the advant- 
ges of each carburetter: 

To take first of all the "surface" car- 
buretter, it should be mentioned that for 
proper results plenty of surface must be pro- 
vided. With the surface carburetter of 
small dimensions, it is found difficult to 
start the machine, while the carburation is 
subject to greater variations than when a 
larger surface, which naturally throws off 
more vapor, is employed. One very great 
point in favor of the "surface" carburetter 
is its absolute cleanliness. It will be at once 
seen that any dust or grit working its way 
into the carburetter must slowly sink 
through the petrol and remain at the bottom 
of the tank — a consideration the importance 
of which cannot be overvalued, since the dif- 
ference between drawing pure mixture 
into the combustion chamber and one im- 
pregnated ever so slightly with dust means 
all the difference in the world to the wear- 
ing and working of the valves and internal 
parts of the engine. The simplicity, too, of 
the surface carburetter is an item which 
must be taken into account. It is a form 
which the absolute novice can easily under- 
stand, and which is not easily put out of 
order. 

On the other hand, the "spray" carburetter 
has points of great merit, and it is generally 
admitted that the better vaporisation of the 
pulverized petrol gives off a gas of much 
stronger power than can arise from the com- 
paratively still surface of the other form of 
carburetter. The value of pulverized petrol 
can be judged by any one using a "surface" 
carburetter in the following way. If one is 
riding along a level stretch of road, raise the 
needle valve so as to let just a few drops of 
petrol splash from the spare tank into the 
carburetter. The difference is immediately 
marked, and it is noticed that the engine 
appears to be fed with a more powerful fuel. 
It is only because these few drops have 
splashed in, and thus vaporized in a more 
effective manner than is obtained by the or- 
dinary "surface" means. It is only advisable 
to allow a few drops to enter in this man- 
ner lest the mixture be upset. With the 
"spray" variety, it must be borne in mind 
that action with a similar effect is going on 
all the time, but there is this drawback, that 
the engine sucks in the vapor direct as it 
arises from the point of atomization. Next 
to this point is the extra air inlet, so that the 
engine sucks in direct from the outside air 
a little— but certainly enough to be appre- 



ciable^ — dust, some of which finds its way 
through the gauze screens, and is conveyed 
in with the gas to the combustion chamber. 
This has been proved by men on motor bi- 
cycles after driving for some considerable 
time, on taking out the inlet valve, noticing 
it covered with a fine white powdered dust 
—very small indeed, but still dust— which 
must be regarded as deleterious matter. 
This drawback will doubtless soon be met, 
but the manner in which it at present exists 
is quite obvious. The spray form, too, with 
its float and needle valve offers more chance 
of slight derangement, while another point is 
that, whereas "spray" carburetters are con- 
stant in their action upon a motor car, the 
same does not apply when fitted to a motor 
bicycle. They are just as sensitive, if not 
more so, to variation than is the case with 
the "surface" carburetter. The reason for 
this is that, whereas the motor car engine is 
enabled by reason of the change speed gears 
to always run at approximately the same 
pace, the motor bicycle engine, having no 
such change speed gear, runs at a slower 
rate as the pace in reduced. When the en- 
gine is thus running slowly it exerts less 
suction power — insufficient to introduce the 
mixture intact into the combustion chamber, 
but, on the other hand, has the result of an 
excess quantity of the lighter body, air, 
being drawn in. The mixture is thus upset. 
The reason that the "surface" carburetter is 
free from this defect is obviously that a vol- 
ume of carburetted gas is always held, so to 
speak, in stock ready for drawing into the 
combustion chamber. 



GREAT IRISH GASOLENE 



Bottle was Lost and Some Astounding Re- 
sults Followed the Consumption Trial. 



When Cycling Becomes Drudgery. 

When a rider begins to get tired his ma- 
chine always seems to run harder :aan 1 e- 
fore. The illusion becomes much stronger 
when it happens to be a tandem. Every- 
where except downhill it seems to be run- 
ning as if the brake were on, and the tireder 
the riders become the worse the machine 
gets. 

Tandemists should always keep well with- 
in themselves. As long as they do so things 
will go swimmingly. Genuine enjoyment 
can be had, for the machine almost urns 
itself and there is a constant temptation to 
let out a notch or two. 

But peace of mind— and body -are retained 
only by resisting such temptation. To r;de 
"all out" is to turn play into work, and mat- 
ters go from bad to worse very rapidly. 

Riding becomes drudgery of the severest 
kind, the machine seems to stick, and only 
the most heart breaking work avails to keep 
it moving at all. In such case it is best to 
"chuck it,' f for only a good rest will mend 
matters. 

Better by far, however, not to let go of 
that bit of reserve that is so important. 



A solution that is said to be very good for 
polishing enamel that has become dull is 
one used by photographers for polishing 
ferrotype plates. Benzine, 2% ounces; sper- 
maceti wax 15 grains; apply this with a 
clean rag and polish. 



Some remarkable results were obtained in 
a consumption test held by the Irish Motor 
Cycling "Union, at Ashtown track, on Novem- 
ber 1. The winner of the first competition, 
A. Somers, was primarily reported to have 
covered twenty-one miles in 58 minutes 36 
seconds, and used only a pint of gasoline. 
This seemed incredible, and an investiga- 
tion revealed an error in the measuring. The 
competitors were each to have received a 
pint of petrol at the start. 

Five of the competitors rode over 23% 
miles on the amount they received, and two 
of them covered 29 miles. The results were 
so astonishing that the competitors called 
for the bottle which was used in measuring 
the petrol, but, although the original bottle 
could not be found, a similar vessel was 
subsequently tested and found to contain a 
pint and three and a half glasses— nearly 
thirty-three and a third per cent, more than 
the amount the competitors were supposed 
to receive. The amount was something 
more than a sixth of a gallon. 

Even with a sixth of a gallon, or, say, a 
fifth, the appended result of the distance 
travelled by the first five competitors is 
startling, the twenty-nine miles of Shaw 
being equal to nearly 150 miles with a gallon 
of petrol, a record that almost staggers be- 
lief: 

Time. 
Miles. Yds. M. S. 

1. Shaw (1^ h. p. Excelsior).... 29 ... 78 42 

2. Somers (1% h. p. Excelsior).. 28 1710 86 29 
a. Ball (l 1 /. h. p. P. N.) 24 ... 67 49 

4. Huet (2 h. p. James) 23 880 Not timed 

5. Evans (t% Singer) 23 ... Not timed 



Contents of one Tool Bag. 

This is the "tool bag equipment" that goes 
with one of the best known British motor 
bicycles: One B. & S. medium size spanner; 
cne pair of pliers, with flat and circular grip, 
and wire cutter, with ends formed for screw- 
drivers; one adjustable spanner; one hand- 
vise; one hammer, flat face and ball pane; 
one screwdriver; one belt punch; one pin- 
chuck, with set of reamers for clearing holes 
in carburetter, acetylene lamp, etc. ; two files, 
with handle; one funnel for lubricating oil; 
tire repair outfit, large size; length of insu- 
lated wire; coil of copper wire; insulating- 
tape; length of asbestos string; and an as- 
sortment of split pins. 






How to Tell Good Carbide. 

This advice comes from abroad: To dis- 
tinguish between good and bad carbide one 
only needs to look at the residue left after 
burning. This is either light or dark gray, 
or nearly black. The lighter the color of the 
used carbide the better the quality, and a 
dark color proves the presence of undesirable 
compounds. 



184 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 




THE WHEEL THAT HAS A 



GORBIN DUPLEX 1903 MODEL 

New Departure Coaster 

is easiest sold. The Corbin Patented Parallel-Opening Brake Shoes and Duplex Braking 
Clutch give the user a noiseless brake under perfect control. Never sticks or binds. 

GET CONTRACTS ENTERED EARLY. 

THIS WILL BE THE STANDARD FOR 1903 AND THE DEMAND WILL BE UNPRECEDENTED. 

Made by P. & F. CORBIN, New Britain, Conn. 

AGENTS IIM ALL THE PRI IMG I PAL CITIES. 



WANTED 



TO EXCHANGE PRICES AND 
SAMPLES FOR YOUR INQUIRIES 
ON ANY NEEDS YOU MAY HAVE 
FOR BICYCLE MERCHANDISE. 

JOHN R. KEIM, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., U. S. A. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. 



IAVE A 



PROPOSITION OF UNUSUAL INTEREST TO JOBBERS 



FOR 1903. 



Write for Particulars. 



ERIE, PA. 



HOW COURTESY COUNTS 



Its Influence on Business and on the Sue = 
cess of Young Men flaking Their Way. 



Courtesy— not mere politeness, but the 
habit of mind which causes a man to put 
himself in the other fellow's place and give 
his ideas and feeling consideration — is an 
attribute well worthy of cultivation by a 
young business mau. In this age, when the 
old-fashioned deference to our elders is re- 
placed by the encouraged self-assertion of 
the young people for whom we live, we are 
more simple and direct in our thought and 
speech, and manners more clearly show 
forth the man. It is therefore all the more 
necessary that the man should have social 
qualities worthy of exhibition and that he 
should cultivate a kindliness and sincerity 
of thought that will find fitting expression 
in a straightforward, frank and manly 
bearing, says Corbin's Man in the Corner. 

The habit of courtesy is of commercial 
value wherever in business a man comes in 
contact with his fellows. It is the pleasant 
man, the fair man, the man whose manner 
betokens a self-respect and an appreciation 
of the desires of others, who is remembered, 
spoken well of and sought again. Many a 
transaction has been brought to a successful 
issue by the exercise of a tactful courtesy 
which, without it, could never have been 
consummated. Many a lawsuit has been 
caused by the want of it; friends made ene- 
mies and businesses ruined, all because on 
one side or the other there was some one 
vyithout this saving grace. 

Particularly is courtesy of value in a retail 
store. Listen to a woman talking of her 
shopping and you will find that the service 
given in the different stores is in her eyes 
of equal importance with the quality and 
the price of the goods. It is the nice girl 
in the china store to whom she recommends 
her friends. The linen clerk who knows the 
latest wrinkles in napery gets her trade. 
The dry goods clerk who assists her in her 
little economies, sells her all she buys in 
his line, and the furniture man who gave 
her a private view of a rare rug and dis- 
cussed furnishings with her when he knew 
she did not care to buy, will be given the 
order for the new chamber suite when it 
is bought. Think over the stores where 
you do your own trading and analyze the 
reasons for buying there, and you will find 
that you are influenced by much the same 
motives, and that the personal element cuts 
a large figure in your purchases. 

It is not only the customer who places a 
proper value upon courtesy. Every mer- 
chant weighs carefully and anxiously the 
qualities of his employees and among' the 
time-servers whom he must regard as a 
poor investment, the courteous, attentive, 
diligent man shines forth a jewel. Go into 
a store and tell the proprietor what you 
want, and see him turn to his clerks and, 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

after studying them a moment, select one 
to wait upon you. Every time that he does 
this his clerks are mentally weighed in the 
balance, and it is the man with business tact 
and ability, careful of your wishes and his 
interests, to whom he entrusts his best cus- 
tomers and most profitable trade, and upon 
whom his eye rests with the liveliest satis- 
faction. It is he to whom it is safe to show 
favor, and if the work given to him is 
harder than to his fellows, it is but an in- 
dication of his employer's confidence in his 
ability, which sooner or later will find a 
satisfactory expression. How many of 
the junior members of large firms have 
made headway simply because by their 
courteous treatment of cust'imers they made 
themselves so well and favorably known as 
to be indispensable. 

I think there must be in the hereafter a 
special place of punishment for the care- 



Morgan *WrightTires 
are good tires 



. see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 
no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



185 



TRIED THE TWO SPEED 



New York Branch: 214-216 West 47th Street. 



less, heedless, indifferent, selfish employees 
of men who have had to depend upon their 
assistants for success. What plans have 
failed through their poor service! What 
projects were never attempted because of 
the knowledge that the man who would do 
the work could not be depended upon! What 
waste is daily going on all over the country 
because the employees do not feel and act 
in accord with the employer's interests! 

In every walk of life, "doctor, lawyer, mer- 
chant, chief, rich man, poor man, beggar 
man" and all the rest, this trait of courtesy 
—seeking to please others— leads to better 
things. With it a man is able to show his 
ability to the best advantage. Without it, 
he is as one who sits in his own light and 
his good qualities are imperfectly seen. 

It is the outward expression of an inner 
quality welf worthy of careful cultivation. 



Trial Followed by Prediction That Change- 
able Gears Will Out=Rival Coaster-Brakes. 



A man who was at the Columbia factory in 
Hartford recently says: "The two speed 
gear is next. That's going to be the thing. 
It will be a seller, sure. All a man has to 
do is to try one, and he will want it. They 
have one now on a chainless wheel at Hart- 
ford, and it's the slickest thing you ever 
saw. 

"I was shown a bicycle and told that it 
had a two speed gear on it. I thought they 
were fooliug me. The machine looked just 
like any other chainless bicycle. There was 
not a thing on it to indicate that it had any 
special equipment except a coaster brake. I 
was told to get on it and try it. I did so, 
but still without taking any stock in its be- 
iug a two speeder. After going a way I 
thought I would try a few tricks with the 
pedals and see if there was anything to the 
story of my friends. A downward tap on a 
rising pedal was given, and then my feet 
began to go around about twice as slowly as 
before. I came to a hill, tapped the pedal 
and had the low gear again. I afterward 
learned that the machine was geared to 6S 
and 101. Well, sir, I went up that hill just 
as slickly and easy as you please. Then I 
tried the coaster, and found that the ma- 
chine coasted as free as any I ever was on. 
Afterward I went up the hill again with 
the low gear and pedalled with the high gear 
coming down. It was great. 

"It will beat the coaster brake in popu- 
larity. Every one is bound to want one. 
It is easy to manage. Any one can master 
it all in five minutes, and a bicycle equipped 
with two speeds and a coaster brake will af- 
ford a rider twice the chance to rest that he 
has now, for there will be as much relief in 
changing from one gear to another as in 
using the coaster." 



To Repair Broken Cranks. 

Robert Malcolm, No. 112 Randolph street, 
Chicago, is marketing a crank repair tip 
which he considers should quickly appeal to 
repair men. The tip is of malleable iron, 
shaped like the end of the standard crank 
and threaded with the crank arm slightly 
tapering to admit of a sleeve being fitted 
over it, and also over the broken crank; 
this enables it to be easily brazed, thus 
forming a solid repair. 



To go 1 25 fliles an Hour? 

A 32 (thirty-two) horsepower tricycle has 
made its appearance in France. A speed of 
124 miles an hour is the modest claim made 
for it by its makers. 



The First 1903 Catalog. 

John R. Keim's is the first of the 1903 cat- 
alogues to make its appearance. It is made 
up of ninety-six pages, tastefully bound in 
gray, and, of course, deals with everything 
made by the well known Buffalo parts man- 
ufacturer, which means frames in every 
stage of readiness, pedals, hubs, bars, 
sprockets and practically everything else 
that enters into the makeup of a bicycle. 



18* 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



THE DIFFERENCE 

in the cost of 

The Best Spokes 

and 

The Next Best 

is so small that there is 
no good reason why any 
wheel should be fitted with 
other than the best, L e. f 
the one bearing this brand: 



TRADE 




MARK 



STANDARD 



SPOKE & NIPPLE CO., 



TORRINGTON, CONN. 



• • • M. H IJ, • • • 



REGAS 

IS READY. 

Are you ready 
for the Regas ? 



As it is the only means 
of giving riders 

eyeLiNG 

LUXURY 



at a 

POPULAR PRICE 

it is hard to see how any man 
in the bicycle business can 
afford to be without a Regas 
Spring Frame Model. 

No telescoping tubes em- 
ployed. Stays are not cut in 
two. Four inches of spring 
action (twice as much as rival 
devices) and springs adjust- 
able to any weight of rider by 
simply turning a screw. 



Not one broken 
spring reported 
in 1902. 

We Furnish 

the fittings, enabling any builder 
of bicycles to easily and quickly 
furnish his trade with a model 
that not only sells, but sells others. 

Quotations on application. 

Regas Vehicle Qo. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



187 



RACING 



The Century Road Club of America is to 
have a 50-mile handicap road race on 
Thanksgiving Day. The course will be from 
Bedford Rest, Brooklyn, to Bellmore, Long- 
Island, and return. The start will be made 
at 8 a. m., and a number of riders from dif- 
ferent cities have entered. The limit handi- 
cap will be forty minutes. There are ten 
place prizes and five time prizes offered. 



Alec McLean, who was suspended by the 
N. C. A. because he did not pay the riders 
who participated in the six-day race at Park 
Square Garden, Boston, in 1901, has reached 
Australia, but found that he cannot race 
there, because the edicts of the N. C. A. are 
recognized and enforced by the New South 
Wales Cycling Association, which is in con- 
trol there. 



Chase, the English cyclist, has added an- 
other record to his belt of trophies. At the 
Crystal Palace, November 18, he rode 228 
miles 250 yards in six hours on a motor 
bicycle. Incidentally he made a new mark 
for the 100 miles by completing that dis- 
tance in 2 hours 27 minutes and 35 seconds. 



The foreign teams engaged for the six-day 
race, five pairs, are due to arrive in New 
Ycrk on November 21. The teams are: Gou- 
goltz and Kaser, Brain and Bulson, Teller 
and Dorflinger, Lostens and Barasquin, Dar- 
ragon and Breton. 

Stinson and Moran, who have teamed for 
the six-day race, are training on the roads 
about Boston. On Monday Stinson had a 
fall while following Ned Carter's motor bi- 
cycle. He was only scraped and bruised. 



The new track that Jack Prince has been 
building at Atlanta, Ga., has been com- 
pleted, and such riders as Walthour and 
Nelson have pronounced it the best ten-lap 
track in the country- 



Drops of Printers Ink. 

No man living can sell goods below cost 
and keep it up without becoming a bank- 
rupt. Some of the people are very credu- 
lous, but none is so simple as to believe ad- 
vertisements which hold out this sort of a 
promise. 

Every hour spent in bewailing over "poor" 
trade is sixty minutes worse than wasted. 
When trade is dull, then is the time for the 
merchant to do his most active hustling. 

It seems paradoxical at first glance, yet 
it is none the less strictly true that one 
must spend money in order to make money. 
Money paid out is money brought in. This 
applies with peculiar force to advertising. 

Courtesy is as necessary as capital to 
every business man. 

Success in business can not be won with- 
out work, without merit and without adver- 
tising. Those are the powers that make 
success. 

Misrepresentation may sell goods, but it 
will never make customers. 



The •' Rest " Will Remain. 

At a regular meeting of the Associated 
Cycling Clubs of Long Island, held last 
Monday night, letters were read from Park 
Commissioner Young, in which he stated 
that the Prospect Park Rest would be main- 
tained, that in fact he never had any idea of 
abolishing it. He made an eloquent state- 
ment that he would not deprive cyclists of 
any of the privileges they have hitherto en- 
joyed in Prospect Park, and said that the 
Rest will be enlarged by terminating the 
iron fence forty feet from the stone wall of 
the shelter house. He declared also that 
new seats and racks would be provided. 
The Commissioner's communications were 
in response to a number of protests received 
by him against fencing in and destroying 
this popular rendezvous. 



The Retail Record. 

Biddeford, Me.— Abelard Jolin, sold out to 
Arthur King. 

Manchester, N. H— Herbert S. Durant's 
place sold to William Roy. 



it 



THE "CORSON" MOTOR CYCLE STAND. 



Price, $5.00, 
F. O. B. 

An absolute ne- 
cessity to every 
user of a Motor 
Cycle as a holder 
for cleaning, ad- 
justing and test- 
ing mixture and 
ignition. 

Guaranteed to 
hold machine and 
rider with motor 
running. 




NO MORE STRETCHING OR SLIPPING OF BELTS, THE BANE TO MOTOR CYCLING. 

THE CORSON "KANTSTRETCH" BELT. 

The " KANTSTRETCH " belt is guaranteed not to STRETCH or SLIP and to be impervious to water, if kept clean 
and dressed occasionally with " Holmefast " belt dressing. Belts made to order to fit any motor cycle. 
Prices quoted on application, giving shape, size and length of belt wanted. 

AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR CYCLE COMPANY, 

E. H. CORSON, Manager. Office: Pope Building, 221 Columbus Ave., Room 22, BOSTON. 



$* INTERNATIONAL TIRES 



FOX 
Brand. 



QUALITY IS REMEMBERED WHEN PRICE IS LONG FORQOT. 



THE INTERNATIONAL LINE IS COMPLETE — BICYCLE, MOTOR, VEHICLE TIRES. 

THEY REPRESENT THE FOUR CARDINAL REQUIREMENTS: 

PRICE— PROFIT— QUALITY— PROMPT SHIPMENT. 

Chase Tough Thread, International AA, Newton Roadster, 

Chase Roadster, International BB, Metropolitan, 
Motorcycle Tires, Solid and Pneumatic Vehicle Tires. 

OUR PROPOSITIONS TO MANUFACTURERS AND JOBBERS ARE PARTICULARLY INTERESTING. WRITE US. 

INTERNATIONAL A. & V. TIRE CO., - - flilltown, N. J. 



188 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Improvement Removes Scepticism. 

Twelve months ago many people expressed 
the opinion that motor cycling was a fad or 
passing craze, which would fall away as 
soon as the enthusiasm of its few votaries 
had been exhausted. It is hardly necessary 
to point out that these opinions were held by 
arm-chair critics—men who had never rid- 
den a motor bicycle, and to whom the whole 
thing was a mystery. All they knew posi- 
tively was that it made more noise than the 
pedal bicycle, and was much heavier; conse- 
quently, it was no good. We have never had 
any doubt whatever as to the great future 
of the motor bicycle, but, says the English 
Cyclist, we confess with pleasure that the de- 
velopment of the machine has been even 
more rapid than we expected. 

If the matter is looked at impartially, there 
is no denying that the early motor bicycles 
were, after all, machines which only those 
who were determined to have a self-pro- 
pelled vehicle of some kind, and yet could af- 
ford nothing better, would put up with. In 
fact, they were so crude, and the demand 
for them in consequence so slight, that the 
motor bicycle was neglected for four years, 
little or nothing being heard of it between 
1896 and 1900. At the later date designers 
began again to give attention to the single- 
track motor machine, and it was rapidly im- 
proved, but we have no hesitation in saying 
that the improvements which have been 
made to it and the engine within the last 
four or five months are so meritorious and 
practical that the motor bicycle of to-day is 
an immense advance on that of only twelve 
months ago. 

Recall, d the Old Prejudice. 

"So completely has the old prejudice 
against wheelmen died out that it is only 
when you unexpectedly run across some- 
thing of the sort that it is recalled to you," 
remarked an old rider to the Bicycling World 
man. 

"Such an occurrence befell me the other 
day. I was riding along a little frequented 
road, and the center of it being very sandy 
I had taken to the side path, a narrow strip 
only about a foot and a half wide. I met 
two or three pedestrians, and they were all 
civil enough to let me pass without trouble. 

"Presently I encountered a man with a 
little boy, coming toward me. I slowed up, 
of course, and when I got closer I saw that 
the man looked rather ugly. He was walk- 
ing in the path, while the boy was at his 
left, between the path and the road. It was 
too late f :r me to turn into the road, and 
so after a little uncertainty I managed to 
slide through between the two, the man, 
almost at the last moment, stepping to his 
left and preventing my turning to my right. 

"As much in response to his look as any- 
thing else, I called to him, quietly and civ- 
illy, 'I tried to go to the right, sir.' 

"For answer he hurled back a mass of 
-Abuse, saying that I had no rigJit on the 
path— which was quite true — and using 
terms that made me feel ashamed for the 
sake of the child. I returned a few of his 
compliments and then rode on, reflecting 
upon the difference between people." 



The Week's Patents. 

713,194. Sparking Mechanism for Gas or 
Gasolene Engines. James E. Bean (by ju- 
dicial change of name now Edward Bean 
Parkhurst), Milwaukee, Wis. Filed Oc- 
tober 16, 1901. Serial No. 78,782. (No 
model.) 

Claim 1— In sparking mechanism, the com- 
bination of a cylinder, an electrode passing 
through the end of the cylinder, said elec- 
trode having its outer portion threaded, a 
bracket extending outwardly from the end 
of the cylinder, a tube bearing against the 
bracket, said tube having interior threads 
which the threads of the electrode engage, a 
disk on the outer end of the tube, a spring 
surrounding the tube and bearing at its 
outer end against the disk, a stop on the elec- 
trode bearing against the opposite face of 
the disk, means for releasably locking the 
disk to the bracket, whereby when released 
the electrode and connected parts may be 
removed, a movable electrode within the 
cylinder and adapted when moved in one 
direction to contact with the other elec- 
trode and cause said other electrode to move 
outwardly against the action of the spring, 
and an electrical circuit within which the 
electrodes are located, said circuit being 
completed when the electrodes contact, and 
being broken when the electrodes separate, 
the separation causing a spark and a conse- 
quent explosion of the explosive agent in the 
cylinder. 

713.350. Driving Mechanism for Bicycles. 
Michael Schmidt, Philadelphia, Pa. Filed 
June 14, 1899. Serial No. 720,591. (No 
model) 

Claim 1.— The combination in a bicycle, of 
the frame, pedals carried by said frame au<j 
adapted to be operated by the feet of the 
rider, a pinion carried by the rear wheel of 
the bicycle, a driving pinion carried by the 
rear fork of the frame above, and in con- 
stant engagement wita the wheel pinion, a 
crank carried by the said driving pinion, 
a two armed lever carried by the frame of 
the bicycle, a connection between said crank 
and one arm of said lever, connecting links 
between the opposite end of said lever and 
one of the driving pedals, an engine, consist- 
ing of a cylinder, a valve and valve chest' 
'mounted on the frame, a piston in said cyl- 
inder, said piston being attached to the con- 
nection between the two armed lever and the 
crank and serving as an auxiliary driving 
means for said crank and pinion, the frame 
of the bicycle being hollow and serving as 
a reservoir for motive fluid to drive the en- 
gine, air compressors mounted on the front 
portion of the frame of the bicycle, links 
connecting said air compressors with the 
pedals whereby air may be stored in the 
frame as the pedals are moved up and down, 
a valved connection between the rear por- 
tion of the frame reservoir and the engine 
cylinder for the passage of the motive fluid 
to the engine, and means operated from the 
handle bar for controlling said valve, sub- 
stantially as described. 

713.351. Pneumatic Tire. Charles H. 
Shepard. North Plainfleld, N. J. Filed No- 
vember 1, 1900. Serial No 35,144. (No 
model.) 

Claim 1. — A pneumatic tire having a me- 
tallic armor plate embedded in the tread 
surface thereof, said plate having laterally 
projecting tongues arranged in staggered re- 
lation on opposite sides thereof . formed by 
lateral incisions in the plate, the incisions 
on one side lying opposite the spaces be- 
tween the incisions on the opposite side and 
those on both sides terminating short of the 
medial line of said- plate, as and for the 
purpose set forth. 



713,467. Driving Gear for Motor Cycles. 
Donald Macdonald, Orroroo, South Aus- 
tralia, Australia. Filed June 28, 1902. Se- 
rial No. 113,662. (No model.) 

Claim 1.— The combination with an au- 
tocycle, its motor, and the driving mechan- 
ism; of supplementary pedal-operated differ- 
ential driving mechanisms and means con- 
necting one or the other of said mechanisms 
to the pedal-operated element, for the pur- 
pose set forth. 

713,533. Motor Cycle. Frederick Thourot, 
New York, N. Y. Filed August 22, 1902. 
Serial No. 120,646. (No model.) 

Claim.— In a motor bicycle, the combina- 
tion, with a bicycle frame, of a motor sup- 
ported thereon, a rear wheel, a clutch device 
arranged on the frame in gear with said 
motor and rear wheel, said clutch device 
being composed of a tubular shaft having a 
disk flange at one end, a shaft mounted in 
said tubular shaft and provided with a cir- 
eumferentially flanged disk receiving said 
disk flange, a clutch band, a f ulcrumed lever 
co-operating with said clutch band, said band 
and lever being secured to and movable with 
said disk flange, a shiftable sleeve on said 
tubular shaft adjacent the flanged end there- 
of, a toggle lever connecting said clutch band 
and shiftable sleeve, a lever fulcrumed on 
the seat tube of the bicycle frame engaging 
said shiftable sleeve, an operating handle 
arranged near the handle bar, and means 
connecting said handle with said last men- 
tioned lever, substantially as set forth. 

713,536. Exhaust Pipe Muffler for Gas or 
Other Engines. John L. Tobias and Charles 
J. Tobias, Chicago, 111. Filed October 11, 
1901. Serial No. 7S.353. (No model.) 

Claim.— In a muffler for gas and other en- 
gines the combination of a shell provided 
with a series of small apertures grouped on 
one side of the cylindrical wall thereof and 
extending from one end toward the other 
end, a bushing in one end wall of the 
shell, such bushing provided with a shoulder 
abutting against the end wall, a pipe se- 
cured in the bushing, such pipe extending 
through the other end of the shell and a 
cap closing such pipe, such pipe and cap pro- 
vided with corresponding screw threads to 
force the end of the cap against the end of 
the shell adjacent thereto, and such pipe 
provided with a series of small apertures 
gror.ped on oue side the-°of and extending 
from - -■ cue end thereof; substantially as 
described. 

Value of Metal Valve Stems. 

After leaking slowly— so slowly that it 
would hold up for several days— his tire sud- 
deny developed a capacity for going flat in 
a few hours. A careful examination of it— 
it was a single-tube tire— failed to reveal 
the cause. There was no puncture and the 
valve was tight. The repairman to whom 
he took it made the usual tests, and he, too, 
was puzzled. 

"It must be the valve stem, then," he ex- 
claimed, and deflated the tire and took it 
off for a closer examination. 

"Here it is," he cried, and pointed to a 
gash in the stem. "You have ridden it 
when soft, and the stem has been pressed 
against the valve hole in the rim and cut. 

"But I'll soon fix that," he went on. 
"Thanks to the man who first made a metal 
valve stem specially to fit such cases as 
these. I'll have it right in a jiffy." 

He was as good as his word. In a few 
minutes he had cut off the now useless rub- 
ber stem, fitted a metal one, cemented the 
tire and handed it over ready for use. 



Volume XLVI. 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist" 
New York, U. S. A., Thursday, November 27, 1902. 



No. 9 



MAKERS ORGANIZE 



New York Lawyer Attends fleeting, Draws 
Out Some Figures and Whips an Asso- 
ciation Into Shape — Pierce Chosen 
President and a Pool Projected. 



If it had not been for a man not directly 
connected with the bicycle business it is 
probable that the meeting of bicycle manu- 
facturers at Cleveland on Friday last, 21st 
inst, would have ended as the two previous 
meetings had ended— in talk. 

Thanks to the gentleman in question— Ed- 
win K Jackson, a vigorous New York at- 
torney—that undesirable finish was avoided, 
and "The Bicycle Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion" is now an actuality. George N. Pierce, 
of Buffalo, is its president; J. R. B. Ranson, 
of Toledo, its vice-president, and Mr. Jack- 
son its secretavy-treasurer. 

Mr. Jackson's specialty is dealing with 
"pools," and he was introduced in order 
that he might explain the methods that pre- 
vail in other lines of business in which com- 
petition had rendered manufacture unprofit- 
able. After he had performed this service 
and after some little discussion it was 
agreed that each manufacturer impart in 
confidence to Jackson the volume of his 
production during the past season and also 
the number of stripped bicycles for which 
contracts for 1903 delivery had been accept- 
ed. As a result of the figures thus obtaiued, 
and with 95 per cent of the country's pro- 
duction represented at the meeting, the esti- 
mate of the total output during 1902 that 
was arrived at was of a nature calculated 
to cause a lifting of eyelids. This estimate 
developed a production of 543,000 bicycles, 
of which 24S,000 were sold to jobbers. The 
other set of figures disclosed that contracts 
already in hand for 1903 stripped bicycles, 
accounted for a total of 196,000 such bi- 
cycles. 

The ensuing discussion demonstrating that 
no organization could be effected as far as 
governing prices for 1903 was concerned, it 
was decided to authorize a committee to 
project the formation of a pool to become 
effective July 1 next. 

It was also decided that it is to the best 



interest of the trade not to extend any dat- 
ings beyond March 1 of each year. 

There will be also appointed a committee 
to report a classification of the standard 
types of bicycles, the object being that uni- 
form prices shall prevail on the differing 
grades, the grades and prices being gov- 
erned by the quality of materials employed. 

After being in session from half past 10 
in the morning until 7:30 in the evening, 
with the exception of a recess for luncheon, 
the meeting adjourned, to reconvene at the 
Iroquois Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y., on January 
3 next. 

Those present were as follows: George N. 
Pierce Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; H. E. Maslin, 
Stearns Bicycle Agency; P. E. Southard, To- 
ledo Metal Wheel Co.; J. R. B. Ransom, 
Snell Cycle Manufacturing Co.; E. E. Kirk, 
Kirk Manufacturing Co.; Roscoe Bean, 
Bean-Chamberlin Co.; George Beiber, Wis- 
consin Wheel Works; Harry Walberg, Mi- 
ami Cycle and Manufacturing Co.; Harrison 
Williams, Waltham Manufacturing Co.; Col. 
A. A. Pope, American Cycle Manufacturing 
Co.; Charles E. Walker-, American Cycle 
Manufacturing Co.; A. L. Atkins, American 
Cycle Manufacturing Co.; E. J. Lonn, Great 
Western Manufacturing Co.; G. P. Fries, 
Day Manufacturing Co.; Ignatz Schwinn, 
Arnold, Schwinn & Co.; A. L. Garford, 
Worthington Manufacturing Co.; S. B. Leon- 
ard, Worthington Manufacturing Co.; H. P. 
Snyder, H. P. Snyder Manufacturing Co.; 
F. F. Huffman, Davis Sewing Machine Co. 

Mr. Pierce, who was responsible for the 
movement and several meetings, presided, 
Mr. Williams acting as secretary. 



RECEIVERS REPORT 



They File a Preliminary Accounting of A. B. 

C. Affairs, Showing Economies Effected 

— Rubber Goods Deal In Dispute. 



A. B. C. Prices for 1903- 

As expected, the 1903 prices of the Amer- 
ican Cycle Manufacturing Company are 
practically the same as this year, $50 and 
$40 being the ruling prices of the high grade 
chain driven machines. 

The price of the first grade chainless has, 
however, been reduced $5, and will be listed 
at $70 instead of $75. The second grade 
will be maintained at $60, as heretofore. 
When a cushion frame is desired the usual 
$5 extra will be imposed, and for the new 
two-speed gear which will be introduced, 
i nd which also carries with it a free wheel, 
f 10 extra will be asked. 



The receivers of the American Bicycle 
Co., R. L. Coleman, Albert A. Pope 
and John A. Miller, filed their first report 
in the United States Circuit Court at Tren- 
ton, N. J., on Monday last. It was merely 
in the nature of a preliminary accounting, 
dealing mainly with the economies effected 
since the receivership was established. 

The only other disclosure made was the 
strained situation existing between the re- 
ceivers and the Rubber Goods Manufact- 
uring Co. By terms of the agreement 
existing between the two corporations, Rub- 
ber Goods was to pay $200,000 in November 
of 1902, 1903 and 1904, being part of the 
purchase price of the tire plants acquired 
from the A. B. C. On its part, the latter 
agreed to purchase 90 per cent of its tires 
from the Rubber Goods Co. The Rubber 
Goods Manufacturing Co. abrogated the 
contract on the ground of the bicycle com- 
pany's insolvency. In the receivers' report 
it is stated that so far as legal counsel has 
advised them, the conditions on the part of 
the bicycle company have been fulfilled, and 
that the contract is still valid, and consti- 
tutes a valuable asset. 

The following is a summary of the other 
matters with which the report deals: 

The Monarch and Imperial factories in 
Chicago have been closed and the North Mil- 
waukee factory disposed of for $37,500, and 
two branch stores in New York relinquished. 

The New York sales department has been 
closed, and two branches of the company 
have been established, having their head- 
quarters at Chicago and Hartford, Conn. 
One manager is in full charge in each dis- 
trict. 

The American Cycle Manufacturing Co., 
a subsidiary company, has had its offices 
filled by officers of the parent company, 
who serve without pay, and has headquar- 
ters at the home office in this city. 

General offices in the Park Row Building 
require a rental charge of $5,500, but by 



198 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



sub-letting this has been reduced by $3,296. 

By the concentration of the manufacturing 
business and the abolishment of the officers 
a saving of $12,000 for president, $6,000 for 
vice-president and $4,000 for treasurer has 
been made. Also in removing the Eastern 
sales department from New York to Hart- 
ford $250,000 is saved. The future expenses 
in the company are divided as follows: 
George Pope, $7,000; Paul Walton, $3,000; 
bookkeeper, $2,500; (stenographers, $4,312, 
and other clerks and office boys, $4,68$; 
Charles E. Walker and A. L. Atkins, sales 
managers at Hartford and Chicago, respec- 
tively, $5,000 each. 

The cash in hand amounts to $43,000, and 
$19,500 is with local agents. 

Receivers' certificates have been issued 
for .$295,000 for the Federal Co. and $195,000 
for the International Motor Car Co., of 
which sums the two companies have re- 
ceived $198,000 for the Federal and $120,- 
713.68 for the International Motor Car Co. 
The factories now running are at Hartford, 
Hagerstown, Cleveland, Chicago, Toledo and 
Indianapolis, and they are making pur- 
chases of material for but three months 
ahead. 

Tapped Sablom'g Till Twice. 

While J. Sablom, an Uxbridge, Mass., deal- 
er, was out hunting one evening last week, 
burglars visited his store and rifled the 
money drawer. They got $11 in bills and 
left some small change behind. Regretting, 
apparently, that they had not made their 
haul more complete, they returned late at 
night, after Sablom had discovered his loss, 
and took the change. A gang of hoodlums 
who have been committing similar depreda- 
tions are suspected. 



REFUSES TO REOPEN CASE 



Patent Office Denies Copeland's Appeal and 
Racing flan's Evidence is Thus Excluded. 



Qermans Still Gaining. 

The German export trade in cycles and 
cycle parts continues to show steady de- 
velopment. To the end of July last such ex- 
ports from the Fatherland had reached a 
total of 1,669 tons, as compared with only 
1,275 tons in the corresponding period of last 
year. On the other hand, a decline is notice- 
able in the imports of foreign cycles and 
parts into Germany— from 201 tons in the 
first seven months of 1901 to only 176 tons 
in the seven months ending with July last. 



Hartford Travelers Dine. 

Before scattering for their different terri- 
tories the travelling salesmen of the Hart- 
ford Rubber Works joined in a goodby and 
good-luck dinner at Lathrop's, in Hartford, 
on Thursday night last. There were forty- 
two present at the affair, which is described 
as "a typical travelling men's dinner." What 
that is individual imagination can picture. 



Evidence of Ohio Prosperity. 

The Hoover-B^U Company, Newark, Ohio, 
who are among the few strictly jobbing 
houses in that State, are plainly prospering. 
They are erecting a new store, 40 by 105 
feet, which it is expected will be ready for 
occupancy January 1. 



The hard fought interference case involv- 
ing the applications of William Robinson, 
No. 730,817, September 18, 1899; H. P. Town- 
send, No. 693,117, October 10, 1898, and J. S. 
Copeland, No. 679,185, April 29, 1898, all 
covering a coaster brake, has had another 
inning in the Patent Office which resulted in 
a setback for Copeland, who really stands 
for the American Bicycle Company. 

The case came up on his appeal from a 
decision of the Examiner of Interferences 
denying his motion for a reopening of the 
case on the grounds of newly discovered 
evidence. 

The reasons assigned for denying the mo- 
tion were, first, that it was not brought in 
accordance with the provisions of Rule 154 
(4); second, that it was not brought with 
diligence, and, third, because the proposed 
new evidence was not material: 

Robinson, the junior party, was in favor 
of the motion, but Townsend opposed it. 

The ruling denying Copeland's appeal was 
as follows: 

"It appears that Townsend alleged con- 
ception of the invention in issue in 1897. He 
testified to this conception and also called 
witnesses in corroboration, among whom 
was - one Brayton H. Goodwin. Goodwin 
fixed the date of the disclosure by a bicycle 
race which occurred in September, 1897, and 
in which he took part. He states that he 
met Townsend on the train returning from 
the race in question, and that the latter dis- 
closed the invention to him on that occa- 
sion. Goodwin was cross-examined at 
length as to the date on which the bicycle 
race occurred. Attorneys for Copeland were 
aware of the fact that Goodwin had tele- 
phoned to the secretary of the club under 
whose auspices the race was held in order 
to determine the exact date of the race. 
They were thus placed in full possession of 
all the facts relative to the race which would 
enable them to institute investigations to 
determine the correctness of Goodwin's 
statements in connection therewith. Not- 
withstanding this, it does not appear that 
the matter was given any consideration by 
them until more than five months after the 
testimony of Goodwin was taken. This was 
in June, at which time a visit to the place 
where the race was alleged to have occurred 
enabled the attorneys of Copeland to obtain 
the evidence which they now seek to intro- 
duce without any special difficulty. 

"Between January and June Copeland's 
attorneys were undoubtedly showing dili- 
gence in the prosecution of other features 
of the case; but as to the evidence they now 
wish to introduce it would appear that they 
lacked diligence in their search for it; 

"It is essential to the reopening of a case 
after the testimony is all taken and a party 



is thus put in possession of all the facts of 
his opponent's case that a clear showing of 
diligence be made out, and it must be held 
that no such showing has been made in this 
case. 

"It should appear also that the evidence 
sought to be introduced is material. This 
element of materiality is lacking in the evi- 
dence Copeland now seeks to introduce, for 
granting that he can show that a bicycle 
race did occur in 1898 in which Goodwin 
took part, it would not affirmatively appear 
from that that the race in question did not 
occur in 1897. Further, the occurrence of 
the race is only one of several ways in which 
it is attempted to fix the date of Townsend's 
disclosure, and to show merely that there 
had been a mistake as to the date of the 
race would not necessarily change the date 
of Townsend's disclosure. 

"The decision of the Examiner of Interfer- 
ences is accordingly affirmed on the ground 
that Copeland has not shown diligence in 
discovering the evidence now sought to be 
introduced, and, further, for the reason that 
the evidence is not material." 



Handle-bar Stems too Short. 

"There is one thing that bicycle manu- 
facturers either do not- realize or are slow 
to appreciate," said Alex Schwalbach, the 
Brooklyn dealer, the other day, "and that is 
that handlebar stems are just about half as 
long as they should be. The three and four 
inch stems they are using afford practically 
no range of adjustment; for real safety 
about half of such stems must remain in 
the heads of the machines to which they are 
fitted, so that what is left for raising or 
lowering the bars amounts to little more 
than nothing. There is as much reason for 
long handlebar stems as for long seat posts, 
and riders ought to have them; they should 
be six inches long, at least." 



How Racycles are Selling. 

The Racycle people are in a fair way of 
repeating the "killing" which has been their 
lot during each of the past several years. 
Manager Walburg, of the Miami Cycle and 
Manufacturing Co., states that their busi- 
ness was never before so heavy at this 
season of the year. Travelling men are now 
sending in orders for ten and fifteen Racy- 
cles from the same places where last season 
orders for four or five was the best they 
could obtain. 

Ashby Acquires an Interest. 

E. K. Ashby. formerly a well known deal- 
er of Evansville, Ind.. whose appointment 
as sales manager of the E. R. Thomas Mo- 
tor Company, Buffalo, was noted last week, 
has now, it is announced, acquired an in- 
terest in the company and been made its 
general manager. He will, however, con- 
tinue in immediate charge of the sales de- 
partment. • 

That Old and conservative English con- 
cern, the Premier Cycle Co., has adopted an 
entirely new policy for 1903. It will make 
and sell but one model, that a medium 
priced one. It will list at $60. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



199 



MOTOR IMPROVEMENT 



Alterations and Refinements of One Type 
That flake for General Betterment. 



In the Minerva, which is easily the best 
known bicycle motor and the one in most 
extensive use abroad, numerous improve- 
ments are apparent. 

The point of greatest novelty is the ab- 
sence of radiators from the lower half of 
the cylinder and the duplication of the ex- 
ternal valve stems and springs. The former 
peculiarity has already been shown in the 
case of the experimental De Dion bicycle 
motor which was illustrated some months 
ago, but which has not been placed upon 
the market. It is contended that the lower 
part of a cylinder gains no advantage from 
the presence of radiators, the upper part 
wherein the explosion takes place being the 
only part benefited by the attachment of 
"ribs." The duplication of the external 
valve spindles signalizes a new departure 
of considerable importance; nothing less, in 
fact, than the operation of the inlet valve 
by means of a cam exactly in the same way 
as the exhaust valve is generally operated. 
The result of this is that the inlet valve is 
open during a longer period than when it is 
actuated by suction, because in the latter 
case the suction cannot take effect until the 
piston has descended some considerable dis- 
tance in the cylinder, so as to create a partial 
vacuum sufficient to exert such suction as 
will open the inlet valve against the force 
of its spring. With the new mechanically- 
operated inlet valve the cam is arranged to 
open the valve at the same iustant as the 
exhaust valve is closed. This is claimed— 
and the claim is quite reasonable — to re- 
sult in the engine obtaining a fuller charge 
of fresh gas, which results in a considerable 
accession of power. 

The third most noticeable departure lies 
in the position of the sparking plug, which 
will be placed vertically in the exact centre 
on top of the cylinder. 

Another external alteration consists in the 
exhaust pipe and muffler being almost 
straight, the slight curve given to the pipe 
resulting in the exhaust gases escaping a 
great deal more freely than when such a 
pipe has right-angled turns. 

The surface carburetter will be relin- 
quished in favor of a spray carburetter, and 
a new device has been designed whereby 
one lever on the tank will time the sparking, 
lift the exhaust valve, and switch off the 
electric current; but, in addition, the handle- 
bar switch will be retained, so that the 
engine's impulses can be arrested without 
the rider removing his hands from the han- 
dle—a convenience which will also have the 
effect of allowing the compression to act 
as a brake when desired. 

Other points not so noticeable to the eye 
will consist in the enlargement of the bore 



of the cylinder from sixty-two to sixty-six 
millimetres, which, in conjunction with the 
valve improvement above described, is cal- 
culated to result in the engine developing 
2 b.h.p. 

Internally, the improvements will include 
the casting of the cylinder with its head 
and the valve chamber in one piece, thus 
avoiding possible loss of compression at the 
joint where the cylinder head is usually 
bolted on. The piston will be fitted with 
three instead of two rings; and various 
other details, such as the leakage of oil, the 
adjustment of the trembler, and strengthen- 
ing of such vital parts as the spindles, 
toothed wheels, waste oil tap, and exhaust 
valve have received attention. 



REORGANIZATION READY 



Corson Now Fairly Started. 

Pittsfield, Mass., Nov. 23.— Am now on the 
western side of Massachusetts and will soon 
be on the eastern side of New York. Hope 




Corson Leaving Boston on his Journey to Milwaukee A. D 
Peck and Abbot Bassett in Background. 

to spend Thanksgiving in Buffalo. Am hav- 
ing the time of my life. 

Worcester, Mass., has not "caught on" yet, 
but I met one old-timer and dealer, Lincoln 
Holland, thoroughly in love with his motor 
bicycle, so the seed is sown there and is 
bound to sprout. Holland looks hardly a 
day older than he did in the "high wheel 
days." 

In Springfield I found quite a motorcycle 
club, and although it rained and snowed 
this morning and the wind blew great guns 
seven of the boys took me out for a twelve- 
mile run over the muddy roads. They are 
all enthusiastic and enjoying their motor bi- 
cycles to the full, and if their names are not 
already on the Bicycling World's subscrip- 
tion list they will be there soon. 

I find that motorcyclists are appreciating 
what the B. W. is doing for the cause, and 
they say they mean to support the good 
work. E. H. CORSON. 



A. B. C. Plan is Drafted but is Withheld— 
How it Proposes to Squeeze out Water. 



Although no one in an official capacity will 
discuss the subject, it is known that the re- 
organization plan of the American Bicycle 
Co. has been drafted and is in existence. 

It is reliably understood to provide for the 
issue of $2,000,000 first preferred stock, 
which has already been underwritten by the 
interested bankers. The bonds are to be 
retired and for them will be issued $5,000,- 
000 of second preferred shares. 

The present common and preferred will 
be reduced to 10 per cent of that outstand- 
ing, and an assessment of $9 per share be 
levied on that outstanding. 



Hendee Issues Warning. 

Owing to the appearance on the market 
of somewhat identical motorcycle fittings, 
motor bicycles alleged to be "just like the 
Indian" or "counterparts of the Indian" 
have been heralded in several parts of the 
country, the value of the Indian's reputation 
being recognized as an aid to their sale. 
Wise in their generation, however, the Hen- 
dee Manufacturing Company had copyright- 
ed the name "Indian," and as a result sev- 
eral people have been brought to book and 
the Hendee people are circulating warning 
that they will prosecute to the law's limit 
any others who take their name in vain. 



Willis to Leave Park Row. 

The Willis Park Row Cycle Co. is 
going into automobiles and automobile sup- 
plies, which carries with it removal from 
Park Row. To that end Willis has leased 
the six-story building at No. 8 Park 
Place, and will begin moving early next 
week. He will not lose sight of his bicycle 
business, however, and will devote more at- 
tention than ever to motocycles, having 
just added the agency for the entire Orient 
line. 



Why Manchester Waives Tax. 

Manchester Conn., will no longer tax bi- 
cycles. It is naively explained that "when 
wheels sold for $150 they were worth put- 
ting on the list. But bicycles have become 
so cheap, and as no wheel was assessed for 
less than $15, it happened many times that 
the wheel could not be sold for half that 
amount. Besides, a bicycle has become as 
much of a necessity to a man as an occa- 
sional new pair of shoes." 



Cinch Wins Abroad. 

The Riggs-Spencer Co. have received 
word from their German representative that 
first place in the coasting contest at the 
Hamburg Veledrome on Nov. 9 was won by 
a Cinch coaster brake by five lengths; a Mor- 
row was second, and what is described as 
the "German imitation Morrow," third. 



200 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



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BUT MADE EVERY DAY. 



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WORTH THE PUSH OF ANY LIVE DEALER. 



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NEW BICYCLES 



SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH 



FISK TIRES 

It means that you have the best that can be obtained. 



FISK RUBBER COHPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Hass. 

BRANCHES : 

BOSTON, SPRINOFIELD, NEWYORk, PHILADELPHIA, CHICAGO, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Owlght St. 83 Chamber! St. 916 Arch St. 54 State St. 

SYRACUSB, BUFFALO, DETROIT, SAN FRANCISCO, 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Genesee St. 2S2 Jefferson St. 114 Second St. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



201 



-THE 





founded| 

fti^AWOCYCLE REVIEW^ 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 

By 

THE GOODMHN ©©MPflNY, 

123-125 Tribune 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... lo Cents 
Foreign Subscription . $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscripiions, 
but not for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
should be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y., 
Post Office, September, 1900. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches. 

ygW*" Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
publication. 

^W^ Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York ; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York, November 27, 1902. 

The nanufacturers Association. 

It is fortunate that the manufacturers' 
meetings resulted tangibly. That three of 
them should have been held without the 
projected association being formed, as ap- 
peared probable, would have served the 
trade no good; rather would it have given 
the sour-mouths and calamity writers an- 
other splendid opportunity to "prove", the 
"passing of the bicycle." 

That an association of the sort has it 
within its means to aid both the indsutry 
and the public the several projected pro- 
cedures fully attests. If a classification of 
grades and prices, such as is proposed, can 
be effected, it will at one sweep wipe out 
many evils and prevent the fleecing of the 
public and the injury of the trade by mak- 
ing every bicycle stand out in its true colors. 

The prospect of a pool, which was also 
given heed, suggests such undreamed of 
possibilities as will make the meeting in 
Buffalo in January of interest far beyond 
the usual. 



The Day We'll Celebrate. 

The four quarters of a century are always 
interesting periods. 

They are milestones on the path of life 
or progress that stand above the others that 
intervene. 

• The periods are not less interesting or the 
milestones less conspicuous in the career of 
a publication than in that of the individual; 
if anything, they are more interesting, more 
conspicuous. In the case of the publication 
they sj:and for the successful work of not 
"man, but of many men. for a career 
compassing so many subjects and so many 
events and that has stood out where all 
may see and where the lights and shadows 
of whichever twenty-five years have fallen 
upon it with all degrees of intensity. 

In the life of a publication, therefore, the 
successful attainment of a quarter century 
and of the planting of the twenty-fifth mile- 
stone is no ordinary event to be passed un- 
honored or unsung. 

It was on the 22d day of December twen- 
ty-five years ago that what is now The Bi- 
cycling World was instituted. Of cyclists 
there were but a corporal's guard, of the 
cycle trade there was nothing, of cycling 
clubs there was the same lack. Cycling in 
America was constituted chiefly of the Bi- 
cycling World, a few strong hearts and an 
abundance of faith. 

What grew out of the trinity the world 
now knows. Of the multiplicity of events 
that happened and of the men who "oc- 
curred" in the years that intervened, many 
never knew and others have forgotten. But 
they were years full of human interest. 

On the 18th of December next they will 
be lived over again. 

The Bicycling World will celebrate its 
twenty-fifth birthday— its "silver jubilee," if 
you please— on that day, and celebrate it by 
an edition worthy of the occasion and such 
as no cycling publication ever issued. The 
glorified cover will be not more interesting 
than the historical matter and the profusion 
of rare and historic pictures, few of which 
have ever seen the light, that will illuminate 
the pages between the cover. 

We promise a revelation and a treat— a 
number that will interest and be sought for 
and be retained by every man in whom the 
cycling spirit ever really surged, whether 
but one year ago or twenty-five years ago. 

Whet your appetite for it! We shall strive 
to have sufficient to go around, but if you 
would be sure of a copy, now is the time to x 
speak for it. 



The Matter of Finality. 

The close student of the cycle trade may 
be pardoned for asking himself the ques- 
tion whether finality of construction has 
really been reached. There are so many 
things to support such a contention, and so 
few to lend strength to a contrary belief. 

It may be regarded as pretty certain that 
when there is anything better to bring out 
the trade will not keep it in retirement. If 
this be true, then the absence of new things 
—of the novelties that were once deemed ab- 
solutly essential to the well-being of the in- 
dustry—argues that the accepted types are 
best, and that changes, if made, must be 
made for the sake of fashion. 

This conclusion reached, we start off on 
another tack. Should there be fashions in 
cycles? Must they, now that the experi- 
mental stages have been left far in the rear, 
be numbered with those articles, such as 
clothes, that follow blindly where fashion 
leads and go from one change to another 
and back again at regular periods? Or are 
they to take their stand with other and dis- 
similar articles that resist change except 
when it also spells improvement? 

There are to be found plenty of each class 
of goods. 

Makers of anvils, for example, do not 
deem it incumbent upon themselves to bring- 
out a new type of anvil each season. The 
anvils in use to-day are the same as those 
our grandfathers and their grandfathers 
used, and hundreds of years from now they 
will probably remain unchanged. It is hard- 
ly conceivable that this immutability is due 
to any difficulty that would be experienced 
in altering the design of anvils. If makers 
thought they ought to bring out new pat- 
terns no one imagines that they would have 
to spend much time or gray matter in hit- 
ting upon ways of doing it. 

On the other hand, there are such things 
as hats and sohes and, indeed, practically 
every kind of wearing apparel, that are con- 
stantly undergoing change. 

Their utility is not made greater by this 
fact. A last year's hat affords just as much 
protection from the elements as does one of 
this year's, and would look just as well if 
it were not contrasted with one that is in 
the fashion. But who that can afford a new 
hat will continue to wear the old one? 

Turning from these two extremes, a much 
better comparison is afforded by machine 
tools, locomotives, steamships and other 
useful implements of trade or commerce. 

They are undergoing almost constant 
changes. In some cases they are minor 



202 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



ones, in other of considerable magnitude. 
The locomotive of to-day will in half a 
dozen years be taken from the fast express 
and made to haul a freight train. Later 
still it will find a place in the scrap heap, 
unless it is made use of for other purposes, 
where almost any kind -of a locomotive 
will do. 

But changes in such carticles as these are 
not made for the mere sake of change, to 
be in the fashion. Each of them has a cer- 
tain definite purpose. When improvement 
lags changes cease to he made. 

It is only fair to say that with regard to 
the cycle the same ruling seems to apply. 
To a prolonged season of feverish activity, 
ending in the practical perfecting of the 
machine, succeeded a period of inactivity, 
of stagnation, some critics would put it. 
When, and if, the time comes that the reg- 
ulation bicycle can he improved as well as 
changed, it is a pretty certain prediction 
that no question of policy will intervene to 
prevent action. 



The Coaster=Brake Hodel Again. 

While in England practically all manu- 
facturers list a coaster brake model and 
some of them have gone so far as to make 
it their standard type of bicycle, fixed gears 
being supplied only when specified, there is 
no sign that existing conditions in this coun- 
try will be changed during 1903; the coaster 
brake will apparently continue to be listed 
as an "extra." 

And yet there is reason to believe that the 
listing of a coaster brake model would do 
more than help make the use of coaster 
brakes more universal; beyond that there 
is a touch of sagacious salesmanship in the 
idea. It makes a great deal of difference 
which way a proposition is put, and the 
same deal can be presented so as to be win- 
some, or jarring, as every salesman knows. 
Personal impression is everything in a cus- 
tomer, and to so catalogue and present bi- 
cycles as to enforce the idea upon the public 
that the coster brake is now an essential 
part of the regular equipment, an improve- 
ment generally recognized and adopted by 
manufacturers, would be an undeniable step 
forward. 

To hold bicycles at an upset price, with 
the chance of reducing it a little for those 
who do not want- its latest improvement, 
would afford more room for apparent dick- 
ering. There is no man superior to a dicker 
in which he can get something "thrown off." 
Little seeming things make great differences 
in selling. 



The idea is advocated by some to be 
carried even further and made to in- 
clude the cushion frame, spring seat post 
and the two-speed gear, when the last 
mentioned arrives. It was a man with more 
than fifteen years' experience in selling bi- 
cycles who recently wrote to a manu- 
facturer that he would like to see some one 
catalogue as the regulation roadster for 1903 
a chainless bicycle with a coaster brake and 
two-speed gear at $75, and then make al- 
lowance for any wheel sold with either or 
both of these "improvements removed." 
When there are so many suffering from 
apathy and timidity, this will sound shock- 
ingly original, but there may be something 
in the idea. 



Smile in your mirror and it smiles back at 
you; look pleas"antly at the world and it re- 
flects your good natured looks; cultivate a 
warm feeling toward all men and they radi- 
ate and give back the warmth. Deal justly. 
Trade on broad principles. Be not too jeal- 
ous of your rights. The world — mankind — 
soon discovers where it is well treated and 
trades there. 

Be loyal to your clerks and they will return 
it in loyalty. Trade on broad lines, buy of 
broad people, treat the public generously 
and success is sure to come — a success that 
is worth the winning and keeping and cher- 
ishing. Be exacting, carping, looking out 
carefully for your little rights, and sure as 
the sun shines the world will have its eye 
on you, watching you in a way that you do 
not care to be watched. 

Keep sweet and move on. 



Speaking of diamonds — how naturally the 
name of Tiffany comes to the mind. About 
the first word we are reminded of in connec- 
tion is— Quality. You don't now and never 
did go to Tiffany for "low prices"; yet some 
merchants can't believe that success and 
wealth are based upon any other foundation. 



The Canadian Customs Department has 
carried a joke to the point of cruelty in 
notifying the Canadian Wheelmen's Associa- 
tion that it will hereafter be held responsi- 
ble for the unpaid duties of L. A. W. tourists 
who cross the border. It is very like asking 
the blind to guide the halt. 



"It's an ill wind," etc. These breezy days 
are days that try the cyclist's wind and 
muscle. Per contra, they certainly are the 
days that show the motor bicycle to good 
advantage. 



The " Just as Good ' ' Dealer. 

"Honesty is a virtue of relative value. 
Many a tradesman who would blush to over- 
charge a customer, and would deem such an 
act dishonest, will uriblushingly sell him 
some inferior article to that asked for at 
the same price, and consider it honest busi- 
ness, salving his conscience with that easy 
formula, 'Oh, it's just as good,' " remarks a 
close observer. 

"This practice is more particularly com- 
mon among retail traders— not among all of 
them, but among many of them. In these 
days of keen competition, no inferior article 
can attain a high pitch of popularity. For 
anything to enjoy over a number of years 
a great reputation with the public it must 
rely on its own sterling merits. Wide and 
intelligent advertising is very necessary in 
order to bring it prominently before the pub- 
lic, and this fact is taken an unfair advan- 
tage of by a horde of imitators who, keeping- 
just within the limit of the law, flood the 
market with a host of colorable imitations, 
and by offering special inducements to re- 
tailers, endeavor to steal the fruit of enter- 
prise, intelligence, and liberal outlay, and 
not always without success. 

"It is not difficult to realize what substan- 
tial bribes to dishonesty such imitators can 
hold out to the shopkeeper. Their expenses 
merely consist of putting on the market an 
inditferent article, roughly prepared. No 
doubt if business is slack, and if customers 
are complacent, the temptation to the re- 
tailer is great to foist an inferior commodity 
specially made up in order to deceive the 
unwary, and carrying a greater profit by the 
mere use of the formula, 'Oh, it's just as 
good.' 

"But the customers should not lend them- 
selves to the fraud. If they want to buy a 
certain article they should insist on the 
tradesman giving them that and that only. 
A shopkeeper would never dream of asking 
his best customers to accept substitutes in 
the place of what is specifically asked for. 
It is persons who buy occasionally, whose 
income does not permit large dealings, to 
whom he looks for reaping the harvest of 
dishonesty." 



How Wheels Have Improved. 

Riders have little or no trouble with 
broken spokes nowadays. Where formerly 
they were one of the most prolific sources of 
trouble, furnishing repair men with a con- 
siderable portion of their work, they are 
now almost non-existent. That is to say, 
where good machines are concerned. Even 
the stress of coaster brake wheels does not 
work havoc, as might reasonably be expect- 
ed. Rusty spokes on machines that have 
seen many years of service are almost as 
reliable as new ones. It goes to show that, 
1, the right material is put in the spokes, 
and, 2, that wheel building is within reach- 
ing distance of perfection. 



It is an unusually sagacious child that 
knows enough not to smile when its father 
attempts to explain just how and why a 
motor motes or why it fails to. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



205 



SAME OLD SPRINKLING 



New York Aldermen Decline to Institute Re= 
form Advocated by United Street Users. 



In face of the combined opposition of 
practically every road user in this city, in- 
cluding the Road Users' Association, the 
Haeknian's Protective League, the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 
the Road Drivers' Association, the Asso- 
ciated Cycling Clubs, the Automobile Club 
of America, and the New York Motor Cycle 
Club, and in spite of the strenuous protest 
of the representatives of these bodies against 
it, the Law Committee of the New York 
Board of Aldermen has reported in favor of 
continuing the present street sprinkling ar- 
rangement. 

It will be recalled that the methods em- 
ployed by the Street Sprinkling Association 
have long been the' subject of complaint. 
The association is a West Virginia corpora- 
tion, having a capital of $700, and its busi- 
ness is to sprinkle streets wherever the 
owners of the property fronting on them 
will pay its charges, For the water thus 
used it pays the city a lump sum. It is a 
matter of common notoriety that the sprin- 
kling is abominably done. The streets sup- 
posed to be sprinkled are flooded, rendering 
them unsafe for traffic as well as disagree- 
able. 

To remedy the evil an ordinance was intro- 
duced in the Board of Aldermen by Alder- 
man Oatman, who is also president of the 
Associated Cycling Clubs. It requires that 
the ten-year contract of the Street Sprinkling- 
Association with the city, which expires 
next March, shall not be renewed, but that 
the sprinkling of the streets shall be placed 
in charge of the Department of Street 
Cleaning. 

A substitute was also offered by Alderman 
Marks, which calls for the letting of con- 
tracts for the sprinkling of each borough 
by the borough president, after bids have 
"been submitted by persons who have had 
experience in street sprinkling. 

A hearing of those interested was given 
by the Law Committee a short time ago, 
at which the opposition to a renewal of 
the Street Sprinkling Association's contract 
was present in imposing numbers, and the 
association itself was handled without 
gloves. Chairman Woodbury, of the Street 
Cleaning Department, presented figures 
showing the cost of a plant to sprinkle all 
the streets in Manhattan and Bronx bor- 
oughs, and made a telling plea for the pro- 
posal to place the work in his charge. 

In spite of all this, the Law Committee, 
as stated, has, with a single dissenting 
voice, reported in favor of a renewal of 
the contract. What induced it to take this 
step no one seems to know. At the hearing 
referred to the Street Sprinkling Association 
seemed to be without a friend, without an 
apologist, even. 



How he Keeps his Feet Warm. 

One English rider, who experienced trou- 
ble in keeping his feet warm in winter, uses 
a peculiar device of his own design, which 
he asserts is a cure for the ill complained 
of. He has had a pair of steel plates at- 
tached to his rat-trap pedals. They are the 
shape of the front of the sole of the boot, 
and extend forward from each pedal. The 
rider is satisfied that the pressure of the 
toes and ball of the foot on the foot plate 
kept the circulation in those parts active, 
and thus kept the feet warm. 



FAVORS THREE SPEEDS 



Any Variable Qear Desirable but why the 
Triple Change has Special Advantages. 



Here's the Motor Bicycle Policeman. 

The motor bicycle policeman is now an 
actuality. He has made his appearance in 
Paris, and there is but one of him, Navetat 
by name. The accompanying picture shows 
him ready for duty. His beat is the famous 
Bois de Boulogne, and it is his exploits that 
have given rise to the cabled reports of 




Paris's "automobile police" that have 
reached this country. Rarely a day passes 
that he does not capture an offender, and he 
has to his credit a stern and successful chase 
of a thief who had made way with a motor 
bicycle. Although Paris has a corps of 360 
cycle mounted police, Navetat is the only 
one using a motor drawn machine, which 
is his personal properly, the authorities al- 
lowing him the munificent sum of 10 francs 
l $2) a month for care and upkeep. He is a 
clever mechanic, however, and usually pock- 
ets the money. 



flaking the Skeletons Responsible. 

The Canadian Department of Customs has 
notified the Canadian Wheelmen's Associa- 
tion that they will be held responsible for 
the duty on wheels coming into Canada un- 
der the League of American Wheelmen's 
guarantee. Customs allow wheelmen to 
cross the line on producing their associa- 
tion badges. Some Americans do not re- 
port when going home and the duty on their 
wheels is collectible. The American asso- 
ciation is liable, but the Canadian associa- 
tion indorses their guarantee, and vice versa. 



"Enclosed is my renewal. Can't get along 
without the Bicycling World."— T. A. Quisen- 
berry, Richmond, Va. 



"I feel more and more strongly convinced 
that a triple or a multiple 'speed gear is 
bound to be a feature of the perfect bicycle 
of the future," says a writer of repute. 
"It is an immense advantage to have differ- 
ent ways of using your power under differ- 
ent conditions. 

"High gears have their fascination, but 
they contain a poisonous sting if taken 
alone and in large quantities. The tired 
man on a high gear is done for. He is 
thoroughly baked if he tries to take a long 
trip, and, as a result, the high-geared 
brigade is a short-distance, high-speed crew, 
or even if not a fast lot, a short-distance 
brotherhood. On the other hand, the low- 
geared man, equipped for ease in the day's 
march, and for journeying at the end of a 
long spell as easily as at the beginning, is 
handicapped if he essays to hurry at the 
beginnings of his journeys, and although his 
low gear acts as a governor preventing him 
overexerting his leg muscles, it tries the 
wind if he essays to flap his feet round fast 
when stale or unfit, or feeling the stiffness 
of old age creeping into his joints. 

"Hence a cycle that can in itself combine 
the fascinations of the stately pedalling of 
a high gear when circumstances let the ma- 
chine go fast, and also lets you pedal at 
a comfortable rate, with reasonably light 
pressures when the pace is slow, serves a 
most useful purpose. All this is true, of 
course, of a two-speed gear, but the two- 
speed gear with the jump between the gears 
now in vogue lands a man in this difficulty, 
that he cannot have either gear very near 
what he generally wants without the other 
gear being in the region of the absurd; but 
with a three-speeder this difficulty passes 
awway. You can choose a nice normal gear, 
and have a jump up or down at call. The 
changes are jumps still, but the jumps do 
not bridge the happy mean. With two gears 
one is apt to be always too high or too low. 
With three, although your high and low 
are higher and lower than before, you have 
the middle gear as a most excellent compro- 
mise. 

"And further, be it remembered that the 
change speed gear wants learning to be ap- 
preciated. The coaster brake needed culti- 
vation by beginners. The change speed gear 
also needs a little cultivation. A single- 
geared rider is apt to keep on shoving a 
low gear as if it were high, and to twirl the 
high as if it were low. Each gear should 
be used appropriately, the true secret of 
success being to use that gear at that speed 
which best suits your own most effective 
pedal pressure and pedalling rate." 



206 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Foreign flarkets for Motocycl«s. 

Motor bicycles in European countries form 
the subject of a recent consular report is- 
sued by the State Department. 

In Great Britain the cycle trade— in 
marked contrast to that of this country, 
where most concerns have held aloof from 
the motor cycle movement— the trade in 
these machines promises to become a most 
important business, and— possibly in even 
a greater degree than the motor car— to help 
in solving the housing problem in England, 
according to Consul-General Evans. That 
feature, interesting though it is, belongs 
more to the domain of social science; but 
the fact remains that there has just devel- 
oped in that country a new branch of trade, 
catering not only to the very rich, but also 
to those who are merely well to do. In this 
new business, there is every reason that the 
American manufacturer should participate. 

Although motor cycles are not yet nearly 
so numerous as the pedal-driven machines, 
there are already some thousands in use in 
the United Kingdom, and their appearance 
in London and on the country roads near 
all the larger towns is now so common as 
to no longer excite comment. 

A really good field seems to be presented 
in Austria for the motor bicycle, and a push- 
ing, energetic agent might exploit a promis- 
ing market for American manufacturers. 
French motors sell for $100 apiece, and can 
be attached to any bicycle. The complete 
motor bicycle ranges in price form $150 to 
$200. The duty on bicycles in Austria is 
25 gold florins ($12.18) each; the further 
duty on the motor is the same as that for 
automobiles. 

"American manufacturers will do more 
business in motor cycles just now than in 
automobiles; here, however, the price is a 
consideration. A first-class motor cycle of 
continental manufacture can be purchased 
by the factor (wholesaler) for 225 florins 
($90) f. o. b. here, while the same class of 
machine of American make will cost f. o. b. 
New York from $130 to $150. This is, how- 
ever, the field for several years to come, 
and being popular here, coming as it does 
within the reach of so many more persons, 
the cycle is bound to have a sale far larger 
than that of the automobile," an Amsterdam 
firm writes to the American consul. 

The manner of introduction of motor cycles 
is exceedingly important, adds the consul 
at Amsterdam. In order to get at this 
trade, the manufacturer must make up his 
mind at the start that there are two sides 
to the question, and instead of demanding 
"cash against documents in New York," he 
must be willing to give his agent some as- 
sistance, and treat him in the same manner 
as he would were he placing the agency in 
the United States. There is no more risk in 
doing thos here than there, if proper pre- 
cautions are used. 

Appoint a reliable firm, with an established 
trade; give a machine in consignment, and 
agree to fill orders on the base of one-third 
with order and two-thirds on receipt and 



examination of goods on this side. The 
manufacturer who does this will get the 
business. 

A Greeting to Corson. 

By a woman who "Motes." 
What wonders time hath wrought 

Since Salem's witch of old 
Went sailing on a broomstick. 

At least so I've been told. 
Our friend has started for a ride 
Of a thousand miles or more, 
If he can have these sunny days 
He cares not if winds do roar, 
Nor if the hills are steep to climb, 
He rides not like the witch of old, 
Nor is he any horse on, 

But motes and motes and motes some more, 
Our Motor Cycle Corson. 

He needs not Cresceus' wind or limbs, 

To ride an hour, or day, 
His horse is fed on gasolene 

And oil in place of hay. 
So "hit 'er up, Ed," advance your spark, 

There's more agents to be seen, 
Keep all the nuts and bolts in place, 

And keep the spark plug clean. 

We often hear of women's rights 
And how she ought to vote, 
Perhaps 'tis true, but well I know, 
She surely ought to "mote," 
I speak of what I know, 'tis so, 
For many times I've moted, 
And as the muffler purred a song 
These written lines I noted. 

If you would ride for business 

Or if you'd ride for fun, 

Take friend Corson's good advice, 

And hit a century run. 

Don't take the Good O. O., 

Nor yet the safety steed, 

But buy a Motor Cycle 

And then you'll get some speed. 

Here's good luck to you, Corson. 
Here's to good days for your ride, 
With not a drop of rain, Ed., 
With friends on every side, 
And when it is the fashion, Ed., 
Through the air above to fly, 
We'll look for your next trip, Ed., 
Like Santos in the sky. 

—Mrs. G. N. Rogers, Schenectady, N. Y. 



RACING 



There was a young man named Green, 
Who took out his new motor "masheen." 
The thing would not run, 
The "rubberers" had fun- 
He had failed "to turn on gasolene." 

(After reading Mrs. Rogers's effort, I 
simply could not help this "verse." Had to 
do it or burst my gasolene tank.)— G. N. 

Rogers. 

The Park City Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago, makers of the D. & J. crank hang- 
ers, are somewhat exercised over the pub- 
lication last week of the "Song of the Motor 
Cycle," attributed to E. H. Corson. They 
claim it to be but a close adaptation of their 
"Song of the D. & J.," which, dealing with 
the motorless bicycle, forms a page in their 
catalog, and the catalog itself proves the 
justice of the claim. 



An English judge has decided that a bi- 
cycle is a "necessity of life." For a young 
man exercise was an absolute necessity, he 
said. It was essential to the preservation 
of health, and under all the circumstances 
he considered a bicycle a necessity of daily 
life. 



At Savannah, Ga., Nov. 20, Joe Nelson 
rode 10 miles against 10 horses, running in 
mile relays, and won. Nelson was motor 
paced. Owing to a misunderstanding, the 
horses were started to pick up Nelson in- 
stead of each other. The bicycle rider thus 
lost with each horse whatever advantage 
he had gained over the preceding one. Nel- 
son nevertheless finished first in 8 of the 10 
miles. The horse came in ahead in the first 
and ninth miles. Nelson's time for the 
miles consecutively was as follows: 1.52, 
1.40, 1.28, 1.26, 1.35, 1.30, 1.30, 1.24, 1.30. 



On Tuesday the Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Grosse brought over three stars of the first 
magnitude in the racing firmament, to wit, 
Bald, Elkes and Michael, fresh from their 
triumphs on the Continent. Elkes and Bald 
are slated to ride as a team in the six-day 
race which starts on December 8, while Mi- 
chael will meet Elkes in a twenty-mile mo- 
tor-paced race on Saturday, December 7. 



Eight of the tec foreign racing men en- 
tered for the siv-day race are here, having 
arrived on Saturday. The other two, Gou- 
goltz and Buisson, will reach here this week. 
The eight men, who are training at Man- 
hattan Beach, are Kaser, who will team 
with Gougoltz; Bruni, who is paired with 
Buisson; Teller and Dorflinger, Lostens and 
Barasquin, and Darragon and Breton. 



The slow race, stopping contest and gaso- 
lene consumption trial, which had been ar- 
ranged by the Alpha Motor Cycle Club of 
Brooklyn to take place to-day, have been 
declared off. Although no speeding was 
involved, the authorities declined to issue 
the necessary permit. 



Despite his recently announced "final re- 
tirement," Major Taylor is now en route for 
Australia, where he will race through the 
antipodal season, which next month will, 
find in full swing. He started for San Fran- 
cisco this week. 



Taylor's long-standing record of 1.19 for 
the mile, made at Garfield Park, Chicago, in 
1899, has at last been supplanted. The 
honor fell to the marvellous Frenchman, 
Contenet, who, on November 6, reduced the 
figures to 1.15. 



In its historic annual New Year's midnight 
race to Yonkers and Tarrytown the Asso- 
ciated Cycling Clubs of New York will this 
year include a special class for motor bi- 
cycles; a special prize for the self-propellers 
will be provided. 



Walthour will ride, after all, in the six- 
day race at Madison Square Garden. He 
will team with Nat Butler. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



207 



How he Went at the Job. 

It is always easy to criticise, and perhaps 
that is the reason the rider thought he could 
give the repairman points about the job. 

There was a broken spoke to be replaced, 
and the man thought it was not necessary to 
take the rear wheel out in order to get the 
new spoke in. He worked away for a while, 
trying to get the new spoke in the hub. It 
was on the sprocket wheel side, of course, 
and there was not sufficient room between 
the sprocket wheel and the hub flange. 

"I think you will have to take the sprock- 
et wheel off," ventured the owner of the 
machine at last. 

"I guess not," was the truculent reply. 
"I've put thousands of them in, and it will 
take more than this to stick me." 

He went at it more fiercely than ever, 
bending and twisting the spoke in the en- 
deavor to slide it in the spoke hole. But all 
his work went for nothing. He finally had 
to take the sprocket wheel off, which he did 
with an aggrieved air, as if the machine and 
•its rider were to blame, and not himself. 
He fell to blackguarding the wheel in a 
tactless way that had its natural effect. And 
yet that man is probably surprised that his 
• customer never comes back to him. 



Keying the Crank. 

Tightening loose cranks of the key fast- 
ened variety is not a frequent job now, on 
account of the almost universal use of one 
and two piece bicycle crank hangers. Still, 
an old-timer occasionally finds its way into 
the shop, and because it is an old-timer it is 
generally supposed by the owner that the 
rejair job should be cheaper than if it were 
a more recent model. A repairer was re- 
cently offeed the job of rekeying a crank on 
such a machine. 

The key-seat was so worn that to accom- 
plish a thorough and lasting repair it was 
necessary to put a false bottom to the worn 
seat. But the crank was heavy and the 
key small, so the repairer, in order to cheap- 
en the job, removed the old key and hunted 
1 up a large, taper repair key without the 
usual flat bevelled side. He then removed 
the crank and roughed up the surface of 
the shaft with a centre punch, so that a 
driving fit for the crank was afforded. Af- 
ter the latter was replaced and in its proper 
alignment he placed it in the drill press and 
drilled down through both crank and shaft, 
entirely taking out the old key-seat. Then 
he drove the round, slightly tapering key 
through the hole and screwed the lock nut 
up tight. 

In repairing double tube tires riders have 
ofteii felt the want of some simple means 
for holding the patch down flat on the air 
tube while the solution is drying. An Irish 
cyclist has invented a little appliance for 
this purpose. It is something like a pair of 
glove stretchers, or a well-known form of 
paper fastener. The ends of the jaws are so 
constructed as to bear evenly on the patch 
and air tube, and presure is applied by a 
spring or screw acting between the finger 
pieces. 



Some Innovations in Motor Bicycles. 

One of the newer motor bicycles that has 
made its appearance in London is that 
made by one Davison and shown by the 
accompanying illustration. It incorporates 
several innovations, of which the frame de- 
sign and method of carrying the motor — 
primarily for ease of attachment and de- 
tachment — is but one. Side glasses in the 
oil and gasolene tanks are among the other 
originalities. 

These are let into the side of the tanks 
so as to be secure from injury, and the dif- 
ficulty of making a reliable joint is got over 
in a very simple manner. A new glass can 
be fitted in a minute or two, in case of 
breakage, and to make doubly sure a screw- 
down valve is provided, so that, should the 
glass be deliberately broken or the rider 
staying anywhere for the night, the gasolene 
can be shut off completely from the gauge, 
the tank then becoming an ordinary one. 
The tank is graduated in miles by the side 
of the glass, so that a glance is sufficient 
to show the distance the remaining gasolene 




will allow of covering. The oil-tank has a 
similar graduated gauge, and is fitted, in 
addition, with a glass sight feed-lubricator, 
regulated by a valve, so that the supply to 
the engine is positive. The tank itself is 
not attached to the frame by clips and 
screws, but it slides into the space in the 
front frame, and is wedged forward by one 
screw. The position allows of a 150 miles' 
supply of gasolene being carried. The drive 
is by a belt, which passes around an idler 
mounted on a screwed stem, so that it can 
be raised or lowered by the fingers in the 
event of it being desired to wheel or pedal 
the bicycle. This idler also causes the belt 
to embrace more than half the circumfer- 
ence of the engine pulley, which the de- 
signer claims allows one-third to one-half 
more power to be transmitted with any 
given tension than if the belt went direct 
to the larger pulley. 



Beginning of the Steel Industry. 

At some uncertain time in the dark ages 
some investigating mind among the ancient 
workers of metals hit upon the important 
discovery that iron, after long heating in 
the forge, possessed a greater hardness than 
the metal in its natural state, and the dis- 
covery was undoubtedly made at the same 
time that iron so treated, when plunged red 
hot in water, became hard enough to pierce 
or cut materials which would blunt iron 
tools. This was the actual birth of the steel 
industry, and the beginning of the develop- 
ment of the crucible process. 



IT IS ESTIMATED THAT 



97% 



OF 



Motocycle Troubles 



ARE 



ELECTRICAL TROUBLES. 



It follows that, at least, an ele- 
mentary knowledge of electricity 
will go far towards making for 
the fullest measure of pleasure 
and satisfaction. 



"The A B C 



OF 



Electricity" 



will impart this very knowledge. 




108 PAGES; 36 ILLUSTRATIONS 

The book is entirely non-technical and 
can be understood by the man who does 
not know "the first thing" about electricity 



PRICE, SO CENTS. 



FOR SALE BY 



THE GOODMAN COMPANY 

123-125 Tribune Building, 
NEW YORK. 



208 

Situation In South Africa. 

Speaking of the present situation in South 
Africa, the representative of a German 
house exporting cycles who has visited the 
Transvaal is quoted as saying: 

"The enormous demand for bicycles is at 
the present time supplied by English and a 
few American firms. Besides a large num- 
ber of repair shops, dealing in old and new 
machines of all kinds, there are special 
agencies and depots for the sale of many 
English machines. 

"Before the war, only one German cycle 
manufacturer was directly represented, but 
tl.is will soon be altered. It is not easy to 
find proper representatives for the retail 
trade, since the business is quite different 
from what it is at home, and the repair 
shop men are not fit to be entrusted with 
agencies. The large import houses find 
cycles too great a worry to take them up, 
but some will make a trial and see what can 
be done. 

"The cost for introducing fresh makes is 
enormous, and will deter anybady from 
undertaking the importation at own risk, 
since this could never be successful. The 
needed outlay for advertisements, engage- 
ments of racing men, and the outfitting and 
upkeep of suitable sale and repair premises 
is enormous, and no wonder importers de- 
cline to undertake the risk single-handed, 
especially since English machines are so 
popular and have a firm hold on the public. 

"Besides the now existing depots, there 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

are no other importers and most of the fin- 
ished cycles in the repair shops have been 
assembled on the premises. German firms 
can be successful only when several of the 
largest manufacturers pool their interests 
and undertake the import and sale as a com- 
bination." 

The King and the Cyclist. 

They are telling a story on "the other 
side" that illustrates that King Edward is, 
after all, but common clay. En route to 
Staekpole Court the carriage in which were 
seated the King, Austen Chamberlain and 
the Portuguese Minister, overtook a dawd- 
ling cyclist. The latter recognized the driver, 
and riding alongside, he entered into conver- 
sation with him. He was disturbed by this 
question: "What wheel do you ride?" It was 
the King who asked it. When the cyclist 
turned his head to answer he recognized his 
sovereign, and, according to the story, be- 
came so flustered that he ran into a hedge 
and was upset, whereupon Edward called 
out that other human and familiar question: 
"Are you hurt?" 



To Get the Motor Agoing. 

These are the days when the squirting of 
a few drops of gasolene in the compression 
tap of a motor brings quick reward. Oil 
thickens and gums readily during cold 
weather, and the effect of the gasolene is to 
"unstick" and free the piston rings, and thus 
enable the engine to start quickly and easily. 



About Winter Riding. 

For winter riding there is no more im- 
portant injunction than to keep the extremi- 
ties warm. If this is not done no enjoyment 
can be had. It is useless to wrap the re- 
mainder of the person and leave the hands 
and feet unprotected. As to the coverings 
themselves, there is but one safe rule: never 
wear anything tight. Looseness is absolute- 
ly essential if numbness is to be avoided. 
For the hands large gloves, preferably of 
woollen, with leather outside to enable the 
rider to grip the handle bar, are the best. 
Such gloves as teamsters use, and which 
cost, only 50 or 75 cents, are just the thing, 
and their conspicuousness and lack of beauty 
can be overlooked on account of their other 
good qualities. It is a good idea to supple- 
ment them with a pair of woollen wrist 
warmers, because although the gloves have 
large gauntlets the wind will get in under 
them. For the feet, loose woollen stockings 
and easy fitting shoes can scarcely be im- 
proved on. The shoes may be low, although 
some riders say they cannot keep warm un- 
less they wear high shoes. There are two 
other points that should be protected, and 
these are the breast and throat. A heavy 
sweater will answer best here. 



"The Motor: What It Is and How It 
Works." See "Motocycles and How to Man- 
age Them." $1. The Goodman Co., Box 649, 
New York. *** 



WANTED 



TO EXCHANGE PRICES AND 
SAMPLES FOR YOUR INQUIRIES 
ON ANY NEEDS YOU MAY HAVE 
FOR BICYCLE MERCHANDISE. 

JOHN R. KEIM, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., U. S. A. 



MATTER OF "MIXTURES" 



Conditions and Proportions Necessary to 
Obtain Right Results From Motors.] 



While perfect ignition apparatus lias mucli 
to do with the proper working of gasolene 
motors, it should never he forgotten that 
the explosive charge is worth study and 
attention. The conditions involved are cor- 
rect mixture or proportion of gas and air; 
proper compression of the charge; purity of 
the compressed charge— that is, there should 
he as nearly as possible a complete expul- 
sion of the residue, or burnt gases, of the 
former charge, in combination with a full 
new charge of fresh mixture; complete com- 
bustion of the charges in combination with 
rapid expansion, that there shall be a re- 
sultant fall in temperature and a maximum 
utilization of heat in performing work. 

The correct mixture of air with vapor or 
gas can only be approximately expressed be- 
cause of the variable nature of the condi- 
tions as to temperature of the atmosphere, 
nature or quality of the gas or vapor, num- 
ber of atmospheres of compression and the 
means used for inflaming that compression. 

With ordinary coal gas the mean figures 
for proper mixture are 8 parts of air to 1 
part of gas, while for the richer vapor com- 
ing from gasolene the means are 10 to 1, 
but the explosive limits cover a wide range 
of proportions. That is, there may he as 
rich a mixture of gasolene as 4 to 1, or as 
thin a mixture as 14 to 1, and yet there can 
be explosions. While these are the general- 
ly accepted figures, the exact proportion, 
however, is of little practical value in han- 
dling vehicles, or more correctly speaking, 
the conditions vary so much that a propor- 
tion cannot be arbitrarily laid down, but 
must be determined by experimenting if the 
very best results are aimed at. 

For example, in starting a motor in 
cold weather the charge must be very rich 
in vapor at first, but after "the motor be- 
comes heated the quantity of gasolene can 
be reduced with advantage. On warm days 
the proportions will always be wider apart, 
particularly when starting. Other condi- 
tions exist which make it essential that the 
mixture shall be variable from time to time 
and under direct control of the driver. For 
these reasons an owner who desires to al- 
ways get the best results, most power at the 
expense of the least gasolene, should study 
his motor under varying weather conditions 
and varying mixture proportions, and note 
results. A few trials will fix them in mind 
for use at all times. 

In starting the motor with the compression 
cock open, the suction stroke of the piston 
draws in air through the cock in addition to 
that in the mixed charge from the carburet- 
ter. This naturally impoverishes the mix- 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

ture and it becomes more certainly explosive 
when an extra admission of vapor can be 
given at the carburetter. After the cock is 
closed the conditions are again altered and 
demand a readjustment of the proportions. 

This is no doubt the reason that causes 
many motors to misfire after closing the 
cock. That the misfiring comes from clos- 
ing the cock rather more than from the first 
opening is undoubtedly due to an almost in- 
variable tendency toward feeding the motor 
with a too rich mixture in order to insure a 
start. Then the closing of the compression 
cock and the heat generated by the first ex- 
plosions calls for a greater percentage of 
air, and unless this is understood and at- 
tended to at once there comes the trouble 
in getting the vehicle going. This is par- 
ticularly true in warm weather. 

This condition calls attention to the claims 
of those who use the exhaust valve lifter 
to relieve the compression in starting. With 



Morgan xWrightTires 
are good tires 



. see that Morgan & Wright 

is branded on evert tire and tube 

no other is genuine. 



Morgan & Wright 



New York Branch: 214-216 West *7tm Street. 



this device the compression cock is not used, 
and consequently the mixture remains uni- 
form all through the process of starting. It 
is only necessary to find a mixture which is 
explosive and then the ratio does not have 
to be immediately altered. It is nearly con- 
stant, being only influenced to the small ex- 
tent due to the heating of the cylinder and 
the variations of the atmosphere. These 
are both so gradual that ample warning is 
given to make the necessary changes in the 
gasolene feed. 

Another condition which no doubt has a 
distinct effect on the explosive mixture is 
the proportion of burnt gases or products of 
combustion remaining in the cylinder or in 
the combustion chamber from the previous 
power stroke. Although motors vary con- 
siderably in design in relation to the com- 
parative areas of the cylinder and the com- 
bustion chamber, it is manifestly impossible 
with present construction to entirely expel 
the products of combustion. And such rem- 
nants of a former charge must act as an 
adulterant to the incoming charge, if there 



209 

takes place any real mixture of the two. As 
to the latter point, however, there would 
seem to be no conclusive evidence or agree- 
ment. Some experts assert that a partial 
mixture takes place, while others are of the 
opinion that the residue of the exploded 
gases is drawn down bodily by the suction 
stroke of the piston, so leaving the combus- 
tion chamber and upper part of the cylinder 
to be filled with a fresh explosive mixture 
which lies on top of the exploded gases. 

It is possible that what really does take 
place is a compromise in which the central 
body of the unexpelled burnt gases descends 
with the piston with the walls of the cyl- 
inder head and combustion chamber holding 
a part and the remnant of that body being 
held up in the top of the combustion cham- 
ber by the inrush of the new charge. In this 
case it is most likely that the fouling of the 
charge will he ir the cavity around the 
spark plug— that is, in such motors where 
the plug is screwed into the side chamber 
out of line with the cylinder bore. 

If this is the case, then there is. good rea- 
son in the suggestion that the plug should be 
screwed into the combustion chamber at the 
central head in place of the side extension 
for the passages, and that in either case the 
points of the plug should be extended fur- 
ther in than is at present the general rule, 
that the spark may be insured to take place 
in the fresh mixture. From the testimony 
of those who have tried the latter, it would 
seem that the theory of the bodily drawing 
down of the exploded charge is disproved. 

The proper working of the valves of 
course greatly influences the question of the 
quality of the explosive mixture. With the 
automatic inlet valve in perfect working or- 
der, and other conditions corresponding, the 
maximum amount of new mixture will be 
drawn in at each suction stroke of the pis- 
ton. But if the inlet valve spring be too 
stiff, thus diminishing the amount of mix- 
ture taken in, in conjunction with a too short 
period of opening of the exhaust valve, then 
the power stroke will be weak and inefficient 
by reason of the curtailed supply of ex- 
plosive vapor due to the first condition, and 
the excess of unexpelled products of com- 
bustion due to the exhaust valve closing too 
soon and so setting up a certain degree of 
compression on the exhaust stroke. 



Anderson's Sure Shot Offer. 

C. K. Anderson, 154 Lake street, Chicago, 
who formerly jobbed the Sure Shot solution 
for repairing single tube tires, has now ob- . 
tained control of its manufacture, and will 
henceforth market it on his own account. 
One of his first moves was to materially re- 
duce the price and to offer to send prepaid 
to retailers a sample package of one dozen 
tubes at wholesale rates. In the West the 
solution is well known, and this offer is 
made by Mr. Anderson to introduce it more 
thoroughly to the Eastern trade, and as he 
also volunteers to return the purchase price 
in the event of Sure Shot proving unsatis- 
factory, no retailer can complain that the 
inducement lacks liberality. 



2J0 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



WARNING 



The HENDEE MANUFACTURING COMPANY of Springfield, Mass., want it un- 
derstood that they are the sole manufacturers of the " INDIAN " MOTOCYCLE. No 
one is in anyway authorized to build this machine, and only their authorized agents 
are entitled to advertise or sell it. 

The word " INDIAN" is copyrighted and covers motor machines and self=propelled 
road vehicles of every description. 

The Company proposes to protect its rights in said name and machine to the 
full extent of the law. 



There Must be a Reason 

why the demand each successive year for 




itmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 



PERSONS SADDLES 

has shown such a healthy increase. 

And the reason is not far to seek. Riders and 
dealers have both grown wise and when they purchase 
high-grade bicycles have learned to expect and ask tor 
high-grade saddles. If by any possibility there is any 
doubt in your mind about the Persons being the very 
pinnacle of saddle perfection we'll welcome the oppor- 
tunity to remove it. 



PERSONS MFG. CO., Worcester, Mass. 

C. A. PERSONS, President. 



Head Sets, Connections, 

Rear Fork Ends, 
Cups and Cones, 
Handle Bar Tees, 

AND LOTS OF OTHER PARTS. 



Every year for five consecutive years we brought out a new 

Head Set and the following year our competitors 

copied them every time. WHY ? 

WE BROUGHT OUT THE FIRST HEAD SET MADE FROM 
SHEET METAL. OTHERS FOLLOWED. 



The H. A. Matthews Mfg. Co. 



SEYMOUR, CONN., U. S. A. 



mmmmmmm 




THE WHEEL THAT HAS A 



GORBIN DUPLEX 1903 MODEL 



New Departure Coaster 

d. The Corbin Patented Parallel-Opening Brake Shoes and Du 
the user a noiseless brake under perfect control. Never sticks < 

GET CONTRACTS ENTERED EARLY. 



is easiest sold. The Corbin Patented Parallel-Opening Brake Shoes and Duplex Braking 
Clutch give the user a noiseless brake under perfect control. Never sticks or binds. 



THIS WILL BE THE STANDARD FOR 1903 AND THE DEMAND WILL BE UNPRECEDENTED. 



Mace by P. & F. CORBIN, New Britain, Conn. 

AGENTS IN ALL THE: PRINCIPAL CITIES. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



21) 



QUEERED THE QUALITY 

But the Public Bought Just the Same- 
Penalty Paid In the End. 



"Without quality not even the best and 
most desirable goods can be successfully 
and continually sold," remarked the old- 
timer. "And with it you can build up a 
reputation that will endure just so long as 
that quality is maintained and very little 
longer. 

"Some years ago— it was just as the boom 
period was reaching its height— an experi- 
ence that bears out these remarks came 
under my notice. I gave the matter a great 
deal of attention at the time, for there was 
one of our customary wars on between my 
most formidable competitor and myself; 
consequently I was able to watch the game 
from the inside. 

"The other dealer took on a new line one 
season, actuated thereby by the persuasive- 
ness of an old friend who was at one time 
one of the best known figures in the trade — 
a man who was both a 'hustler' and a 
persuader from Persuaderville. 

"Directly after the arrangement was made 
an energetic campaign was begun. The 
dealer and the maker of the machine worked 
together, and no Trojans ever put in harler 
licks than they did. About half a dozen 
good riders were at once put on the ma- 
chine. I was pretty well convinced that 
some of them were gifts outright, the others 
being trades made on a basis decidedly lib- 
eral—to the rider. All sorts of inducements 
were offered to intending purchasers, and it 
was no great secret that the machines could 
be bought on exceedingly favorable terms. 

"It was one of my pet theories that any 
good article could be made to go if it were 
well pushed. But I expected this campaign 
to fail because of the lack of the first re- 
quirement. What I knew of the machine 
was not altogether to its credit, and unless 
it ran well and stood up I knew it could 
not be made a success. 

"But in this case I reckoned without my 
host, for the machine was all right. It did 
not take very long for me to become con- 
vinced of it. It was in the hands of a lot 
of hard riders, and on this account troubles 
could not be altogether concealed. I had 
my ways of obtaining information, and it 
was not long before the very disagreeable 
belief was borne in on me that the ma- 
chine was a good one; that it ran well and 
stood the hardest kind of banging around. 

"As soon as this became plain I made up 
my mind that we were going to have 
trouble, that our rivals had got hold of a 
machine that could be made to have a great 
run, and the really able manner in which 
it was pushed, with the complete harmony 
between the maker and dealer, made me 
look for the worst. I could already see, in 
imagination, trade leaving me to go to my 
rival. 

"Presently, however, I took heart again, 



for suspicions arose that all was not smooth 
sailing at the rival establishment. Some- 
how or other the machine did not take with 
the outside public. The 'regulars' were be- 
ginning to swear by, instead of at, it, and 
a few others had been placed. But all this 
had been done at first, and since then the 
venture had come dangerously close to 
standing still. You may imagine how 
pleased I was when I had satisfied myself 
that this was really true. 

"During the entire season the situation 
remained almost unchanged. The machine 
was all right, and it should have been easy 
to make it 'go'; but for some unexplained 
reason it did not. So I was pretty well 
satisfied. 

"Now comes the really interesting part of 
the story, as you will see. 

"Next season, both parties being full of 
pluck, the campaign was resumed with un- 
abated vigor and, seemingly, without a 
thought of the fiasco that had gone before. 
I had pretty nearly dismissed the matter 
from my mind when I began to notice that 
there seemed to be a lot of new machines of 
this make about Furthermore, they were 
ridden by the most desirable class of cus- 
tomers, new riders, or old ones who traded 
in on a basis that was fair to both sides. 
This was in startling contrast to what had 
gone before, and I began to feel uneasy. 

"Studying the subject very closely, I be- 
came aware of another fact. That was that 
the new machines were not up to the previ- 
ous season's standard. The 'regulars' had, 
of course, been mounted on the latest 
model, and they began to have a worried 
look. By nosing around I found that they 
were having trouble. Tales of a broken 
fork, of a twisted frame, of broken bearings, 
bent cranks and such things began to be 
whispered. 

"By dint of much quiet inquiry I got at the 
truth. The new machines were bad, quite 
as bad as I had thought the old ones would 
be. Nearly all the riders were having 
troubles, and their mishaps ran the whole 
gamut of bicycle emotions. 

"But, and now comes the strangest part 
of all, they were selling. The effects of the 
previous season's work were being felt. It 
seemed as if riders had watched them be- 
fore and made up their minds; but had put 
off buying until the new season was ushered 
in. Then they flocked to the store and 
bought without fear or hesitation. 

"Well, to make a long story short, it went 
that way all the season. On the one hand, 
any one who looked into the matter could 
see that the machines were bad ones, cer- 
tain to give trouble even with careful usa^e; 
on the other, they were a popular success 
and were disposed of as fast as they came 
in. The dealer would have made a barrel 
of money if he had not had to spend nearly 
all his profits in making good the guarantee. 
His repair shop was turned into an assem- 
bling room, where were kept frames and 
forks and every other part of the machine 
in big lots. 

"The next season, the third, Nemesis 



came. Purchasers of the second crop had 
got a stomach full, and they related their 
experience to any one who would listen to 
them. The result was an absolute lack of 
sale, and it was only a short time after 
that the would be 'smart' maker found him- 
self in the bankruptcy court." 



Praise for the Tires. 

The dealer dropped the remark in such 
a casual manner that it did not make an 
impression at first. Then, as its full im- 
port came to the Bicycling World man he 
almost gasped. 

"Tire companies never have to make any 
replacements for me," he said. 

"You mean that you send the riders to 
headquarters, so that the replacing can be 
done there?" he was asked. 

"No; I mean that there are no replace- 
ments. The tires dont go wrong. I can 
recall but a single case this year where 
there was even a question, and there was 
much to be said on both sides. And I sell 
$5,000 or $6,000 worth of tires a year. 

"I tell you, the tire of to-day is mighty 
near perfect. I mean good tires, of course, 
for the cheap stuff is always going wrong, 
and no one thinks it strange. But the good 
tires are good. The people who make them 
don't get half the credit that belongs to 
them. To take a couple of pounds of rub- 
ber and canvas and make of it an article 
that will stand what every tire has to stand 
is a triumph of skill. 

"Well, such tires never go wrong. If 
things happen to them you can make up 
your mind that they are not the fault of the 
tire." 

What he Does With Old Saddles. 

"What do I do with all my old tires and 
saddles'?" repeated the metropolitan dealer 
when a Bicycling World representative 
remarked an accumulation of each article. 
"I sell the tires as scrap rubber to an 
Italian who comes around every few weeks 
and the old saddles keep heels on my chil- 
dren's shoes. Do the 'heeling' myself? I 
guess not. I give the saddle tops to an old 
cobbler, who, in payment, keeps the young- 
sters' shoes in repair. He tells me the tops 
make fine leather for shoe heels." 



The Retail Record. 

Phelps, N. Y.— C. A. Lane closed for the 
winter. 

Lafayette, R. I.— Walter Rose removed 
from Wickford to Lafayette. 

Keene, N. H. — Naramore & Darling closed. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Burke Brothers, slight 
damage by fire. 

Reed City, Mich.— D. France, damaged by 
fire. Loss. $1,223, partly insured. 

Schenectady. N. Y— J. A. Rickard & Co., 
damaged by explosion. 

Baltimore, Md.— W. H. Logue, Jr., opened 
branch store. 



"How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
cycles and How to Manage Them." $1. The 
Goodman Co., Box 649, New York. ••• 



212 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



The Week's Patients. 

713,594. . Back pedaling brake. William H. 
Brewster, Utica, N. Y. Filed September 24, 
1898. Serial No. 691,783. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In combination, in a back pedal- 
ing brake, a shouldered bub, an inner loosely 
mounted disk having wedge shaped should- 
ered cams on its vertical face, a loosely 
mounted sprocket having wedge shaped 
shouldered cams on its vertical face regis- 
tering with said shouldered cams of the disk, 
adjustable means holding the sprocket 
against outward thrust, a non-rotary mem- 
ber, a rotary brake face opposing the same, 
and mechanism actuated by the reverse 
movement of said sprocket to brake the in- 
dependent forward rotation of said hub, sub- 
stantially as described. 

713,731. Velocipede. Arthur M. Allen, 
West New Brighton, N. Y. Filed June 16, 
1S97. Serial No. 641,060. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a wheeled vehicle, two 
frames, the one with a transverse axle and a 
steering head, and the other with two trans- 
verse axles, one behind the other, and a 
frame neck to fit said steering head; all in 
combination with three road wheels in line 
and driving and steering gear. 

713,736. Process of manufacturing rubber. 
Albert C. Blossier, Paris, France. Filed Feb- 
ruary 20, 1902. Serial No. 94,903 (No speci- 
mens). 

Claim. — 1. The process of manufacturing- 
articles of rubber which consists in first soft- 
ening the pure rubber, then thoroughly in- 
corporating into the said rubber oxid of zinc 
and oxid of magnesium, in the proportion by 
weight of about eighty parts of oxid of zinc 
and forty parts of oxid of magnesium to one 
hundred parts of pure rubber, then preparing 
the mass for vulcanization, forming the mass 
into the desired shape and then vulcanizing 
the same, substantially as described. 

713,792. Explosive engine. John A. Osten- 
berg, Westminster Station, Vt, assignor to 
Frederick M. Gilbert, Walpole, N. H. Filed 
June 1, 1S97. Serial No. 63S.941. (No model.) 

Claim.— 1. In a gas engine, the combina- 
tion with the cylinder; of an explosion cham- 
ber smaller in diameter than the cylinder; 
an igniting device for exploding a charge ad- 
mitted to said explosion chamber; an inlet 
port for the charge and an exhaust port for 
the products of combustion; means for open- 
ing both of said ports when the piston has 



ii 



reached substantially the end of its out- 
stroke, and for closing the same during the 
instroke of the piston; a source of com- 
pressed explosive adapted to be admitted 
through said inlet upon the opening of the 
same; and a passage through the piston ter- 
minating in an injector nozzle in line with 
the axis of the cylinder and pointing toward 
the clused end thereof, whereby the charge 
admitted is injected in a jet through the 
spent charge toward the closed end of the 
cylinder and concentrated in the said explo- 
sion chamber, substantially as described. 

713,S55. Pneumatic tire. George H. Clark, 
Boston, Mass., assignor to the Clark Cycle 
Tire Company, Portland, Me., a corporation 
of Maine. Filed October 25, 1899. Renewed 
August 11, 1902. Serial No. 119,224. (No 
model.) 

Claim.— A pneumatic wheel tire comprising 
a number of expansible layers and two non- 
extensible strips passing entirely around the 
tire lengthwise and disposed at opposite 
sides of the tread of the tire, outside of a 
diametrical line passing through the tire in 
parallelism with its axis, substantially as 
described. 

713,867. Cycle driving gear. John B. 
Forster, Belfast, Ireland. Filed June 26, 
1902. Serial No. 113,242. (No model.) 

Claim.— In combination with a cycle frame 
and a driving wheel mounted therein, a pair 
of treadles arranged one at each side of the 
driving wheel and centered, between their 
ends, on a pivot supported by the frame, and 
having a foot plate at its fore end and a 
toothed sector at its rear end, a pair of 
sprocket free wheels mounted on the driving- 
wheel hub one on each side thereof free to 
rotate thereon in a backward direction, but 
adapted to engage therewith and to drive the 
same when driven in a forward direction and 
each engaging with one of the sectors so as 
to be driven by the depression of the treadle 
levers, means for preventing the disengage- 
ment of the sectors from the sprocket wheels, 
and an axle passing through the driving- 
wheel axle, a pair "of pulleys on the through 
axle one at each side of the driving wheel 
and a flexible connection from each pulley 
to the top side of the sector at the same side 
of the driving wheel, the two connections 
rising from different sides of the two pulleys 
for returning the treadles to their normal 
position, after each depression of the foot, 
as set forth. 

714,121. Bicycle. Gurdon H. Williams, 



Brooklyn township, Ohio. Filed July 26, 
1901. Serial No. 69,816. (No model.) ' 

Claim.— 1. A bicycle, comprising rear brace . 
bars terminating at their upper portions in a 
single bifurcated bar and a seat post pro- 
vided with a rearwardly extending knuckle, 
in combination with a link pivotally, .con- 
nected to the said brace bars and seat post, 
said link having its forward end bifurcated 
to embrace the said knuckle, and its rear end 
provided with a reduced portion, to fit within 
the bifurcated end of the said brace bars, 
and a cushioning mechanism secured at one 
of its ends to said link, and at its other end 
to the bicycle frame. 



THE "CORSON" MOTOR CYCLE STAND. 



The Employee Worth While. 

There are most potent possibilities for loy- 
alty, interest and intelligent effort on the 
part of the employed when the employer 
assumes the attitude of leaving a man to do 
his work, relying solely on his honor and 
mettle. Those lacking good judgment in the 
selection of men seldom have that breadth 
of character which permits them to leave 
their employes unhampered by ill-considered 
interference, says the Inland Printer. 

If an employe who is worthy of the confi- 
dence that is reposed in him has entire 
charge of a department and is simply looked 
to for results he will plan, manage and work 
to the best of his abiliyt in the interest of his 
employers, feeling that he is on his mettle, 
and that he is in honor bound to give his 
best efforts to the work, knowing the ex- 
hiliration that comes of doing good work. 
There is nothing that so quickly causes a 
workman to lose interest in his work or kills 
outright that feeling of responsibility that is 
essential to conscientious work as to be for- 
ever handicapped by an employer who in- 
sists upon directing- details that should, in 
all conscience, be left to the employe. If a 
man is competent, let him alone, but hold 
him responsible for what he does. If he is 
incompetent it is your own fault if you con- 
tinue to employ him. 

Sure Shot Solution. 

For Repairing Pin Punctures and Putting in 
Plugs in Single Tube Tires. 

Will express prepaid to any dealer in U. S. one dozen each 

fs in. x 4 in needle p >int tubes ) fr\r i i in 

H\n. x 4 in, blunt " " f iUr ^ 1 - 1U 

Satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded without return 

of goods. 

C.K.ANDERSON, 154 Lake St .Chicago, III. 



Price, $5.00, 
F. O B. 

An absolute ne- 
cessity to every 
user of a Motor 
Cycle as a holder 
for cleaning, ad- 
justing and test- 
ing mixture and 
ignition. 

Guaranteed to 
holii machine and 
rider with motor 
running. 




NO MORE STRETCHING OR SLIPPING OF BELTS, THE BANE TO MOTOR CYCLING. 

THE CORSON "KANTSTRETCH" BELT. 

The " KANTSTRETCH " belt is guaranteed not to STRETCH o r SLIP and to be impervious to water, if kept clean 
and dressed occasionally with " Holmefast " belt dressing. Belts made to order to fit any motor cycle. 
Prices quoted on application, giving shape, size and length of belt wanted. 

AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR CYCLE COMPANY, 

E.H.CORSON Manager. Office: Pope Building 221 Columbus Ave, Room 22, 39ST0N* 



is! 



KINDLY NOTE 



That FRED. R. POWEfc, 79 Lake St., Chicago, 
111., can fill all orders on 

Lake Shore 
SingleTube Tires 

promptly, on receipt of order. 



WRITE FOR PRICES. 



FRED. R. POWER, 79 Lake St., Chicago, ML 



The Bicycling World 

AND MOTOCYCLE REVIEW. 

In which is incorporated " The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review " and the " American Cyclist." 



Volume XLVI. 



New York, U. S. A., Thursday, December 4, 1902. 



PRICES BEGIN TO APPEAR 



Racycle Lists Show Both Increases and Re- 
ductions—An Opinion on the Subject. 



With the appearance this week of the cat- 
alogue of the Miami Cycle & Mfg. Co., the 
first to put in an appearance, the effect of 
the agitation for higher prices is given a 
shadow of substance. So far as the Miami 
company is concerned, the increase applies 
to but on" model, the Racycle Pacemaker, 
No. SO. which is listed at $02.50. Last year 
it was priced $60. 

This is the Racycle coaster brake model, 
which made its appearance last season, aud, 
although it was the first and is the only 
American model of the sort, it escaped notice 
at the time. While the coaster brake is a 
part of the regular equipment, this particu- 
lar Racycle is supplied with fixed gear when 
desired; its price is then $3 less. The Racycle 
people have also added a cushion frame 
coaster brake model at $07.50, which is their 
highest figure. 

On the other hand, they have reduced the 
price of their racer from $55 to $52.50, and 
the price of the ladies' roadster from $47.50 
to $45. 

Dealing with the subject of price, they 
say: 

"While the price of all material has ad- 
vanced from 30 to 70 per cent, we will con- 
tinue to use nothing but the best seamless 
tubing, forgings and fittings, and thus main- 
tain the standard of the Racycle as Amer- 
ica's best, most expensive and highest grade 
wheel. 

"We believe that the price of a wheel 
Should be measured by the cost of its equip- 
ments, and our prices, to the dealer, are so 
regulated. 

"We fail to see the advantage of offering 
an inferior machine loaded down with op- 
tions, at a given price. When a machine is 
offered at the same price witli an option of 
a $4 single tube or a $7 Clincher tire, there 
is 'something rotten in Denmark.' If the 
dealer buys the singe tube, he loses $3, and 
the manufacturer gains $3. On the other 



hand, if he orders the Clincher, the manu- 
facturer must be out $3, while the dealer 
can get uo more for the machine than the 
fixed list price." 

The famous crank hanger, of course, con- 
tinues the feature of all Racycles, and has 
been further improved in several minor de- 
tails. Four improvements of the sort are 
specified. 

Cox & Tingley Fall Apart. 

Cox & Tingley, Railway, N. J., for many 
years makers of tire repair plugs and solu- 
tion, have fallen apart, and are now going 
their own separate ways as rivals instead 
of partners. Cox has formed the firm of 
Cox & Spencer, and Tingley is C. O. Ting- 
ley ou his own account. They are producing 
similar manufactures, and in Rahway, of 
course. 

Ilanna Out, Ihde In. 

The Hanna Cycle Material Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y., has been succeeded by Kellner & 
Ihde, who will continue the busiuess at the 
old address. Mr. Kellner was formerly a 
half owner of the Hanna concern, and after 
purchasing the interests of his partner, Ros- 
well J. Hanna, formed the new copartner- 
ship with E. A. Ihde. 



Dean Now in Charge. 

Walter Dean is now in charge of the Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co.'s' bicycle department 
at the Akron factory, succeeding to the 
vacancy left by S. G. Rigdon. Dean was 
formerly one of the Goodyear travellers, 
and his new position is in the nature of 
merited promotion. 



Leaving Hartford for New Yoik. 

The Tost & Lester Co., the well known 
jobbers of Hartford. Conn., are preparing, for 
removal to this city. Quarters are being 
sought", and it is expected that they will be 
established here at about the beginning of 
the new year. 

Saddles go up in Flames. 

The Wheeler Mfg. Co., makers of saddles 
and leather grips, at Detroit, Mich., were 
partially destroyed by fire on the morning 
of November 2ii. The flames started in tlie 
plating room, and entailed a loss of about 
$15,000. 




No. 10 



JOBBE^^jL^W 



National Organization lo be Formed in This 
City, Dec. 15lh— The Call Issued. 



After Monday, December 15 next, it is 
more than probable that tongues and pens 
will be no longer twisted in the effort to 
speak or write the alphabet denuding title 
of the New York jobbers' organization— the 
New York State Association of Jobbers of 
Bicycle Supplies. 

The efforts of its officers to nationalize 
the organization have met with a hearty re- 
sponse from the other sections of the coun- 
try, and on the date mentioned a. the Astor 
House, in this city, the national associa- 
tion wiii lie brought into being. 

After communicating with the leading 
jobbers in other parts of the country the 
time and place has been found agreeable, 
and the formal call for the meeting is be- 
ing mailed this week. At the meeting the 
State association will, of course, pass out of 
existence, and a new— and shorter— name 
and new officers be chosen. 

In preparation for the session the execu- 
tive committee of the N. Y. S. A. O. J. O. B. 
S. met at the Powers House. Rochester, last 
week. Every member of the committee was 
in attendance. 



Columbia Cushion Fork, Too. 

In addition to the two speed gear, it is 
now common property that a spring, or 
rather a cushioned, front fork will be a 
feature of the 18ft3 Columbia and other bi- 
cycles made by the American Cycle Mfg. 
Co. The device employed in principle' and 
in appearance is not unliKe a miniature of 
the cushion frame— a small telescopic cylin- 
der inclosing a spring. 



Why the Deal Hangs Fire. 

The coaster brake deal, of which a hint 
was given some few weeks since and which 
promised some amazing developments, is 
still hanging fire. It is understood that the 
"hanging" is due !•> the absence abroad of 
one of the interested parties. As he is due 
to return this week the deal must shortly 
take a turn for better or worse. 



222 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



READY FOR THE GRIND 



Six Day's Race Starts Monday— The nen 
Who'll Compete and Some Past History. 



Shortly after Sunday midnight the tenth 
annual six day grind will begin on the ten 
lap track in Madison Garden. The race 
promises to have as big a following of en- 
thusiasts as ever, f jr good riders will com- 
pete. There are sixteen teams enlisted to 
start this year. They are as follows: Stin- 
son and Moran, Boston team; Keegan and 
Fenn, Irish team; Bedell brothers. Long 
Island team; Franz Krebs and Barclay, Jer- 
sey team; Butler and Turville, Quaker team; 
Leander and Floyd Krebs, Western team; 
McFarland and Maya. California team; Pe- 
terson and Hedspeth, Chicago team; New- 
kirk and .jacobson, New England team; Bald 
and Elkes. All-American team; Gougoltz and 
Kaser. French-German team; Buisson and 
Bi'uni. French team; Heller and Doerflinger, 
German team; Breton and Darragon, Alsa- 
tian team; Lootens and Barasquin, Belgian 
team, and Galvin and Boot, Massachusetts 
team. 

Gougoltz, who is the long distance cham- 
pion of France, was a starter in the last 
race, his team mate being Simar. who was 
f reed to retire from the race through illness. 
Gougoltz this year has selected Carl Kaser, 
who has also ridden here before, as his team 
mate. He is a German, and is the holder 
of many German records. The other foreign 
teams are Doerflinger and Heller, of Ger- 
many; Bruni and Buisson. who hold a num- 
ber of records in France. Lootens and Baras- 
quin, stars of Belgium, and Breton and Dar- 
ragon. another pair of French cracks. Most 
of these men have participated in six day 
races, and can be relied upon to make it in- 
teresting for the American riders. Most of 
the American riders need no introduction. 
McFarland and .Maya. Kikes and Bald. But- 
ler and Turville. Keegan and Fenn, Stinson 
and Moran and Newkirk and Jacobson arc 
veterans of many hard tights, and have al- 
ways been prominent among the leaders. 

Since the introduction of six day cycle 
races in this city, the first of which was 
held in Madison Square Garden in 1891, the 
sport has been rapidly growing in interest. 

The entries each year of the pick of for- 
eign riders lends an international flavor to 
the race, which works up an enthusiasm 
that borders on frenzy. There is always an 
intense rivalry among the riders, and the 
followers of each and every contestant at 
some time throughout the race show by 
their vocal demonstration the feeling and 
the interest they take in their favorites' ef- 
forts to land first prize. 

There have been many changes in the con- 
ditions of the race since 1901. In the early 
days the riders were compelled to go it alone 
for 142 hours, resting whenever nature com- 
pelled them, or through some mishap. The 
fathers of the law thought this form of 



amusement too cruel and wearing on the 
human body, and by an act of legislature 
passed in 1898, stopped it, after "Charlie" 
Miller for the second successive year had 
ridden the pick of the American and Euro- 
pean riders in the ground. The law required 
that no competitor in any race of six days 
could run or ride more than twelve hours 
eaech day. Managers Kennedy and Powers 
then conceived the idea of forming teams of 
two men each, each man riding twelve hours 
each day, resting whenever it suited them. 
This style of racing has proven more inter- 
esting and exciting than the old continuous 
grind. 

The first race, held in 1891, was won by 
"Plugger Bill" Martin, who rode an old 
style ordinary wheel. In the year following 
"Charley" Ashinger, on a high wheel, was 
first over the wire. During the same year 
safety bicycles were put on the market, and 
in the race of the following year Albert 
Shock rode a safety wheel, while many of 
the other man rode high wheels. The su- 
periority of the safety was plainly demon- 
strated, as Shock won easily. 

No race was held in 1894, and in 1S95 a 
race for women was held. It was won by 
Frankie Nelson. In the following year 
"Teddy" Hale, of Ireland, defeated one of 
the best fields that ever started. He was 
the only foreigner who ever won the race. 
Miller won the race in lS9T-'98, and the fol- 
lowing year, when the team races were in- 
augurated, he doubled up with "Dutch" Wal- 
ler, and between them they won first prize. 
Floyd McFarland and Harry Elkes, young 
men of the modern school < f ridifg, carried 
off first honors, and last year "Bobby" Wal- 
thour and ■'Archie" McEachern were the vic- 
torious pair. The hitter's death through an 
accident at Atlantic City last summer, and 
an accident to "Bobby" YValthour. wh > 
broke his collar bone recently, makes a re- 
gretful gap in this year's list. 

The best record for a race of this sort was 
made by Miller and Walthour in 1899—2.733 
miles and 4 laps. 

The order of finish last year was: 

Walthour-McEachern 2,555—1 (weeel) 

May a- Wilson 2,555—4 

Newkirk-Munroe 2,555—4 

Babcock-Turville 2,555—4 (yards) 

Butler-McLean 2,555—4 

King-Samuelson 2.555—4 

Hall-McLaren 2,442—9 

FVedericks-Jaak 2,231—2 

fleets a Deserved Fate. 

At the public hearing on Friday last on 
the ordinance to license and tag the automo- 
bilists of this city, which was proposed by 
the executive committee of the New York 
Remnant. L. A. W., just one man appeared 
to speak in its favor— the individual who 
drafted it. The aldermanic law committee, 
which heard the argument, lias since de- 
luded to report adversely to the measure. 
On the other hand, the amendment to the 
rules of the road offered by Alderman oat- 
man, and increasing the speed limit for bi- 
cycles and autos from eight to ten miles, 
will be reported favorably. 



RIVALS MEET ON ROAD 

As a Result the "Association" Finds Cause 
for Chuckles — Won "Americas" Race. 

Ever since last Sunday there have been 
sounds of loud chuckling issuing from the 
camp of the Century Boad Club Association. 
The reason for it was not far to be sought. 
The association had played a pretty trick 
on its hated rival, the Century Road Club of 
America. The Americas planned to steal a 
march on the Association by holding a "half 
century individual record run," or a 50-mile 
road race, on Thanksgiving Day, for which 
holiday the Association had nothing on the 
card. The run was postponed because of 
rain till Sunday. 

Meantime the Association riders had been 
lying low. The race came off successfully, 
and when the tally-up was made, it was dis- 
covered that the first place and first time 
prize had been won by an Association rider, 
and that Association men had captured also 
the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and ninth 
places. 

While the Americas were toiling and 
sweating over the arrangements and putting 
up money to buy handsome prizes, the Asso- 
elation was quietly entering its best riders. 
It was an open race, and the Association 
men simply scooped in the best of all the 
prizes put up by its rival. Therefore the 
chuckling. 

The only drop of gall in the cup of arch re- 
joicing is 1he fact that some of the prize 
winners who are claimed by the Association 
as its riders are members also of the Amer- 
icas. There are now a dozen or two "strad- 
dlers" of this sort, who hold membership in 
both bodies. 

The result of the race is shown below: 

Actual 

Handicap. Time. 

H. S. R. Smith 25.00 2.29.30 

G. Groot 35.00 2.44.31 

R. Acker 35.00 2.45.30 

G. Holzhauer 20.00 2.32.31 

H. A. Gliesman 20.00 2.32.32 

D. T. Adams 30.00 2.42.33 

J. Kopsky 20.00 2.32.34 

G. Weirich 20.00 2.32.35 

D. J. Mclntvre 30.00 2.48.30 

O. J. Stieh 40.00 3.00.30 

TIME TRIZES. 

H. S. R. Smith 20.00 2.29.30 

A. Boverman Scratch 2.30.20 

W. B. Ferguson Scratch 2.30.21 

C. Mark Scratch 2.30.22 

A. L. Cahm Scratch 2.30.40 



Fooling the Australians. 

Although the Sterling bicycle has been off 
tie' market here and the Sterling factory 
closed for some years, au Australian house 
is advertising "a fresh lot of 100. just 
landed." It is evident, therefore, that either 
the supply of Sterling name plates has not 
yet been exhausted or that Australian riders 
are not fully posted. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



223 



OCTOBER'S LOSS, $29,549 



But for Japan's Purchases it Would Have 
Been Greater — Year's Increase Doubtful. 



For October the exports of cycles and parts 
show a falling off. But for the continued 
large shipments to Japan, which took $35,- 
619 worth of goods, as against only $7,440 
for the same month of last year, the de- 
crease would be considerably greater. As 
it ; is, the shrinkage amounts to almost 
$30,000 for the month. 

Slight gains are made in about half a 
dozen instances in addition to Japan. Brit- 
ish North America, British East India, the 
Philippines, the Netherlands and Mexico are 
among the number. On the other hand, 
nearly all the other British possessions— in- 
cluding the United Kingdom itself— show- 
heavy losses, while "Other Europe" and 
Germany are not far behind. 

For the ten months of the fiscal year the 
figures are still to the good, notwithstand- 
ing the October loss. 

The race between the United Kingdom 
and Japan for the premier position is very 
close, the figures being $359,890 and $357,- 
S23, respectively. A month hence, however, 
the land of the chrysanthemum is likely to 
have a substantial leait. so heavy is the tide 
running in its direction. 

The record in detail follows: 



Snow Stops Corson. 

As nearly every one but himself expected 
would prove the case. E. H. Corson, was 
forced by snow and mud to abandon his 
journey by motor bicycle from Boston to 
Milwaukee. He cried quits at Schenectady, 
where he took the train for the West. 

He writes from Milwaukee that since his 
arrival there he has met a number of old 
timers, one of them, J. Fred Probst, coming 
from T'erre Haute, Ind., to renew an ac- 
quaintance of the old "Star" days. Despite 
his experience in the mud. he also is plan- 
ning to attempt the return to Boston on his 
Merkel, following a southern route, but dis- 
cretion probably will prove the better part 
of valor. 



MERKEL IMPROVEMENTS 



Lawrence Made Superintendent. 

"Ned" Lawrence has been appointed super- 
intendent of the Columbia factory at Hart- 
ford. He was formerly the assistant super- 
intendent, and takes the place of W. J. 
Mead, who was brought from Chicago, but 
whose stay in Hartford was short. Law- 
rence has been connected with the Colum- 
bia interests from the time the bicycle was 
first made in tho afctory of the Weed Sew- 
ing Machine Co. 



The 



Will Issue Bonds. 

American Tube & Stamping Co., 



Bridgeport, formerly the Wilniot & Hobbs 
Co., will issue bonds for $1,500,000 for the 
further development of the plant. 



Exported to- 



Oetober — 
190 1. 1002. 

Values. I Values. 



l|Ten months ending October- 

1900. 1901. I 19H2. 

[| Values. | Values. | Values. 



' United Kingdom 

Belgiumi 

France 

Germany 

Italyi 

, Netherlands^ 

Other Europe 

, British North America 

Central American States and British 

Honduras 

fl Mexico 

Cuba . 

'.Portot Rico2 

\ Other West Indies and Bermuda.. 
.Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Venezuela-? 

Other South America 

Chinese Empire 

British East Indies 

Hongkong 

Japan 

British Australasia 

Ha waii2 

Philippine Islands 

, Other Asia and Oceanic 

' British Africa 

': All other Africa 

Other countries 



)>28 ,400 
3.700 
3.-615 

10,553 
3,251 
7.624 

17,240 
0,463 

671 
1 ,235 

2,189 



4,623 

994 

345 

37 

238 

2.347 

I .S7i i 

1,658 

o 

7 .440 
21 ,547 



1.S40 

3 .050 

22 .007 

254 



$lo,40SI| $409,221 


$441,231 


$359,890 


1.70S[ 





31.413 


42.34S 


3,566| 


170.207 


179.292 


104.729 


7.927 1 


322.03S 


186,486 


244.972 


1.03.-, 


44.109 


58,345 


4.407 




133.211 


127.805 


G,656|| 599,814 


260,669 


204,582 


8,6961 
203 


352.523 


282,490 


161,635 


2,064 


4.913 


2,427 


1,!511| 


12.249 


19.015 


22,178 


330 


| 65.133 
1,461 


11.777 


9,860 


3.177 


39,098 


43,480 


40,832 




70,231 


5.974 


6,384 


522 


10,794 


5.391 


5,580 


68 


3.470 


682 


S13 


67 




1.590 


419 


1,211 


35.424 


23,010 


16.382 


532 


19,645 


51,163 


24,160 


2.566 


50.697 


46.984 


43,492 


388 


7,696 


3,255 


5,195 


35.019 


22(1.709 


196,095 


357,823 


15,097! 


177,773 


166,117 


178,788 


1 


32,473 






3,982' 


54.787 


28,200 


17,737 


3.224| 


22.291 


19,905 


25,431 


7,155 


453,296 


77.691 


96,048 


1,007 1 




5.695 


7,248 


• • : 


417 


282 


12 



Totals | $150.271| $126,7221 |$2.740.171|$2,271,326|$2.285,1S7 

ilncluded in "Other Europe" prior to January, 1901. 2Xow American possessions. 
3Iucluded in "Other South America" prior to January, 1901. .^Including "All Other Africa. 



P. B. Bekeart, the well known San Fran- 
cisco jobber, is now in t lie city renewing his 
ljies for 1903. He usually makes the trip 
at least once each year. 



Col. Pope Now a New Yorker. 

Colonel Albeit A. Pope has finally located 
in this city and moved his family here. He 
has taken apartments in the Cambridge. 



Spring Frame Will Mark the Milwaukee- 
made Hotor Bicycle— Other Innovations. 



It is now no longer a secret that triple 
front forks, of which mention was pre- 
viously made, constitute but one of several 
radical departures that will be apparent in 
the Merkel motor bicycles of 1903. 

Among other important changes will be 
the carrying of the motor in a vertical po- 
sition at the crank hanger, the centre of 
the flywheels being about in line with the 
centre of the hubs of the wheels, and, what 
probably will prove more surprising, a 
spring frame will be employed. 

The first of the new models has been in 
use for several weeks on the roads adjacent 
to the Merkel factory at Milwaukee, and 
from all accounts has behaved in an inspir- 
ing manner. 

The Merkel people themselves say they 
have been surprised not only by the added 
comfort which the spring frame affords, but 
by the saving in the wear and tear on the 
entire "machine. 



Extent of Austria's Trade. 

Austrian cycle manufacturers are slowly 
building up an export trade in cycles and 
cycle parts, the exports during the first half 
of the current year having amounted to a 
value of 685,200 kr., as compared with 671,- 
800 kr. in the corresponding period of last 
year. On the other hand, imports of foreign 
cycles and parts into the country have de- 
clined—from 141.750 kr. in the first half of 
1901 to 126.000 kr. in the six months ending 
with July last. The imports come mainly 
from Germany and America, while the best 
customers for Austrian machines and fit- 
tings are Germany, Denmark, Italy and 
Switzerland. 



Where Good Cheer Rules. 

L. H. Elmer, who has been covering New 
England for John K. Keim, reports an ex- 
cellent state of affairs. He states that he 
sold three times as much goods as he sold 
in the same territory last season, and finds 
the agents more confident and full of faith 
that the final clearing out of old stocks will 
give them a chance to recoup next year. 



Extended for Three Months. 

Two interlocutory decrees have been filed 
by Judge T'ownsend in the United States 
Circuit Court for Connecticut, authorizing 
the receivers of the American Bicycle Co. 
and the American Cycle Manufacturing Co. 
to continue the business for a further period 
of three months from the date of the order. 



Schrader has a Fire. 

A. Schrader's Sons, the well known valve 
maker of this city, suffered damage "by fire 
on Tuesday of this week. It was not sutfi- 
cient, however, to cause any material in- 
terruption of business. 



224 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



1 

1 

i 



mwms$m * 

MIO 


N 


s 


R 


IDI 



i 

i 



MADE ONLY BY THE 



ft 

m 

i 

& W4 TIONAL BIG YCLES for 1903 are MIGHTY GOOD. 

m 

m WORTH THE PUSH OF ANY LIVE DEALER. 



n 



NATIONAL CYCLE MFG. CO,, Bay City, Mich., O.S.A. 



BUT MADE EVERY DAY. 



1 

I 



NEW BICYCLES 



SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH 



FISK TIRES 

It means that you have the best that can be obtained. 



FISK RUBBER COHPANY, = Chicopee Falls, Hass, 

BRANCHES: 

BOSTON, SPRINGFIELD, NEW YORK , PHILADELPHIA, CHICAOO, 

604 Atlantic Ave. 40 Dwight St. 83 Ch imber« St. 910 Arch St. 54 State St. 

SYRACUSE, BUFFALO, DETRl IT, SAN FRANCISCtO. 

423 So. Clinton St. 28 W. Qenesee St. 2S2 Jefferson St. 114 Second St. 



,-THE 




foundedJ 

' ie77 M - - 
andAWOCYCLE REVIEW^- 

In which is Incorporated 
"The Wheel" and the "American Cyclist." 

Published Every Thursday 

By 

THE GOODMAN e©MPaNY, 

123--125 Tribune Building. 

(154 Nassau Street) 

NEW YORK, X. Y. 



TELEPHONE, 2652 JOHN. 



Subscription, Per Annum [Postage Paid] $2.00 
Single Copies [Postage Paid] ... io Cents 
Foreign Subscription $3.00 

Invariably in Advance. 

Postage stamps will be accepted in payment for subscripiions, 
but r:ot for advertisements. Checks. Drafts and Money Orders 
ihould be made payable to The Goodman Company. 



Entered as second-class matter at the New York, N. Y-, 
Post Offi.e, September, rgoo. 



General Agents : The American News Co., New York City 
and its branches 

§3T* Change of advertisements is not guaranteed unless copy 
therefor is in hand on SATURDAY preceding the date of 
pubbcation. 

ASP* Members of the trade are invited and are at all times 
welcome to make our office their headquarters while in New 
York; our facilities and information will be at their command. 

To Facilitate Matters Our Patrons Should 
Address us at P. 0. Box 649. 



New York. December 4, 10,02. 

Why the Motor Bicycle. 

We have several times been asked why the 
Bicycling World devoted so much space and 
attention to motor bicycles, when, compara- 
tively speaking, so few of them are in exist- 
ence. 

Without regard to the "nursing" and encour- 
agement required by an "infant industry," 
we submit as the best reply to all such ques- 
tions, asked or unasked, the contribution of 
"The Novice" published in another column. 

It will serve not only as our answer, but 
it should supply a feast of mental fo d for 
the most careful digestion of those bicycle 
manufacturers who are given to studying 
causes and effects, and to peering into the 
future. Some of these manufacturers have, 
we know, toyed with a mot;,r bicycle for a 
month or a few months, and then thrown it 
aside as impractical mechanically or com- 
mercially, or both. If they can read "The 
Novice" without grasping the moral to which 
his remarks plainly point, the fault is with 
them. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

i; me was not I milt in a day. The motor- 
less bicycle was not perfected in a decade. 
The motor bicycle cannot be perfected in a 
few months or a few years. 



Activity Without Adaquate Results. 

One feature of the last season that has not 
been commented en as much, perhaps, as it 
deserved was the increased amount of rid- 
ing that was indulged in in many sections 
without any corresponding increase in the 
amount of sales. 

There is no means, of course, of knowing 
just what the ratio was. But it is quite cer- 
tain that the gain ine the one direction did 
not keep pace with the other. 

While the manufacturer and the dealer 
who depends mainly on the selling end of his 
business did not benefit to any great extent 
by the undoubted betterment that took 
place, it was just the other way with those 
others who look more closely after the parts 
and repair business. 

There is, too, good augury for the future 
in the result. If people do not ride, they 
certainly will not buy new machines. But if 
they resume the pastime, there is reason to 
expect to find them in the role of buyers 
again, even if they do not become such at 
first. Old machines may be patched up and 
made to do service for a season, and possibly 
for two. But there can be only one ending 
if the riding is kept up, and that is a new 
wheel sooner or later. 

There is little or no dsubt that the greater 
popularity of the bicycle, viewed solely as a 
vehicle of pleasure, will result in sales. And 
there are few dealers who are not of the 
opinion that the bicycle touched its lowest 
ebb a year ago, and that the tide is turning, 
even if it be ever so slowly. 



The Hand-Shaking Season. 

This is the time of the year when the wide- 
awake dealer is getting about, keeping up his 
acquaintanceships and exchanging hearty 
greetings with old friends. It might prop- 
erly be called the "handshaking season." 

Not all dealers are wise enough to keep 
forever before them the fact that a large ac- 
quaintance is a salesman's stock in trade. 
Now, when the clerks can attend to twice'all 
the business there is doing, it behooves the 
"boss" to get out and around, and say 
"Hello!" here and there, instead of sitting 
with his feet on the desk. 

In a recent issue of the Bicycling World 
the story was told of a prosperous retailer 
who enjoys a nice business of a sort that he 



22.5 

mils "personal export"; that is, selling 
wheels to foreign visitors to take home with 
them. He built it up and maintains it 
through cultivating an acquaintance with 
tin- foreign consuls in his city. That same 
man gets quite a number of customers sent 
to him in the course of a season from a 
neighboring clothier and haberdasher. He 
sends his bicycle patrons to the clothier for 
riding suits, and the clothier simply recipro- 
cates. That is good business. 

How often it has been the experience of a 
dealer that he has met a friend whom he 
has not seen for a couple of years, and 
learned that he has bought a new bicycle. 
Immediately comes the reproachful query: 
"Why didn't you come to me for it?" 
And, almost every time, the answer is: 
"Why, old man, I'm awfully sorry, but I 
never thought of you. I hadn't seen you in 
so long that I forgot you were in the busi- 
ness. Do you keep the So-and-So wheel, 
really?" 

There are acquaintances in every line of 
business who are probable customers, or 
have friends who are. Especially with re- 
gard to the motor bicycle is it true that the 
dealer does not know who is contemplating 
buying a machine unless he gets around. 

It is much more profitable at this season 
to get out and circulate and see people than 
to sit in the store, cursing the weather and 
the lack of business. 



The Motocycle Situation. 

While there are those in the trade, and 
many of them in both branches of it. who 
still are sceptical regarding the motor bi- 
cycle, there is no doubt that the actual man- 
ufacturers of such bicycles are fuller of con- 
fidence regarding the future. 

During midsummer there seemed to exist a 
decline of interest and sales, but with the 
coming of fall there was a distinct and re- 
markable revival of both, with the result 
that few, if any, motor bicycles have been 
carried over— certainly not sufficient to af- 
fect next year's market. 

To clean up and make ready for his newer 
and more powerful and perfected model, one 
maker sacrificed some of his this year's pro- 
duction, but he weathered the storm that 
many feared would swamp him, and little 
harm to the trade resulted. 

The others, with tWQ exceptions, were 
easily able to dispose of their conservative 
outputs without trouble. The exceptions re- 
ferred to had not much stock on hand, and 
their discomfiture and lack of progression 



226 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



excites small surprise. They had no selling 
organisations, and the attempt to sell $200 
bicycles by mail had its natural result. 

With the good cheer and confident and en- 
couraging spirit exhibited by the other bi- 
cycle manufacturers, and with the year's ed- 
ucation of riders and retailers having left a 
better disposition and better understanding 
of the care and requirements of motor bi- 
cycles in those directions, the situation is 
distinctly encouraging, and will be greatly 
helped by the improved machines that are 
due to make their appearance. 



Family of Motor Bicyclists. 

As a matter of record let it be known 
that the lady here pictured, Mrs. G. N. Rog- 
ers, of Schenectady, N. Y., is unquestion- 
ably America's first lady motor bicyclist. 
Two or three women have done "stunts" on 
the public stage on motor bicycles, but they 
hardly count. Mrs. Rogers uses her ma- 
chine practically. It is a diamond frame, 
of course— a Royal— and she has been riding 
it since September 1 last, having covered 
more than 500 miles in the interval. She 
is as skilled in its construction and care as 
she is in its operation. 

Mr. Rogers, her husband, who is in the 



To Fight for Sprinkling Reform. 

Although the Law Committee of the 
Board of Aldermen, by reporting favorably 
upon the Marks street sprinkling ordinance, 
has paved the way toward a perpetuation in 
power of the present Street Sprinkling As- 
sociation, and has "turned down" the ordi- 
nance indorsed by the Associated Cycling- 
Clubs and all the allied road users, the mat- 
te)' is not ended. 

A meeting has been called for Saturday 
night at the house of the Century Road Club 
Association, 310 West 'Fifty-third street, to 
formulate a protest to the Board of Alder- 
men and to the Mayor. The clause in the 




SHOWING MRS. G. N. ROGERS, THE FIRST AMERICAN WOMAN MOTOR BICYCLIST. 



Japan is steadily moving toward the po- 
sition of being the biggest bu.\er of Ameri- 
can bicycles, and the liking for the product 
of this country is frequently evidenced by 
retail sales. The Japanese Minister, en route 
to Germany, bought an American chainless 
in New York a few days ago to take with 
him to the land of the Kaiser, and this made 
the sixth wheel sold by the same house to 
Japanese customers within two weeks. There 
is room for more push after Japanese busi- 
ness bv American makers. 



It is the looker-on, they say, who sees 
most of the game, and certainly it is the 
hanger-on who swallows most of the dust. 



foreground of the picture, is a dealer and 
also a motor bicyclist. He is an "old timer" 
in every sense of the word, having ridden 
a velocipede in 1S74, a high bicycle as early 
as 1S79, and every other form of bicycle 
since that time. The other member of the 
trio is A. L. Botham, Mrs. Rogers's son by 
a former marriage, likewise an ardent mo- 
tor bicyclist, and. being an electrician, he, 
like mother and stepfather, is versed in the 
care and upkeep of his machine. 



Familiar as the sight of coaster brake ma- 
chines has become, they still attract atten- 
tion. The sight of a rider flying down a long 
hill, feet at rest and with no hint of the 
power that is propelling him, is a fascinat- 
ing one, and it is small wonder that onlook- 
ers turn their heads to see, and frequently 
gaze as long as he is in their view. 



ordinance approved by the committee mak- 
ing it possible for only those who have had 
experience to bid for the work, is so pal- 
pably a favor to the present contractor that 
a frank protest to the Mayor should be suffi- 
cient to defeat the bill. Never was a "rider" 
in a bill more bold and flagrant. It gives 
the cyclists and others a good chance. All 
it requires is that they shall be united in a 
last stand as they have in the past. 

Everyone who possibly can should attend 
the meeting on Saturday night. 



Derny Gets two Records. 

On the straightaway course at Dourdan, 
France. Derny has placed both the mile and 
the kilometer records for motor bicycles to 
his credit. Using a specially built four- 
cylinder machine, he covered the kilo in 
33 1-5 seconds, and the mile in 53 2-5. 



* The bicycling world 221 



READY FOR BUSINESS. 

Agents wanted in every part of the United States to sell the celebrated 

Orient Bicycles 

NOW IS THE TIME TO RENEW OUR AGENCY. 
NOW IS THE TIME TO HPPLY FOR IT. 



ADVANCE SPECIFICATIONS READY. 



Waltham Mfg. Company, waitham, Mass. 



THE DIFFERENCE 



IN THE COST OF 



The Best Spokes and The Next Best 

IS SO SMALL THAT THERE IS NO GOOD REASON WHY ANY 
WHEEL SHOULD BE FITTED WITH OTHER THAN THE BEST, 
I. E., THE ONE BEARING THIS BRAND : 




TRADE < h > MARK 



STANDARD SPOKE & NIPPLE CO., Torrington, Conn. 



228 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



WHAT SIX MEN WROUGHT 



The Gear Evolved Gives Three Changes and 
is Chockful of Features— How it Works. 



The Raleigh or Sturiney-Archer three- 
speed gear, which is now making its appear- 
ance on {lie English market and under un- 
usually favorable auspices, as was recently 
noted in these columns, represents a collab- 
oration of six of the best known engineers 
identified with the British cycle trade, viz.: 
Messrs. Sturmey, Archer, Riley, Mills, Pell- 
ant and Bowden. The fact makes the de- 
tails of the device of prime interest even in 
this country; they are well shown by the ac- 
companying illustrations. 



Low gear. Medium or normal gear. High gear. 

49.8 62.2 77.7 

52.3 " 05.3 81.6 

54.S 68.4 85.5 

57.2 71.5 89.3 

59.7 74.6 93.2 

62.2 77.7 97.1 

64.7 80.8 101 

To the unmechanical the arrangement may 
appear complicated, but it is nothing of the 
kind, and so far as the rider is concerned, 
he has nothing more to think about than 
usual. The back hub is adjusted in the or- 
dinary way. and its adjustment also com- 
pensates for any wear in the gear ring bear- 
ing. The handles can be moved up and 
down without affecting the length of the 
cable, and if that should ever require ad- 
justment, simple means of effecting it are 
provided. The sections shown of the hub 



On the actuating wire being again slack- 
ened, the spring J moves the gear-box I still 
further to the right, disengaging the clutch 
members D and O, and causing the four 
pinion spindles L to engage with the four 
holes E. The free-wheel clutch then drives 
the pinions of the epicyclic gear, causing the 
gear-box I to revolve 25 per cent, faster 
than the chain wheel A, the motion being 
imparted to the hub by the clutch members 
K and Q. This is the high gear. 

The function of the spring R is to cause 
a spring engagement to the clutches in the 
reverse direction— that is, when changing 
from high to normal and from normal to 
low. It also allows the wire to be moved 
from high to low when the machine is at 
rest without straining it. There is a free- 
wheel on each gear. 




A A, chain wheel. 

B B, driving plate to which A and C are 

fixed. 
C C, Micrometer type of silent springless 

clutch. 
D D, clutch locking the spicyclic gear for 

normal gear. 
E E, holes in rhe clutch C C into which the 



spindles of the gear pinions G G engage. 
F P, pinion teeth cut on the hub spindle S S. 
G G, pinions of the epicyclic gear. 
H H, internal gear teeth cut in the epicyclic 

gear box. 
I I, epicyclic gear box. 
J J, spring actuating the gear box I I. 
K K, high speed clutch members. 



L L, spindles upon which the pinions G G 

revolve. 
M M, low gear clutch. 
N N, low gear clutch teeth on the hub end 

plate. 
O O, clutch locking the epicyclic gear 

through the teeth D D. 
Q Q, high speed clutch engaging K K. 
R R, spring for reverse movement to clutches. 



The gear is operated by a speed-changing 

lever, which clips on the handlebar in a 

small cylinder, and which makes the opera- 
lion as simple as it can possibly be, and 

that without moving either hand from the 
handlebar, the connection from the moving 
bar to the stationary frame of the bicycle 
being by Bowd?n wire. To change to low 
gear from the normal, which is the middle 
notch, one pushes the lever forward with 
the thumb. To put in the high gear one 
presses it back from the middle notch, and, 
as the Raleigh people claim, the operation 
is as simple as ringing the bell. As there is 
a free wheel on each gear, there is no fear 
of damaging gears in changing, as those 
who have not the knack of slightly easing 
the pedalling at the moment of change can 
cease entirely. To give an idea of the com- 
binations which the hub gives, it is pointed 
out that witli a 2S-inch wheel and 18-tooth 
rub ring any of the following ranges of gear 
can be had: 



will make its construction perfectly clear if 
the following explanation is carefully fol- 
lowed: 

It should be understood that with the ex- 
ception of the free-wheel clutch the clutches 
referred to are what are known as inter- 
locking or jaw clutches. That is to say, 
teeth engaging with corresponding slots. 

The chain wheel A drives the free-wheel 

C, which imparts motion by means of the 
interior clutch O to the gear-box I. The 
speed is reduced 20 per cent, by the action 
of the epicyclic gear, the hub being driven 
at the reduced speed by the clutch M driv- 
ing the hub body. On the actuating wire 
being slackened, the spring J moves the 
gear-box I to the right, disengages the clutch 
M, and engages the clutch K. In this posi- 
tion the free-wheel C is clutched directly to 
the hub by means of the clutch members 

D, O, Q, K. and the hub revolves at the 
same speed as the chain wheel A. This is 
the normal gear, and it will be seen that the 
epicyclic gear is inoperative in this posi- 
tion. 



Back Pedals to go Forward. 

The sight of a rider on a machine called 
the "Retro-Direct," which has been seen in 
Prance, is well calculated to excite surprise 
on the part of the onlookers. The machine 
has two chain gearings, one of which is fit- 
ted with an intermediate toothed wheel 
which reverses the direction of the driving. 
One chain drives forward in the ordinary 
way with a free wheel hub; the other is 
actuated by pedalling backward. The back- 
ward pedalling actually drives the machine 
forward, and advantage can be taken of this 
arrangement to use this second chain to 
give a low gear. The idea is to dispense 
with any contrivance in the way of rods or 
cords to actuate a variable gear. A M. 
Feass n, after six weeks' practice, is stated 
to have ridden on this machine up a steep 
pass. 

The Retail Record. 

Portland, Ore.— S. H. Brainard succeeds 
Denton & Co. 

Madison, Me.— James Felker sold out to H. 
L. Sawyer. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



229 



f 



WE ARC ORIGINATORS 



NOT COPYISTS 



Standard Bicycle Seat Posts 



REGULAR 



S 
I 

Z 
E 
S 



16 
3_ 
4 
13 
16 
7_ 
8 
15 
16 

I 

?6 



inch. 



6 inch Stem x 3 inch Top Bar. 




SPECIAL 



Stems, 

8 inch. 
IO " 



12 



a 



Top Bars. 

4 inch. 



5 

6 



tt 



ACCURATE IN DIAMETER. 



OPEN HEARTH STEEL FORCINGS. SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE. 

NO BRAZED JOINTS. 
FORCED STEEL BOLTS. PRESSED STEEL CONES. 

REINFORCED BASE. 
With or Without Expander. Plain or Nickel Plated. 



THE STANDARD WELDING GO. 



MILLER, THORNBURCH & CO., 

I 35 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Eastern Sales Agents. 



CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



L. F. McCLERNAN, 
723 The Rookery, Chicago, Ills. 

Western Sales Agent, : ¥ 



230 

One Test of lnterchangability. 

While American ingenuity has accom- 
plished wonders in making the much 
vaunted "interchangeable" feature of cycle 
parts areality instead of a boast, yet there 
is unquestionably a very great abuse of the 
word. 

In fact, none but those who have actually 
encountered and overcome the difficulties 
standing in the way of achieving this inter- 
changeability can form any idea of what it 
really costs to obtain it, and it is astonish- 
ing how many concerns fall short of it. 
When it is remembered that it is by no 
means easy to turn out on one machine, with 
the same tool, in the hands of one man, half 
a dozen parts— be they cups or what not — 
exactly alike, the truth of this will be un- 
derstood. 

The simplest way to test this is to take an 
adjustable wrench and fit it to two sides of 
a nut. Then take it off and apply it to two 
other sides of the same nut, and the chances 
are that it won't fit just as it did at first. 
If it does, if the sides of the nut are all 
alike, you may rest assured that there has 
been first class work put on them. The 
trouble is that, no matter whether the ma- 
chine the parts is made on is automatic or 
not. it is impossible to make the parts ex- 
actly alike. By the exercise of great care, 
especially in inspection, it is pjssible to re- 
duce the variation until only an expert 
would detect it, but the variation will be in 
almost the exact ratio to the time (.expense) 
bestowed upon it. 

If this is true of two parts, made one right 
after the other, how much greater is the 
danger when the second part is made a 
week, a month or a year after the first one? 
Take the case of a cone that is to be screwed 
on an axle, and is ordered for a machine a 
year or two old. If the cone is absolutely 
perfect as to size of hole, thread and shape 
of ball race, difficulty in screwing it on the 
axle may be experienced, simply because the 
latter is a trifle large, or the threads are too 
full. How much more chance of this if there 
should be a slight variation in nboth axle 
and cone. Yet it must fit properly. If it is 
too tight, it may break while it is being- 
forced on the axle; or, if too loose, it will be 
impossible to adjust the bearing properly. 
Yet, in spite of all this, there are plenty of 
American firms who will supply parts for 
their machines and stake their reputations 
on their fitting properly, without alteration. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Appearances That Count. 

Cleanly people avoid slovenly stores. Un- 
tidy saleswomen and salesmen are repulsive 
to them. Merchants who seek the trade of 
self-respecting people should be most care- 
ful as to appearances. It is stores where 
good are arranged in orderly manner; and 
where employers and employes are neat in 
their attire, which attract and hold desir- 
able trade, very truly remarks Printer's 
Ink. 



EDITION EXH 



ON DECEi 



ZhC KBtC£C 



WILL CELE 



25th Anniversar 

BY THE PUBLICATION OF A NUJ 

THE H 

of every branch of American Cycling will b 

GLORIFIE 

and illustrated w 

RARE AND HI5T( 

of men, matter 



SUBSCRIBERS will receive the numbe 
the price will be 25 cents per copy. 



5'How to Drive a Motocycle." See "Moto- 
rycies and Bow to Manage Them." $1. The 
Goodman Co., Box 049, New York. ••• 



Its Value as an Advertis 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



AORDINARY 




R 18 



ng Worlb 



ATE ITS 



^d Silver Jubilee 

R UNLIKE ANY EVER ISSUED. 

TORY 

•eated of and will be embellished with a 

COVER 

a profusion of 

ICAL PICTURES 

nd machines. 



without extra cost. TO ALL OTHERS 
Ivance orders will now he booked. 



g Medium is Apparent. 




231 

The rierchant and the " Write up." 

How many merchants know the way to 
take advantage of whatever free space they 
are given? They are too prone to till it up 
with boastful generalities or badly con- 
structed sentences that ''lead no one to 
nothing." 

How different is the work of the wily 
press agent, says a contemporary. He gets 
his matter published, though his show is 
not a big advertiser, because his copy makes 
good stuff. Tody Hamilton, of the Barnum 
show, for instance, can get a whole column 
in so conservative a paper as the New York 
Sun, not by an elaborate description of the 
merits of his circus, but by a screed on how 
elephants are captured or how monkeys edu- 
cate their babies. 

The trouble with a lot of merchants, for 
instance, is that they can see nothing but 
their own stocks and systems. Give one a 
half column for a "write up" and he'd re- 
peat in a verbose way what lie's already 
said in his display ad. Chances are that 
it would not occur to him to get himself 
interview on some lively town subject. 
It would not occur to him to get up some- 
thing relating to his business without obvi- 
ously advertising his establishment. 

There are all sorts of ways to get your- 
self into print without interfering with the 
business office of a newspaper, provided 
you have the intuitive sense of what is in- 
teresting and useful. 



How to Loosen a Tight Nut. 

"If you have a nut to loosen and it is too 
firmly wedged to be started by the ordinary 
pocket wrench, here is a useful little tip," 
said a dealer who is up to all sorts of 
dodges. "Take a hammer or a bit of rock 
and with it tap the end of the wrench sharp- 
ly. Three times out of four it will start the 
nut. 

"Don't see how you can get more force to 
bear on the nut that way than with the 
hand?" he repeated. "Well, to tell the 
truth, I don't, either. But the little tap 
does the work, and there are hundreds of 
riders who can bear testimony to this ef- 
fect. Just try it some day when you get a 
nut that you can't budge." 



When his Tire " Punchered." 

That all the world is not yet familiar 
with tires and bicycles is evidenced by the 
epistle recently received by 'Wilson & Co., 
of Ottawa, Canada, from one of their cus- 
tomers: 

"The wheel I got from you is a easy run- 
ning one. although I never can keep wind 
in it, and if it happened to be punchered I 
could not take the out side tire off because 
it has a kind of glue on it. tell me the rea- 
son, please." 

As indisputable evidence Wilson & Co. 
forwards the original letter to the Bicycling 
World. «l 

"Inclosed is cheek for my renewal. The 
Bicycling World is thoroughly up to date." 
— ((ieorge W. Stevens, Attleboro. Mass. 



adjusts* 
a nut. 
other si 
are tha 
If it a 
alike, 3 
been fi 
trouble 
chine t 
not, it 
actly a 
especia 
duce t 
would 
almost 
bestow 
If thi 
after t 
danger 
week, i 
Take tl 
on an 
year oi 
perfect 
of ball 
axle in 
latte- 



230 

One Test of Interchangability. 
WWle American Ingenuity lias accom- 
plished wonders In making the much 
vaunted "Interchangeable" feature of cycle 
paiis areality Instead of o boast, yel there 
is unquestionably a very grea! abuse of the 
word. 

in fact, nunc imi those who have actually 
encountered and overcome the difficulties 
standing in Hie way of achieving this Inter- 
changeablllty cau form any idea of whal It 
really costs to obtain It, and II is astonish- 
ing hOW many concerns fall slmil of It 
When it Is remembered thai II is by no 
means easy to turn out on one machine, with 
the same tool, In the bauds of one man, half 
a dozen parts- be they cups or what not— 
exactly alike, Hie truth of this will be un- 
derstood. 

The simples! way to test this is to lake an 
adjustable wrench and 91 II in two sides of 
n 11 in . Then take It off and apply it to two 
other sides uf tile same nut, and the chances 
are that It won't 111 jnsi as ii did al ftrst. 
If ii decs, il the sides of tin- nut are all 
alike, you may resl assured thai there has 
been (lrsl class work put on them. The 
trouble is that, uo mntter whether the ma- 
chine flu- parts is made on is automatic or 
not, ii is Impossible to make the parts ex- 
actly alike. By itie exercise of great cure, 
especially In Inspection, Ii is possible to re- 
duce the variation until only an expert 
would deteel It, inn ii variation will lie in 

nluiosl H xacl rutlo to the time (expense) 

bestowed upon It. 
If this is inn- of two parts, made one right 

after u ther, how much greater is the 

danger when the set d pan is made a 

"civ, ii month or ii year after Hie first one? 

Take the case of i ue that is to be screwed 

on an axle, ami is ordered for a machine il 

year or two old. If Hie cone Is absolutely 

period as to size of bole, thread and shape 
of hull race, difficulty in screwing it ou the 

axle may be ex 'lenced, simply iiecun.se ihe 

inner is n trifle large, or the threads are too 
full. How much more cbiincc of ibis if there 
.should he a Blighl variation In nboth axle 

ami CI Vet II innsl 111 properly. If It Is 

1 Bht, ii may break while ii is being 

forced on the axle; or. If too loose, it will be 
Impossible to adjust the bearing properly. 

Yel, in spite of all tins, there arc plenty of 

American firms who « in supplj pans' for 
their machines and stoke their reputations 
on their fitting properly, without alteration, 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



Appearances That Count. 
Cleanly people avoid slovenly stores, Un- 
tidy saleswomen aud salesmen are repulsive 

'"■ Merchants who seek the trade of 

self-respecting people should bi st care- 
ful as n, oppearanees. n is stores « v 

■~ ""' "ranged In orderly inauuer, aud 

" ,| ", 1 '' '''! *«» and emidoyes are ueul In 

.':;"' J""'"' """'" «« aud hold ii'si, 

"We trade, very truly remarks Printer's 



I EDITION EXTRAORDINARY 

% ON DECEMBER 18 

WILL CELEBRATE ITS 

25th Anniversary and Silver Jubilee 

BY THE PUBLICATION OF A NUMBER UNLIKE ANY EVER ISSUED. 

THE HISTORY 

of every branch of American Cycling will be treated of and will be embellished with a 

GLORIFIED COVER 

and illustrated with a profusion of 

RARE AND HISTORICAL PICTURES 

of men, matters and machines. 



"How to Drive a Mutucyde." See "Moto- 
ryeics and How to Minute iviu." $1 The 
Goodman Co., Box (Hit, .New York. ••• 



SUBSCRIBERS will receive the number without extra cost. TO ALL OTHERS 
j e price will he 25 cents per copy- Advance orders will now be booked. 

!J«L. Va,ue as an Advertising: Medium is Apparent. 

" " mmmm wwmmmpmmmmmmRmnmmmm 



23 J 

The .Merchant and the " Write up." 

Mow many merchants know the way to 
lake advantage of whatever tree space they 
are given! They are too prone to Ml it up 
with boastful generalities or badly con- 
structed sentences that "load uo one to 
nothing." 

How different is the work of the wily 
press agent, says a contemporary. He gets 
his matter published, though bis show is 
not a big advertiser, because his copy makes 
good stuff. Tody Hamilton, of the Harnuni 

show, for instance, can get a whole column 
iu so conservative a paper as the New York 
Sun, not by an elaborate description of the 

merits of his circus, but by a screed oil how 

elephauts are captured or bow monkeys edu- 
cate their babies. 

The trouble with a lot of merchants, for 
instance, is that they can see nothing but 
their own slocks and systems. Give one a 
half column for a "write up" and he'd re- 
peat in a verbose way what lie's already 
said iu his display ad, Chances are that 
it would not occur to him to get himself 
interview on some lively town subject. 
It would not occur to him to get up some- 
thing relating to bis business without obvi- 
ously advertising his establishment. 

There are all sorts of ways to get J 

self into print without interfering with the 
business office of a newspaper, provided 
you have the intuitive sense of what Is in- 
teresting aud useful. 



How to Loosen a Tight Nut. 

"If you have a nut to loosen and il is too 
firmly wedged to be stalled by the ordinary 
pocket wrench, here is a useful little tip," 
said a dealer who is up to all sorts of 
dodges. "Take a hammer or a bit of rocli 
and with it tap the end of the wrench sharp- 
ly. Three times out ot lour it will si net I lie 
nut, 

"Don't see how you can get more force i" 
bear on the nut that way than with the 
hand?" he repeated. "Well, to tell the 
truth, I don't, either. Hill I be Mule tap 
does the work, and there are hundreds of 
riders who can bear lesli J to Ibis ef- 
fect. Just try it some day when yon gel 
nut that you can't budge." 




When his Tire " Punchered." 

Thai all the world is not yd familiar 
with tires ami bicycles is evidenced by the 
epistle recentlj received by Wilson & Co., 
of Ottawa, Canada, from one of their ens 
tomers: 

"The wheel I g'd from you is a easy run- 
ning "be although I never can keep wind 

iu it. and ii' ii happened to be punchered ' 
could not lake the out side lire off because 
il bus a kind of glue ou il. tell me I be rea- 
son, please." 

As indisputable evidence Wilson .V: Co. 
forwards the original Idler to the Bicycling 
World. & 

•■Inclosed is cheek for my renewal. The 
Bicycling World is thoroughly up to dale." 
-(George W- Stevens. Allleboio. Mass. 



232 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



WANTED 



TO EXCHANGE PRICES AND 
SAMPLES FOR YOUR INQUIRIES 
ON ANY NEEDS YOU MAY HAVE 
FOR BICYCLE MERCHANDISE. 

JOHN R. KEIM, 

BUFFALO, N. Y., U. S. A. 



HOW MUCH DO YOU REALLY 
KNOW ABOUT COASTER BRAKES? 




If you live to learn and are willing to learn we 
think it probable that we can tell you some things and 
.show you some things about coaster brakes that you 
never knew before. 

We'll use 

THE FORSYTH 

to make our meaning clearer and after you've exam- 
ined and "thought it over" we think you'll admit 
that we know whereof we speak. 
Will you hear our story ? 

FORSYTH MFG. CO., buffalo, new york. 











" She sits forever in the sun." 






DENVER, 






COLORADO. 






Joaquin Miller thus wrote of 






Denver, and all who have seen it 






pronounce this one of the most 






beautiful of modern cities. It is 






best reached by the 


. 




NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES 






and their connections. Only one 






change of cars from New York or 






Boston to Denver. 






Deiails of rates and trains 






gladly furnished by any New York 






Central ticket agent. 






A copy of " America's Winter Resorts," will 
be sent tree, on receipt of a two cent stamp by 
George H D.nvels. General Passenger Agent, 
New York Cential & Hudson River Railroad, 
Grand Central Station, New York. 





THE JOY OF " THE NOVICE " 



Motorless Cyclists and the Wind Furnish 
Some of it— His Opinion and Experiences. J 



October 'Hid November were great months 
for motor bicycles. 

In Tlie Bicycling World of some eight or 
ten Thursdays since, in noting some of the 
trials and tribulations of the "new hand" at 
motocyeling. I think I said enough to demon- 
strate that notwithstanding the troubles 
there are also other months in the year that 
are great months for the selfsame bicycles. 
But October and November are particularly 
great months. Any motocyclist on whom 
the brand "Novice" is but half worn off 
should be able to vouch for the truth of the 
statement. As one of that ilk, I'm prepared 
to swear to it. 

The "greatness" of the two months is a 
peculiar greatness. It springs not alone 
from personal comfort and pleasure but 
from witnessing the labor' and discomfiture 
of some other fellows. They say that 
misery loves company; and perhaps it does. 
But just the same when a chap stubs his toe 
the crowd laughs. There seems an inex- 
plicable pleasure in the other fellow's pain. 
Some of my October and November pleasure 
has been pleasure of the sort. 

You all know how it is: the wind blows at 
this season of the year and, as you know as 
well, it is not the gentle zephyrs of which 
the poets sing. Well, sirs, I've watched the 
other fellows — the chaps on motorless bi- 
cycles—bucking that wind, and the sight of 
them has made me sit up just a little 
straighter and fairly chuckle in my sleeve. 
I've had some of them duck for the protec- 
tion of my rear wheel and then, simply to 
increase selfish pleasure, I've gently pushed 
a little lever and left them where the wind 
could fan them to its heart's content— that 
is, if the wind has a heart; anyway. I've left 
thein, red faced, tongues out, bent over their 
bars and toiling like Turks on a treadmill. 
It's great sport, this seeing the other fellows 
work. 



For a good many years I pushed the pedals 
and imagined I was enjoying myself. And 
when the wind was with me or when there 
was little wind or no wind— if the day was 
not too sultry— I did enjoy myself. But 
"bucking the wind" now! Excuse me! I've 
done it many a time and oft, but not lately 
for any great number of miles. And I've 
climbed hills, too. If I do say it myself, I 
was no slouch as a climber, and I'd rather 
crack a lung than walk. 

But it's different now. Four weeks ago I 
trotted out my faithful old chainless and 
did ten miles with the wind, ten miles 
against it. The "ten miles with" was lovely. 
The "ten miles against" was work— hard 
work. I can recall the time when I would 
have denied even such an insinuation, but- 
well, I've simply ceased deceiving myself, 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

that's ail. Tliose "ten miles against" "did 
me up." After I'd covered seven of them, 
the sight of a short, stiff grade— and the 
feeling in my lungs and legs— filled me with 
misgivings. I didn't want to tackle it and 
fail, and yet— and yet! A drink dispensary 
at the foot of the hill settled my doubts. 1 
became thirsty and, as becomes a thirsty 
man, I dismounted and drank. That trip 
forever settled one thing in my mind: When 
the wind blows I'll ride a motor bicycle or I 
won't ride at all. 

Let those manufacturers continue to pro- 
duce "push cycles" who will, anil let the 
young bloods and the fair weather "potter- 
ers" push them who will, and when wind 
and weather conditions are ideal I may push 
one, too— but let me say this: The riding of 
a motor bicycle has served to impress on 
me why the hundreds of thousands no 
longer buy and ride: Cycling save when 
conditions are ideal entails too much labor. 
The cycling germ and my love of the bicycle 
were too deeply implanted to permit me to 
see it before, but I can now understand why 
so very, very many have ceased to cycle. 
Their interest or affection or whatever it 
was, was shallow and was soon affected by 
the heat, hills and headwinds which we 
warm enthusiasts, in the excess and depth 
of our infatuation, poopoohed. We were 
blind because we would not see. 



I remarked this to one man and, coincid- 
ing with me, he admitted that he "was 
afraid of the motor bicycle" and favored an 
automobile. But I want no automobile in 
mile. It's a lazy man's conveyance and, for 
me, has small attraction. There's a fascina- 
tion and satisfaction in sitting astride a 
saddle, feet on pedals, and in grasping a 
handlebar that no form of carriage affords; 
and, more than this, the motor bicycle will 
go where no automobile can follow. It's the 
difference between an up-to-date breech- 
loading shotgun and a ten-ton cannon. The 
motor bicycle is the gamiest little vehicle 
that was ever put together, and the fact 
that it requires some brains and a little 
nerve to operate it but adds to its zest. The 
more I ride it the better I like it. 



The other day after reeling off sixty miles 
in less than four hours, with and against 
the wind, I met a "century fiend" grinding 
out a "hundred." He came into the hotel 
red face, eyes watery and cheeks hollow 
and drawn. I took milk. He took whiskey, 
remarking that the wind was as bad as a 
climb up a 50-mile hill. I suggested a motor 
bicycle. "A bunch of trouble," he retorted. 
And perhaps it is to the man who lias no 
patience or desire to learn. 

On another occasion, or, rather, several oc- 
casions, men have remarked that the motor 
bicycle does not afford the physical exercise 
that is cycling's remaining charm. Poor fel- 
lows! They do not know that by a twist of 
the wrist and resort to pedalling, I can get 
more exercise in one mile than they can ob- 



233 

tain in ten on their motorless bicycles, nor 
do they know that by the same twist, which 
cuts off power, and by simply removing the 
belt from the pulley, I can pedal as easily 
and freely— plus the added weight of my ma- 
chine—as can they. But I am not given to 
that sort of thing. If I want exercise, I keep 
the power on aud pedal uphill. It helps the 
engine, and does not hurt me, and I can go 
pedalling up hills w-ith a hand off and with- 
out straining a muscle, bending my back or 
puffing a 'mouthful of breath. This uphill 
pedalling is all plaesure, and is akin to the 
exercise in which the motorless cyclist de- 
lights, that is, pedalliug with the wind. 



Personally, 1 have passed the stage where 
1 damn the machine or its maker for every- 
thing that happens. I am learning its every 
part and the function of every part, and 
when anything occurs I experience a posi- 
tive gratification in seeking the cause, and 
in thus arming myself for the future. Thus, 
when my piston or connecting rod broke re- 
cently, although examination proved it a 
defective casting, I was not wholly unhappy. 
It gave me an insight of the "internals" of 
the motor that I had desired. Again, when 
the gasolene refused to flow it became neces- 
sary to dissect the carburetter, and once 
more it proved the fault of the maker. The 
needle had become unriveted and was stick- 
ing in the cone, thus choking the feed. I 
had but a vague idea of the exact positions 
and sizes of the cone, the needle and the 
float. Now I am thoroughly informed, and 
would not hesitate to go at the carburetter 
to-morrow. 

I have had some other troubles, too, that 
are worth the telling for the help they may 
afford "brothers in distress." 

One of the most vexatious problems that 
I encountered since my real novice days was 
due to a spark plug that had become satu- 
rated with oil. The motor would hit and 
miss unaccountably, and on unexpected oc- 
casions. It would "sieze" or stick without 
warning; sometimes it would immediately 
overcome the "siezing"; at others, a mo- 
mentary opening of the compression tap and 
a kick at the pedals would serve the pur- 
pose. It acted as if the motor had over- 
heated or lacked lubrication, when examina- 
tion and oiling proved the contrary. Trem- 
bler and spark plug were cleaned with 
emery cloth repeatedly and the spark proven 
perfect, all to no purpose. The engine would 
not run for any length of time. Eventually 
it developed that oil was working past the 
piston rings into the combustion chamber 
and fouling the plug as fast as it was 
cleaned. By repeatedly sousing the plug in 
gasolene and burning out the oil in the 
cavity with a flame and by flushing the 
motor with the same cleansing fluid through 
the compression tap and spark plug orifice, 
the trouble was remedied. But it is plain 
that the piston rings have lost some of then- 
life aud need renewing, as symptoms of the 
same trouble, now apparent to my eye — oil 
stains at the joint where cylinder and head 



234 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



are bolted together— are again promising 
a cutting of capers. 

Another trouble, so simple as to be laugh- 
able, balked me for days. Every rough 
crossing, and frequently no crossing at all, 
would slow or stop the engine. I attributed 
it to a change of mixture incident to the 
jarring, and would at once toy with the 
gasolene lever and set things right— tem- 
porarily. For the best results but the very 
minimum of gasolene was required, and 
perforce this lever was kept practically, but 
not quite, vertical. Without my knowing it, 
the nuts that secured it did not hold it 
tightly, and every jar and even the slight 
vibration due to the motor would gradually 
work the lever perfectly vertical, and thus 
shut off the supply of gasolene. As motors 
cannot run with pure air, of course mine 
stopped. The lever being so nearly upright 
and its movement being to all intents im- 
perceptible deceived me completely, and I 
had tackled spark plug, trembler and every- 
thing else before I located the real cause of 
my difficulty, and then I did so only by try- 
ing for a new mixture and keeping my hand 
on the lever for a mile or more. Incident- 
ally, I think we "greenhorns" do not study 
mixtures sufficiently. While going well, I 
have frequently found I could go a great 
deal better by a slight alteration of the 
lever— usually by feeding a little more gas. 



Quite my most recent vexation was due to 
an equally laughable source. I had stopped 
for a supply of gasolene and said "two 
pints" instead of "two quarts." not being- 
near when the filling was done. After doing 
about ten miles the motor would slow or 
stop, usually on hills, sometimes on the up- 
grade, sometimes on the down, the road 
being quite hilly. Finally I went at the 
trembler, the plug, etc., and had about de- 
spaired when I shook the tank and discov- 
ered that it contained not more than a cup- 
ful of gasolene. A fresh supply made things 
right. The queer stoppages were due to the 
grades. Going up the fluid would be, of 
course, thrown to the back of the tank; 
going down, it would flow forward, and thus 
not be fed to the carburetter. 



About the only other trouble I experienced 
since my previous "Notes of a Novice" in 
the good old Bicycling World was due to the 
working loose of not the core but of one of 
the terminals of the spark plug. Remedy: 
wedge the terminal tight or get a new plug. 

Another thing I have learned: Beware of 
the men who are constantly suspecting the 
batteries. They haven't fooled me yet, be- 
cause I believe I know a fat, crackling- 
spark when I see it and hear it jump the 
plug terminals, and know that such a spark 
cannot come from weak batteries. But I've 
heard lots of fellows suggest such a state of 
affairs, and even had a friend in the bicycle 
business laughingly admit that when they 
can't tell the cause of a motor trouble it is 
the easiest fashion to "blame the batteries." 
THE NOVICE. 



A Combination now Rare. 

Except in the hands of a few riders of the 
"scorcher" class, it is rare to see a combina- 
tion of short head and low drop handle bar. 
This is only another way of saying that the 
low down and far forward position has lost 
its popularity. Such is the case, however. 
The great majority of riders seem to strive 
for moderation. Where machines have 
short heads the bars have very little drop to 
them, and some times there is a good length 
of stem projecting. 



Adjustable Without a Tool. 

While it has been on the market for some 
little time, the Ideal Plating Co., Boston, 
only recently obtained the patent on their 
automatic- saddle post, here shown, the sale 
of which they now purpose pushing more ag- 
gressively. It is an ingenious device that is 
well worth attention. 

The post is made with an internal binder, 
and is the only post on the market which 




permits the saddle to be tilted to any angle 
wanted, and adjusted in wheel without the 
use of a wrench. To change an adjustment, 
simply strike under horn of saddle with 
palm of hand, pull out saddle post. To tilt 
saddle backwards, screw cone up with 
thumb and finger. To tilt saddle forward, 
screw cone down, then insert saddle post 
into frame, and strike horn of saddle with 
palm of hand, and the Ideal Co. guarantee 
it to hold as firmly as any adjustment made 
for saddle post. All adjusting is made with- 
out tools of any kind, and can be done in 
the fraction of a minute. 



Through Sleeping Car Line to Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

A Pullman Sleeping Car of latest construc- 
tion is now attached to New York Central 
train leaving Grand Central Station at 4:00 
p. m., daily, running through over the Michi- 
gan Central, arriving at Grand Rapids at 
12:55 p. m., next day, connecting in Union 
Station for all points in Western Michigan. 
For information and sleeping car reserva- 
reservations inquire of New York Central 
Agents. *** 

Cole's Big Increase. 

The G. W. Cole Co.'s "3-in-One" oil is still 
gaining in favor. Treasurer Slee states that 
usually a dull month, the sales this Novem- 
ber were in the nature of a record, being- 
exceeded only once in the history of the 
concern. 



Credit Due the Chain. • 

Naked chains are little railed against now- 
adays. As a matter of tact, the same remark 
applies to chains, no matter in what aspect 
they are viewed. So satisfactory have they 
become that they are seldom mentioned — a 
certain sign that there is nothing wrong with 
them. 

But naked chains were at one time held up 
to opprobium, condemned unreservedly and 
universally. Nothing more unmechanical 
could be found than a chain that was not 
protected. One did not have to go so far as 
to have a gear case fitted, but it was at least 
incumbent upon one to apologize for the un- 
covered chain, and to admit that it was 
shameful to make it go through life in such 
a condition. 

It was, too, quite permissble to tell why 
one did not protect the chain — to say that a 
gear case was a nuisance; that its weight or 
cumbersomeness, its cost or liability to get 
out of order, put it quite out of the question. 
Or that, if something better were brought 
out, something that would bring relief from 
the dirty, noisy, grinding chain, it would be 
adopted with alacrity. But few thought of 
defending the use of the naked chain, or 
were brave enough to contend that it was all 
right it" well made and properly looked after. 

Yet just such a plea could be made for it 
now, if the matter came up for discussion. 

The truth is that the chain, in spite of 
many and obvious faults and shortcomings, 
is a good average performer. No doubt, its 
efficiency would be greater if it were pro- 
tected, but, even as it is, it delivers to the 
rear wheel a surprisingly large percentage 
of the power that it receives from the front 
one. 

Much the same reply is to be made to the 
other much referred to defects of the chain— 
the great wear and tear on its hundreds of 
parts, the constant deterioration it under- 
goes, and the bad condition it gets into in a 
comparatively short time. It does the work, 
however, and does it to the satisfaction of 
the great majority of users. What more 
could they ask? 



How he Protects his Chain. 

A curiosity in its way is a chain cover that 
consists of a separate shield for each link, 
covering the tooth space, and so preventing 
much of the mud and dust falling upon the 
chain. Each shield overlaps the next one to 
it. so that the cover is continuous. The cov- 
ers are sprung on and held to the links by 
little side arms, and, being made in steel, no 
other fixing is required. The device is of 
English origin. 



Pedals for Winter. 

For winter riding rubber pedals are much 
preferable to rat traps. They seem to pro- 
tect the feet, preventing that numbness that 
comes when the thermometer gets low, and 
contributing much to the pleasure of riding 
at such times. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 235 



mm 






IS THERE HNY EHRTHLY REASON WHY 



YOU 



shouldn't write us regarding 



0UR 1903 OFFERING 

YALE SNELL 
BICYCLES ? 



It can't hurt you. 

It may help you. 

It is now "up to you." 



KIRK MFG. GO., Toledo, ©hio. SNELL CYCLE MFG. G©., 

83 Chambers St., NEW Y©RK. 167 Oliver Street, B0ST0N. 



mm 






236 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



CANARY'S "CAGE" 



The Sensational Structure and Feat With 
Which he Will Thrill the Populace. 



Back, back to the cycling whirl has come 
good old "Dan" Canary, the Nestor of trick 
riders. After being a pioneer in the feats 
that are puzzling and leaving the track for 
the bicycle trade, and leaving that for the 
chewing gum business, the old time rider, 
who still looks as young and athletic as he 
did ten years ago, has returned, like many 
others, to his first love. The return of the 
prodigal occurred last year. He arrived in 
New York on Wednesday, with a wonderful 
piece of architecture of his own devising, on 
which he is to do a thrilling, '-death defying" 
act at Madison Square Garden all next 
week. 

The structure used by Canary in his truly 
marvellous act, the evolution of it in his 
mind and the difficulties of his feat, which 
will astonish tens of thousands during the 
six day race, were revealed to a Bicycling- 
Word man by Dan in a chat had with him 
soon after he reached the metropolis. Can- 
ary decided to try the "cycle whirl'' in No- 
vember, 1901, and he was one of the first 
ones to perform that feat in the West. To 
use Canary's own language: 

"It was not long before I saw that the act 
in its original shape would not do. It could 
not last long as an attraction. The bowl, 
or whirl, stood on the floor, and you had to 
climb over into it after first dropping in 
your wheel. Then you had to make a couple 
of turns around the floor before getting up 
on the sloping track. Then it took you two 
or three turns to slow down and get back 
to the florr and climb out. There was no in- 
troduction to the act and no climax to it. I 
figured out the arrangement I have now 
little by little. 

"The tower of angle iron that supports the 
whirl is just forty feet high. The wooden 
bowl in which I ride is twenty-two feet wide 
across the top and seventeen feet across the 
bottom. It is six feet deep, and the sides 
are pitched at an angle of 60 degrees. There 
are spaces of from an inch and a half to two 
inches between the slats. There is no bot- 
tom to the bowl, but there is a horizontal 
ledge a foot wide running around the lower 
edge on the inside. 

"Leading from the floor up to the bowl 
is a spiral plane 380 feet long and only two 
feet wide. From the upper edge of the bowl 
on one side is the stairway. There is a level 
platform three feet eight inches wide which 
runs alongside of the bowl for eight feet be- 
fore the head of the stairs is reached. The 
stairway is ninety-four feet long. The steps 
have a ten inch tread, or surface, are each 
five inches in height and are three feet ten 
inches wide. 

"I go up the spiral, ride into the bowl, and, 
after riding in there awhile, come out at 



the top onto the platform and down the steps 
without making a stop from the time I start. 
It is a continuous ride, you see, with a sky- 
rocket finish— only the rocket conies down. 

"You may not think it, but it is easier to 
ride that spiral with a unicyele than on a 
bicycle. That is because you are twisting- 
all the time, and while your front wheel is 
near the outer edge of the plane your rear 
wheel is near the inner edge. You can keep 
your eye on the front wheel and keep it from 
going over, but you've got to know how to 
steer delicately in order to know where your 
rear wheel is. It is not the thing to have 
your wheel slip over the edge when you are 
halfway up, but it does happen to me occa- 
sionally. Then I have to make a hurry up 
dismount and go back to the starting place 
again, for I always make a continuous ride. 

"While I do more trick riding inside the 
bowl than any one else ever did in a whirl, 



"^k 







the hardest parts of my act the public does 
not see well enough to appreciate. They are 
when I go into the bowl and when I come 
out of it. Going in I have to ride up the 
steepest part of the spirit, which has a 25 
per cent grade. I have to turn in an eleven 
foot circle in order to enter, and you can 
imagine what that means with a bicycle that 
has two points of contact. Why, my front 
wheel is almost at right angles to the frame. 
After 1 get in it takes me only a couple of 
turns to get going about on the inclined sur- 
face. 

"Coming out again is another ticklish job. 
I get going full speed, you know, and then 
I zigzag inside the bowl, and gradually come 
to the upper edge. When I get there, as 
you can imagine, I am almost horizontal, 
or at a little more than right angle with the 
bowl surface. Then I have to get out one 
the platform and attain the perpendicular 
on the platform, and it's not easy. Once I 
slipped and my wheel fell to the floor. I 
caught my mitts on the edge of the plat- 
form and dangled there till they got a fire 
ladder and took me down. 

"Wy wheel? Oh, it's an everyday ma- 
chine. There is nothing special about it ex- 
vopt that it has an extra heavy crown and 



extra heavy fork, which are almost straight. 
It weighs twenty-six pounds. Make? Well, 
I guess it's a Canary wheel. I built it my- 
self." 

The Han or the Store? 

This is the story of two men and the 
motor bicycle. It has no plot, but contains 
a moral— in fact, a brace of them. 

One of these men believed in the motor 
bicycle, dreamed of it and talked of it for 
several seasons. In time he believed mat- 
ters were ripe to "try it on the dog," and in- 
duced a capitalist to build for him to sell. 
The other man soon learned what was go- 
ing on in the factory that made motor bi- 
cycles, and as he sold things good for bi- 
cycles — motor or otherwise — he called to 
show his wares. 

Unfortunately — or, perhaps, providentially 
— he was too late to get an order - , as con- 
tracts had been made for all the goods need- 
ed in his lines. Forgetting himself for the 
moment in his disappointment in not get- 
ting an order, he said to the other man: 
"With the goods you are buying you must 
be going to sell your machines to depart- 
ment stores." 

Without knowing it the man who made 
the remark touched the motor bicycle man 
on a fresh sore, because the latter had but 
just gotten through a warm argument with 
his capitalist for refusing to sell to two de- 
partment stores. 

With its same old habit, time rolled by, 
and he who once sold things good for bicy- 
cles went on the road selling motor bicycles. 
Two of his earliest customers were depart- 
ment stores, and the beginning and end of 
their efforts were confined to ordering and 
paying for the samples. 

More time passed, when the first men- 
tioned man found it necessary to travel to 
a city in which was one of these department 
stores. In the course of business it became 
necessary to call at this store with one who 
thought of buying a motor bicycle. A care- 
ful search on the floor failed to bring into 
view even that sample. A clerk was then 
appealed to, for a sight and a trial, who in- 
formed the searchers that "We had one, but 

it is up in the Company's garage; 

maybe they can fix it up for you to try." 

Like the famous Stockton problem anent 
"the lady or the tiger," the two are wonder- 
ing whether it was a case of the man or the 
department store. 



Alphas and Kings Countys Linked. 

A step toward the formation of a power- 
ful motor bicycle club in Brooklyn has been 
taken by a semi-amalgamation of the Alpha 
Motor Cycle Club with the Kings County 
Wheelmen. Each organization will preserve 
its name and a distinct identity. Ten of the 
Alphas have joined the Kings County Wheel- 
men as full fledged members. In return all 
the members of the motor bicycle club have 
the privilege of storing their machines in 
the club house and have certain other privi- 
leges in the house. The influence of the 
motorists upon the Kings County riders can- 
not be doubted. 



HE SOUGHT EXPERIENCE 



And why, Having Obtained it, he now Seeks 
Agency for Another Jlotor Bicycle. 



"For some little time now," said a man in 
the trade to a Bicycling World representa- 
tive, "I have been convinced of the logic 
!«o often expressed in your paper, that the 
motor bicycle is coming, and it is a debt I 
owe myself to get one now, that I may be- 
come familiar with it and be ready to pick 
a few plums next year and from then on. 
Solely for this reason I recently bought one, 
direct from the makers. I didn't tell them 
my purpose in buying, but they must have 
been mind readers, and it was well that I 
did buy it in this spirit, as you will see. 

"From one or two motor bicycle salesmen 
who had called on me I had been educated 
to believe that motor bicycle makers gave 
all their machines an outdoor test before 
shipping. While, for reasons which have 
nothing to do with the case, I bought a ma- 
chine not made by any one represented by 
the salesmen who called, the logic of their 
• claims had seemed so forcible that I natur- 
ally believed that the trying-out practice 
was general practice. This cannot be, how- 
ever, as was shown by the condition of my 
machine when received, and since then I 
have met one or two other buyers of the 
same make whose experiences go to prove 
the makers of the Blank motor bicycle ship 
from the assemblying room. 

"One of the things that I remembered, as 
a part of the correspondence carried on be- 
fore the deal was completed, was that with 
the machine would come full directions as 
to operation and management.' When the 
bicycle reached me I unpacked the small 
box containing the saddle, pedals, etc., and, 
of course, expected to find these directions 
with the other small but essential parts. 
But they were not there, and their non- 
appearance gave me the chance of a life 
lime to learn tilings before I got through, 
or rather before I commenced to ride. 

"I didn't waste any time lamenting, but 
put on the saddle, pedal and handlebars, in 
the meantime doing a lot of thinking and 
going over in my mind what I had read on 
the subject. I wasn't particularly green on 
principles, and knew a little about details, 
but if I had known more of the latter or had 
received those directions I could have ad- 
vanced a little faster. That is, perhaps I 
would, I won't swear to it. because some of 
the things 1 found would probably never .be 
specifically mentioned. From the thinking- 
operation I knew that the first thing to do 
was to make my electric wire connection 
from the handlebar. And here came my 
first cause for believing that the machine 
had never been run. and. more than that, 
had never been inspected. 

"The wire from the handlebar was never 
attached at its outer end. because that end 
was cut square oft', insulation and all. The 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 

said things. As it was, I got out all the 
wires had not been bared for a connection. 
It was an easy matter for me to strip back 
the insulation and scrape the wires bright 
before putting this end in its proper place, 
but that made me nervous and in a mood to 
look for any old unsuspected trouble — out 
of the ordinary. I am naturally optimistic, 
and by the time I had got the wire attached 
I had figured it out that, in the hurry of 
shipping, the packer had picked out the 
wrong bar and put in the crate. 

"I was now ready to try the spark, so un- 
screwed the plug, laid it on the engine and 
turned the pulley. No spark! 'Look over 
the wire connections,' my memory told me, 
so at them I went, only to find everything 
all right save at one place. Here there was 
another blunt ended wire and, of course, no 
connection. Fixed this and tried for a spark 
again. Same old results. If I hadn't been 
out for experience I would probably have 



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Morgan & Wright 



New York Branch] 214-216 West 47th Street. 

back numbers of The Bicycling World and 
started in to read up on hints and instruc- 
tions. As fast as I read anything that 
seemed to' fit my case I would try again. 
Now, one of the points that I read was 
about a clean spark plug. If you could 
have seen that plug in my machine you 
would have thought it had been buried for 
a year in the refuse of a machine shop. It 
was coated witli a black deposit at the 
inner end. Cleaning it and bridging across 
the points of the spark controller gave me 
a spark, but to get a spark without spark- 
ing was a thing impossible. Further hunt- 
ing discovered a quantity of stuff that 
looked like paraffine in the contact grip. 
My reading back numbers had brought out 
that this must be perfectly clean and 'free 
from foreign matter.' 

"From this point on I have had pretty 
good success, but — well, as I said at the be- 
ginning. I wanted to learn things, and I 
have had a few put up against me because 
of the condition in which 1 received that 
motor bicycle. From this standpoint I was 
satisfied and am not complaining. How- 



237 

ever, I can't believe that the makers were 
so wise as to give me the chance, so when I 
sell motor bicycles it won't be of that make. 
I don't want to build over for each cus- 
tomer that I may get. Life is too short, and 
there are other makers." 



To Temper Taps. 

An excellent method of tempering taps is 
thus described: 

"After the tap has been cut and finished 
take it in a pair of tongs and heat it to a 
blood-red heat over a charcoal fire or the 
blue flame of a Bunsen burner or blowpipe, 
turning it around so that one point does nor 
get heated before another. Have ready a 
pail of clean, cold water, into which a hand- 
ful of common salt has been put. Stir the 
water in the pail so that a whirlpool is set 
up. Then plunge the tap, point first and 
vertically, into the vortex to cool. The turn- 
ing of the tap during heating, as well as the 
swirl of the quenching water, prevents dis- 
tortion. 

"In tempering, the temper of the tap re- 
quires to be drawn to a light straw color, 
and this may be done as follows: Get a 
piece of cast-iron tube about three inches in 
diameter and heat it to a dull red heat for 
about four inches of its length. Then hold 
the tap, with the tongs, up the centre of th.> 
tube, meanwhile turning the tap around un- 
til the straw color appears all over it. Then 
dip the tap in the water, when it will be 
found perfectly hard. 

"The depth of the color, whether light v: 
dark straw, must be determined by the na- 
ture of the cast steel being used, which can 
only be gained from experience of the steel." 



The Tall flan's Plaint. 

"It sejms to me that there is too much 
'averaging up' in the bicycle business just 
now." remarked a rider who is, as he ad- 
mits, rather particular. 

"Time was when we had the high frame 
and the low frame craze. Both were bad. 
because carried to an excess. Now makers 
devote themselves to the happy medium 
and think that they have solved the prob- 
lem. So they have, as far as the great mass 
of riders are concerned. They want frames 
of medium height. But take me. I want a 
high frame. On anything else I would look 
ridiculous. Six or eight inches of saddle 
post can be improved on. 

"It is true I can get higher frames than 
the ordinary 22 or 24 inch by making a close 
search for them. But if I want a machine 
that really fits me I must have it made to 
order." 

The Hystifying Spueak. 

That annoying and mystifying squeak is 
still met with occasionally. The other day 
the Bicycling World man met a rider so 
afflicted. His machine was a late model 
.•mil of good make. He had lubricated it 
thoroughly, bill (here was a sound of dry 
metal surfaces in contact, making an irri- 
tating noise. Search as lie would the rider 
could not locate it, and the matter took 
away half of his enjoyment. 



238 



FOR SALE. 



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United States and Canada 



FOR 



BICYCLE 

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No. 650,94 1 . 

Address HENRY J. KRAMER, 
No. 9 Congress Place, 

PORTLAND, MAINE. 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 
THE "CORSON" MOTOR CYCLE STAND- 

Price, $5.00, 
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Prices quoted on application, giving shape, size and length of belt wanted. 

AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR CYCLE COMPANY, 

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THE BICYCLING WORLD 



239 



THE RECORDS TO DATE 



The Many new Names and Figures Placed 
on the Table During the Year. 



Another outdoor season of cycle racing lias 
closed, and as yet records seem not to have 
reached the limit. Each year it seems im- 
probable, almost impossible, that the chief 
records will be lowered, and yet the figures 
continue to be shaved. 

A summary of what the racing men have 
done on the track this year shows a cluster 
of new records at the most interesting dis- 
tances. The paced records have been most 
reduced because of the improvement in 
mdtocycles, and the motor bicycle figures 
also have been severely shaded, but there 
are in addition a surprising number of 
changes among the unpaced competition rec- 
ords, and more in the amateur class than in 
the professional. Following is a list of the 
records for the most interesting distances. 
The dates given will readily show which 
were made tins year: 

PROFESSIONAL 

COMPETITION— MOTOR PACED. 

1 mile, 1.20, Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., August 

2. 1902. 

2 miles. 2.39, Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., August 

19. 1902. 

5 miles. 6.37. Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., August 
2. 1902. 

10 miles. 13.27y 2 , Joe Nelson. Pittsburg, Pa., Au- 
gust 18. 1902. 

15 miles, 20.28V... Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., Au- 
gust 18, 1902. 

20 miles. 27.18, Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., Au- 
gust 18, 1902. 

25 miles. 34.33. Albert Champion, Providence. R. 
I.. September 3. 1902. 

30 miles, 43.16. Harry Elkes. Charles River Park. 
Boston. Mass.. June 12. 1902. 

50 miles. 1.19.17 3-5. James Moran. Cambridge, 
Mass., July 12. 1901. 

100 miles. 3.24.42 2-5. Burns Pierce, Waltham, 
Mass., July 4, 1899. 

AGAINST TIME— MOTOR PACED. 

Vi mile, 20 sees., Major Taylor, Chicago, Novem- 
ber 9. 1899. 

1-3 mile, 27 4-5 sees., J. S. Johnson, Nashville. 
October 29. 1899. 

'/ 2 mile, 41 sees., Major Taylor, Chicago, Novem- 
ber 10, 1899. 

2-3 mile. 58 3-5 sees., W. W. Hamilton, Coronado. 
CaL, March 2. 1896. 

1 mile. 1.18 3-5, Joe Nelson, Pittsburg, Pa., Au- 
gust 19, 1902. 
Note — Beyond a mile the competition records 

behind pace are all superior to the time trials. 

except the foreign records. 

COMPETITION— UNPACED. 
Yi mile. 281-5 sees., P. L. Kramer, Vailsburg, 

N. J., May 4, 1902. 
1-3 mile, 38 2-5 sees.. E, C. Bald, Charlotteville 

N. C. November 3. 1897. 
*V> mile, 54 4-5 sees., P. L. Kramer, Vailsburg, 

N. J.. June 15, 1902. 
*1 mile, 1.55 3-5. P. A. MacParland, New Haven, 

>_onn., June 11, 1901. 
*2 miles, 3.59 4-5. P. L. Kramer, Vailsburg, N. J., 

July 7, 1901. 
«5 miles, 10.15, W. S. Fenn, Vailsburg, N. J., Au- 
gust 25, 1901. 
10 miles. 21.38 3-5, W. B. Vaughn, Salt Lake City. 

Utah, August 23, 1901. 
15 miles. 33.44. P. L. Kramer, Vailsburg, N. J., 

September 22, 1901. 
20 miles, 46.06 1-5. E. C. Hausman, Madison 

Square Garden, September 28, 1901. 
25 miles. 57.52 4-5. F. L. Kramer, Madison Square 

Garden, September 28. 1901. 
1 hour. 26 miles 19 yards, W. Hedspath, Davton, 

O., July 31, 1902. 
*Made in handicap race. A handicap record 
from scratch is recognized whenever it is better 
than the figures made in an open race. 

AGAINST TIME— UNPACED. 
Vi, mile, 25 4-5 sees., Major Taylor. Madison 

Square Garden, December 14, 1900. 
1-3 mile. 34 1-5 sees,, W. W. Hamilton, Coronado, 

Cal., March 2, 1896. 



V 2 mile, 52 3-5 sees., W. M. Samuelson, Salt Lake 

City, Utah, June 27, 1902. 
2-3 mile, 1.14 1-5, W. C. Sanger, Denver, Col., No- 
vember 16, 1895. 
1 mile, 1.53 2-5, W. M. Samuelson, Salt Lake 

City, Utah, July 25, 1901. 
5 miles, 11.04 1-5. Alex Peterson, Dayton, O., 

August 4. 1902. 
10 miles, 23.09 2-5. W. "W. Hamilton, Denver, Col., 

July 9, 1898. 
25 miles. 59.13 2-5, W. W. Hamilton, Denver Col., 

July 9, 1898. 
1 hour, 25 miles 600 yards, W. W. Hamilton, 

Denver, July 9. 1898. 

TANDEM— COMPETITION— PACED. 
1 mile, 1.46 1-5, N. Butler-T. Butler, Cambridge. 
July 31, 1897. 

TANDEM AGAINST TIME— PACED. 

1 mile, 1.37 3-5, McCarthy-Munroe, Brockton, Oc- 
tober 3, 1893. 

5 miles, 9.25 2-5. Flower-Church, Philadelphia, 
November 6, 1897. 

TANDEM AGAINST TIME— UNPACED. 
1 mile, 1.50, J. Chapman-I. Lawson, Salt Lake 
City, June 2, 1900. 

TRIPLET— COMPETITION. 
1 mile. 1.46, Michael-Stone-Bainbridge, Cam- 
bridge, July 31, 1S9S. 

TRIPLET— AGAINST TIME. 

1 mile, 1.40 2-5, Fornwalt-Monroe-Johnson, Phila- 

Bellair, Fla., March 16. 1898. 
1 hour. 28 miles 75 yards, Kaser-Miller-Gardiner, 

Bellair, March 16, 1898. 

QUADRUPLET— COMPETITION. 

1 mile, 1.50 4-5, Waller-Leonert.Pierce-Scherer, 

Cambridge, July 31, 1897. 

QUADRUPLET— AGAINST TIME. 

1 mile, 1.40. Schinneer-Newkirk-Bohman-Bradis, 

Chicago, August 20, 189S. 

QUINTUPLET— COMPETITION. 

1 mile. 1.46 3-5. Sager-Eckberg-Watts-Swan- 

brough-Casey, Cambridge. July 30. 1899. 

QUINTUPLET— AGAINST TIME. 
1 mile, 1.46 2-5, Callahan-N. Butler-Pierce-Walsh- 
Coleman, Cambridge. August 1, 1898. 

SEXTUPLET— COMPETITION. 
1 mile, 1.45 4-5. MeDuffee-Caldwell-Sullivan. 
Mayo-Barnaby-Saunders, Cambridge, July 
31. 1897. 

MOTOR BICYCLE— AGAINST TIME. 

1 mile, 1.12 2-5, Albert Champion, Vailsburg, 

N. J.. November 3, 1901. 
5 miles, 6.22 3-5. Albert Champion, Vailsburg. 

N. J.. November 3. 1901. 
10 miles, 12.47 1-5, Albert Champion, Vailsburg, 

N. J., November 3, 1901. 

MOTOR BICYCLE— COMPETITION. 
■1 mile, 1.25 4-5, G. M. Holley, Buffalo, N. Y.. 
August 16, 1901. 

2 miles, 2.50. G. M. Holley, Buffalo, N. Y.. 

August 16, 1901. 
5 miles, 7.12. G. M. Holley, Buffalo, N. Y.. 
August 16, 1901. 

WORLD'S MOTOR BICYCLE RECORD— 
AGAINST TIME. 

1 mile, 1.10 2-5, Darioli, Paris, France, October 
17, 1902. 

MOTOR TANDEM— AGAINST TIME. 
Vi mile, 19 1-5 sees.; % mile, 39 1-5 sees., Hen- 

shaw-Hedstrom. Buffalo. N. Y., August 

10, 1901. 
ii mile, 1.00 4-5. Crooks-Scherer. New Bedford, 

Mass., June 9, 1900. 
1 mile, 1.18 2 5, Henshaw-Hedstrom, Buffalo. 

N. Y.. August 12. 1901. 
5 miles, 7.08 1-5. Duer-Sinclair. Buffalo, N. Y., 

July 25, 1900. 

MOTOR TANDEM— COMPETITION. 
Vi mile, 37 sees., Derosiers-Burroughs, Hartford, 

Conn.. September 7, 1900. 
1 mile. 1.181-5; 5 miles, 6.44; 10 miles, 13.22, Hen- 
shaw-Hedstrom, Buffalo, N. Y., August 13. 
1901. 
15 miles, 22.22 2-5, Miller-Judge, Cleveland, O., 

May 30, 1900. 
"0 miles. 31.10 3-5. Miller-Judge. Baltimore, Md.. 

September 7, 1899. 
■'5 miles. 39.46 1-5. Miller-Judge, Baltimore, Md., 
September 22, 1899. 

MOTOR TRICYCLE. 
1 mile, 1.18 3-5; 5 miles. 6.49 1-5; 10 miles. 14.211-5. 

Albert Champion, Chicago, September 25, 

1900. 
50 miles. 1.07.10 1 /.. K. A. Skinner, Providence. 

September 4. 1901. 

AMERICAN COMPETITION PROFESSIONAL 
PACED HOUR RECORDS. 

1 hour, 41 miles 250 yards. Harry D. Elkes, Cam- 

bridge, .June 12, 1902. 

2 hours. 74 miles 1,172 yards, James Moran, 

Cambridge, July 12, 1901. 



3 hours, 89 miles 440 yards, Charles Turville, Salt 

Lake City, September 15, 1901. 

4 hours, 117 miles, Charles Turville, Salt Lake 

City, September 15, 1901. 

5 hours. 146 miles, Charles Turville, Salt Lake 

City, September 15, 1901. 

6 hours. 172 miles. Charles Turville, Salt Lake 

City, September 15, 1901. 

7 hours, 199 miles 220 yards, Charles Turville, 

Salt Lake City. September 15, 1901. 

8 hours, 218 miles 440 yards. W. P. King, Salt 

Lake City, September 15, 1901. 

9 hours, 246 miles 440 yards, W. F. King, Salt 

Lake City, September 15. 1901. 

10 hours. 265 miles, W. F. King, Salt Lake Citv, 

September 15. 1901. 

11 hours, 2S9 miles, W. P. King, Salt Lake City. 

September 15, 1901. 

12 hours, 312 miles SS0 yards, B. W. Pierce, Wal- 

tham, Julv 3, 1899. 

13 hours, 335 miles, 1,540 yards, W. F. King, Salt 

Lake City, September 15, 1901. 

14 hours, 355 miles, W. F. King, Salt Lake City. 

Septembei 15. 1901. 

15 hours. 372 miles, W. F. King, Salt Lake City, 

September 15, 1901. 

16 hours. 397 miles 220 yards, W. F. King, Salt 

Lake City, September 15. 1901. 

17 hours, 409 miles 440 yards, W. F. King, Salt 

Lake City, September 15. 1901. 
IS hours. 416 miles, John Lawson, Los Angeles, 

June 10, 1900. 
10 hours, 432 miles, John Lawson, Los Angeles, 

June 10, 1900. 

20 hours, 450 miles. 1.540 yards, John Lawson, Los 

Angeles, June 10. 1900. 

21 hours, 466 miles 660 yards, John Lawson, Los 

Angeles, June 10, 1900. 

22 hours. 485 miles 220 yards. John Lawson, Los 

Angeles. June 10, 1900. 

23 hours. 507 miles 1,320 yards, John Lawson, Los 

Angeles, June 10, 1900. 

24 hours. 528 miles 925 yards, John Lawson, Los 

Angeles, June 10. 1900. 

WORLD'S PROFESSIONAL HOUR PACED 
RECORD. 

1 hour, 48 miles 695 yards, Contenet, Paris (Buf- 

falo). October 30, 1902. 

2 hours. 82 miles 1,566 yards, Dickentman, Berlin 

(Friedenau). August 3. 1902. 

3 hours. 122 miles 1.392 yards, Robl, Berlin 

(Friedenau), .August 3. 1902. 

4 hours. 156 miles 51S yards, Robl, Berlin. 

(Friedenau), August 3, 1902. 

5 hours. 188 miles 188 yards, Robl, Berlin 

(Friedenau), August 3, 1902. 

6 hours, 222 miles 1,410 yards, Robl, Berlin 

(Friedenau). August 3. 1902. 
12 hours. 349 miles 1.456 yards, Walters, Paris 
Municipal), September 15. 1900. 

18 hours. 493 miles 1.296 miles, Walters, Paris 

Municipal), September 15, 1900. 
24 hours. 634 miles 774 yards, Walters, Paris 
(Pare des Princes). July 8, 1899. 

ADDITIONAL WORLD'S PACED RECORDS. 
1 kilometre. 45 2-5 sees, Michael (Paris (Pare des 

Princes, September 7. 1902. 
5 kilometres. 4.20 4-5, Content, Paris (Pare des 

Princes), September 7, 1902. 
10 kilometres, 8.16. Bouhours. Paris (Pare des 

Princes), September 14, 1902. 
100 kilometres. 1.17.00, Contenet, Paris (Buffalo), 

October 30, 1902. 
Note— Paced records abroad are not to be com- 
pared with those made in America, for the rea- 
son that the European rules allow a width of 
twenty-four inches to the pacing machine, while 
in this country a width of only twelve inches 
is allowed. A further disadvantage of the Amer- 
ica ii rider is that under the N. C. A. rules the 
man on the rear seat of a pacing machine must 
keep his legs moving, while the foreign riders 
on the rear seat do ho pedalling, and thus af- 
ford greater protection to the pace follower. 
With a few exceptions the records made on the 
other side were achieved with the aid of wind 
shields and other appliances not permitted here, 
so that the American performances are really 
the more meritorious. 



AMATEUR 
COMPETITION— MOTOR PACED. 

1 mile. 1.30 4-5, Samuel Sulkin, Providence, R. I., 

September 13, 1902. 

2 miles. 2.59 1-5. Samuel Sulkin, Providence, R. I., 

September 13. 1902. 
5 miles, 7.24 1-5. Samuel Sulkin, Providence, R. I., 

Septemper 13, 1902. 
10 miles. 16.18 4-5. Joe Nelson, Atlantic City, N. 

J., May 30. 1902. 
15 miles, 24.55 2-5. Joe Nelson. Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 20. 1901. 
20 miles, 34.02 4-5, Ray Duer, Berkeley Oval. 

September 9, 1S99. 
25 miles, 47.37. John Nelson, Montreal, Canada. 

August 10. 1899. 
30 miles, 57.28 2-5, John Nelson, Montreal, Canada, 

August 10. 1899. 
1 hour, 31 miles 400 yards, John Nelson, Mon- 
treal Canada, August 10, 1899. 

AGAINST TIME— MOTOR PACED. 
\i mile. 20 1 /. sees., R. C. Holzel, Spokane, Wash., 
September 4, 1S99. 



240 



THE BICYCLING WORLD 



1-3 mile, 20 2-5 sees., R. C. Holzel, Spokane, 
Wash., September 4, 1899. 

li mile, 44 2-5 sees.. George Leander, Indianap- 
olis, Ind., September 29, 1900. 

1 mile, 1.25 3-5, Walter Smith, Vailsburg, N. J., 

July 27, 1902. 

2 miles, 2.531-5. Walter Smith, Vailsburg", N. J., 

July 27, 1902 
5 miles, 7.18 3-5, Walter Smith, Vailsburg, N. J.. 

July 27, 1902. 
10 miles, 16.21, Joe Nelson, Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 5, 1901. 
15 miles. 24.26 4-5, Joe Nelson, Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 5, 1901. 
20 miles, 33.05 1-5, Joe Nelson, Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 5, 1901. 
25 miles. 41.27, Joe Nelson, Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 5, 1901. 
30 miles, 50.23 3-5, Joe Nelson, Vailsburg, N. J., 

October 5. 1901. 
1 hour, 35 miles 1.055 yards, Joe Nelson, Vails- 
burg, N. J.. October 5, 1901. 

COMPETITION— UNPACED. 
Vi mile, 28 2-5 sees., M. L. Hurley, Vailsburg, 

N. J., July 27, 1902. 
1-3 mile, 38 4-5 sees., W. S. Fenn, Hartford, 

Conn., September 3, 1900. 
V, mile, 57 1-5 sees., M. L. Hurley, Providence, 

R. I., August 13, 1902. 
2-3 mile. 1.18. M. L. Hurley, Providence, R. I.. 

July 1, 1902. 

1 mile. 1.57 3-5, E. E. Smith, Salt Lake City, 

August 20, 1901. 

2 miles, 4.12 4-5, T. J. Grady, Springfield, Mass., 

June 20, 1901. 
5 miles. 10.56, M. L. Hurley, Vailsburg, N. J., 

July 6, 1902. 
10 miles, 21.23, J. P. Linley, New Haven, Conn., 

May 30, 1902. 
25 miles, 1.00.39, Edwin Forrest, Vailsburg, N. J., 

July 28, 1901. 
50 miles. 2.05.00 4-5. J. P. Jacobson, New York, 

August 25, 1S09. 

AGAINST TIME— UNPACED. 

>A mile, 25 sees., Calvin Snow, Providence, Au- 
gust 25, 1896. 

1-3 mile, 33 2-5 sees.. A. B. Simons. Deming, 
N. Mex.. May 26, 1896. 

V, mile, 53 2-5 sees.. N. C. Hopper. Salt Lake 
City, Utah, August 7, 1902. 

2-3 mile, 1.211-5, J. G. Heil, Denver, Col., July 
31, 1897. 

% mile, 1.37, F. B. Stowe, Springfield, Mass., 
October 27, 1894. 

1 mile. 2.02 3-5, W. F. Wahrenberger. New York, 

August 5, 1899. 

2 miles, 4.25. F. S. Dusenberg. Ottumwa. la., 

July 24, 1899. 
5 miles, 11.36 4-5. C. B. Hackenberger, Denver, 
Col., December 13, 1S95. 

TANDEM— COMPETITION. 
1 mile. 1.52 3-5, Hausman-Rutz, Berkeley Oval, 
New-York, August